Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, 2009
Outcome 2 - Antarctica
The Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts is responsible for advancing Australia's interests in Antarctica by supporting Antarctic and Southern Ocean programs, participating in international forums, and conducting scientific research.
The department's Australian Antarctic Division (AAD) is responsible for leading Australia's Antarctic program.
||Australian Antarctic Division|
- The International Polar Year (IPY) activities concluded at the end of the 2008-09 season. Australian scientists participated in 72 of the 228 endorsed IPY projects; leading eight and co-leading three projects.
- Australia actively participated in the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting and made a key contribution by:
- leading the Parties to agree to improved Treaty-level arrangements for the conservation of Antarctic fauna and flora
- securing an update to the Antarctic protected area management plans for Mawson's Huts.
- The Australian Antarctic Division provided eight flights to the United States Antarctic Program, in return for support from a United States ski-equipped Hercules Aircraft in its medical evacuation of an injured expeditioner from Davis Station at the start of the season. The flights moved a total of 570 passengers between Christchurch and McMurdo Station.
- Maintain the Antarctic Treaty System, to enhance Australia's influence in that system.
- Enhance international protection for Antarctica as a zone of peace and science.
- Protect the environment of Antarctica, the Southern Ocean and the Territory of Heard Island and McDonald Islands, including marine living resources and seabirds.
- Improve understanding of Antarctica's role in the global climate system.
- Conduct and support science projects to protect the Antarctic environment and Southern Ocean ecosystems.
- Support practical and important Antarctic scientific research.
- Provide data to Australian and international institutions and support them in undertaking research.
Cover of the revised fuel spills manual.
Cover: Courtesy of AAD
- The first Australia-Antarctic Airlink flight for the 2008-2009 Austral Summer occurred on 1 Jan 2009. The delay was due to an urgent medical evacuation from Davis Station, at the start of the Austral summer. The Aurora Australis was diverted to provide assistance and this diversion delayed deployment of the Wilkins Aerodrome Team, which prepared the runway for use during the Austral Summer.
- The Australian Antarctic Division made a visit to the Territory of Heard Island and McDonald Islands in December 2008, providing for ongoing compliance and environmental monitoring and scientific data collection.
- Revised management plans for three sites of high conservation value in the Australian Antarctic Territory were submitted to, and adopted by, the 32nd Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting.
- During the meeting of the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources in October-November 2008, measures were adopted to protect vulnerable marine ecosystems. Further work was also begun to ensure the orderly development of the krill fishery and revised catch limits.
- Australia currently convenes three of the four working groups established by the Advisory Committee on the Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels. This body was established to implement the work program under the Agreement. The Australian-led working groups address taxonomy, seabird bycatch and population status and trends.
- Australia completed the actions needed to bring into force the Headquarters Agreement for the establishment of the permanent Secretariat to the Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels (ACAP) in Hobart on 2 December 2008.
- The third Meeting of ACAP Parties was held in Bergen, Norway, from 26 April to 1 May 2009. Parties agreed to include the three northern hemisphere albatross species in Annex 1 of ACAP. All of the world's 22 albatross species are now protected under ACAP. In a demonstration of their commitment to the urgent conservation actions needed for albatrosses and petrels, and despite difficult global financial circumstances, the Parties also agreed to a sound conservation work program, and a slightly increased budget, for the coming triennium (2010-2012).
- At the April 2009 Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting (ATCM), held in Baltimore, USA, the Australian delegation led discussions on a broad range of legal, policy and environmental protection matters under consideration by both the ATCM and the Committee for Environmental Protection (CEP). Australia tabled eight working papers and four information papers, and was successful in obtaining consensus agreement to each of its proposals. Significantly, Australia drove to a conclusion the revision of Annex II to the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, which has been in progress for 8 years. It now provides enhanced protection for Antarctic fauna and flora. An Australian Antarctic Division officer holds the position of CEP Vice-chair.
- The Australian Antarctic science program supported 119 projects, which led to 320 publications, including 157 in peer-reviewed journals.
- As part of Australia's contribution to the International Polar Year, the following projects - led by Australia - were successfully undertaken during 2008-2009:
- Aliens in Antarctica, and
- Solar Linkages to Atmospheric Processes.
- Occupational Health and Safety Act 1991 compliance statistics:
- Eleven incidents reported to Comcare, in accordance with section 68 of the OHS Act (1991).
- One direction was issued under Section 45; a direction of 'Do not Disturb' for a period of time.
- No notices were given under Sections 29, 46 or 47.
- No internal investigation reports were provided to Comcare, but there is one outstanding.
- One reactive investigation was initiated, under section 41 of the OHS Act (1991).
- Safety, Rehabilitation and Compensation Act 1988 compliance statistics:
- Fourteen new claims were reported to Comcare during 2008-09, and there were 21 open claims.
- The Australian Antarctic Division's Environmental Management System (EMS) was recertified to international standard ISO 14001:2004 in September 2008 for a further three years. External auditors inspected AAD facilities at Kingston, the Port of Hobart, and Casey Station in January 2008. Australia is the only Party to the Antarctic Treaty System that has achieved such certification across all of its operations.
- Annex IV and Article 15 of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty requires Parties to develop contingency plans for marine pollution response in the Antarctic Treaty area. Annex VI requires Parties to establish contingency plans for environmental incidents. To comply with these requirements, the Australian Antarctic Division completed a major review of its Fuel Spill Contingency Plans and produced new editions for Casey, Davis, Macquarie Island and Mawson Stations.
The department, through the Australian Antarctic Division, actively participates and leads discussion in key forums including: the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting; the Committee for Environmental Protection; the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources; and the Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels.
Australia is committed to valuing and protecting Antarctica, and demonstrates this commitment by: pursuing agreement by Treaty parties to internationally accepted environmental protection measures through the Antarctic Treaty system; developing, implementing and managing practical ways to minimise the effects of our own activities; restoring past work sites; and undertaking research to ensure that management of Antarctica and the Southern Ocean is based on sound scientific principles and the best available scientific knowledge. Australia's research also contributes to understanding environmental systems and the effects of global climate change. Australia has a significant role in combating the illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing of sub-Antarctic and Antarctic marine living resources, by proposing new measures to prevent pirate fishing and block access to markets for such catches.
Australia continues to undertake scientific research in accordance with: the Science Strategy for Australia's Antarctic program (2004-05 to 2010-11); Australia's National Research Priorities; and the nation's policy interests and associated government goals. This priority science supports Australia's interests in environmental protection, determining the role that Antarctica plays in the global climate system, and gaining an understanding of how organisms and ecosystems are adapting to an extreme and changing environment.
In 2008-09, the final year of the International Polar Year (which actually ran over two years), Australia undertook a highly collaborative and internationally based scientific program. The following results were achieved during the year:
- A total of 119 projects from 31 institutions undertaken as part of Australia's Antarctic program. The projects involved collaboration with a further 242 institutions from 28 countries.
- A total of 104 scientists utilised Australia's logistic system in 2008-09. In its second season the new Antarctic Air Link transported 19 scientists to Antarctica to undertake research at Australia's Casey station.
- Of the 104 scientists who travelled south in 2008-09, 94 were from Australia, including 47 from the department's Australian Antarctic Division and 10 from overseas (6 from the United States and 4 from the United Kingdom).
- The Australian Antarctic program supported 141 higher degree students, including 98 PhD students.
- During the 2008 calendar year 337 publications were produced under the auspices of the Australian Antarctic program. This total includes: 168 that were published in peer-reviewed international literature, 21 papers that contributed to supporting Australia's position in the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR), three papers contributed to the International Whaling Commission (IWC) and three papers contributed to a joint CCAMLR-IWC workshop.
The Australian Antarctic Division was also actively involved in conducting research in high priority areas of Antarctic science. These included: climate change; sustainability and environmental protection; and providing a depository and primary source of Australian Antarctic information. The department also took a lead role in coordinating and managing logistic support for the Australian Antarctic program, including permanent stations, marine science, field bases, transport, communication and medical services.
Included within the high priority research, was a major collaborative project entitled ICECAP (Investigating the Cryospheric Evolution of the Central Antarctic Plate), which commenced field operations in 2008-09. This project was supported by the Australian Antarctic Division, the United States National Science foundation, and the United Kingdom's National Environmental Research Council. During three weeks in January and February, the team flew over 30 000 kilometres of aerogeophysical survey lines out of Australia's Casey Station. They made 14 flights and gathered over a terabyte of data. Preliminary data processing has already revealed that the Aurora Subglacial Basin region contains a wide variety of landscapes beneath the ice; from smoothly rolling plains to large mountain ranges cut by deep valleys to new lakes beneath the ice.
International Polar Year activities
Australia played a major role in the International Polar Year, by leading and participating in a wide range of domestic and international projects. Australia's role in the projects fostered international collaboration and strengthened Australia's position in the Antarctic scientific community and Antarctic Treaty System.
Two Australian led projects 'Aliens in Antarctica' and 'Solar Linkages to Atmospheric Processes', conducted field work in Antarctica during 2008-09. Both were conducted in collaboration with other nations.
In addition, the Australian Antarctic Division provided significant logistic support and co-led Antarctica's Gamburtsev Province Project (AGAP). This project was a multinational collaboration between the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, Australia, China, Japan and Canada, studying the evolutionary history of the Gamburtsev sub-glacial mountain range. This large mountain range is approximately the same size as the European Alps but is hidden under 600m of ice and snow. Little was known about the area prior to this project.
Australia's participation in IPY was very successful in the four major goals of the IPY - advances in polar knowledge (by participating in 72 of the 228 endorsed IPY projects); providing a legacy of infrastructure (with the commencement of the airlink) and observational systems; inspiring a new generation of scientists; and public outreach (through projects such as the Census of Antarctic Marine Life).
Australian Antarctic Data Centre
The Australian Antarctic Data Centre (AADC) continues to publish Antarctic and sub-Antarctic marine and terrestrial data to global data networks, such as the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) and SCAR-MarBIN (an Antarctic themed node of the Ocean Biogeographical Information System - OBIS). To date over 800 000 observations have been contributed to these networks to enable the international scientific community to access them. The AADC also advertises Australian datasets; via 2000 metadata records that reside in the Australian node of the global Antarctic Master Directory (AMD) system (see http://gcmd.nasa.gov/KeywordSearch/Home.do?Portal=amd_au&MetadataType=0 ).
In the past 12 months the AADC has established a service to host the Antarctic community's place names gazetteer, which now holds approximately 36 000 place names. This collaborative service is physically maintained by Australia but content is moderated by Italy. The place names gazetteer is closely coupled to a Feature Catalogue service that provides unique identifiers for, and descriptions of, Antarctic objects, which are usually geographic features (e.g. mountains, glaciers). The AADC has also established an international online catalogue of maps, with over 5700 items registered, and a catalogue of aerial photographs and images with approximately 48 000 entries. This year, an international sea-ice database was developed and launched, to aid the international scientific community in collating disparate data on sea ice thickness and extents.
During the 2008-09 Antarctic season the Australian Antarctic Division conducted a range of shipping, air, training and infrastructure activities in support of the Australian Antarctic program, including:
- equipping, training and moving 440 people to and from Antarctica
- completing 18 capital works projects
- operating, maintaining and developing our four permanent research stations
- four major voyages provided logistical support to the Australian Antarctic program during 2008-09: for station resupply; scientific programs and projects; and conducting marine science research.
- supporting the conservation of Mawson's Huts
- general cargo moved to Antarctica consisted of 14 tonnes by air and 4916 tonnes by sea. Total general cargo returned to Australia was 1525 tonnes
- 10 successful A319 flights took place between Hobart and Antarctica (following the disruption mentioned earlier), with the last flight of the season occuring in late February 2009; these flights carried 219 expeditioners in total
- CASA 212 fixed-wing intercontinental aircraft flew over 320 hours, with helicopters flying 1025 hours in support of the Australian Antarctic Program during the 2008-09 Austral Summer. An estimated 3500 flights were conducted during the 2008-09 season, and
- in December 2008 and January 2009, Helicopter Resources, in partnership with the Australian Antarctic Division, were contracted by the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (J.A.R.E.) to resupply Syowa Station and for additional tasks in support of the J.A.R.E. summer program.
Despite a delay to the 2008-2009 AAp at the start of the Austral Summer, due to an urgent medical evacuation from Davis Station, the Australian Antarctic Division successfully:
- completed all scheduled non-science projects for Casey (rescheduled to fit into the revised shipping and air arrangements)
- rescheduled the majority of planned science projects; undertaking 15 out of 20 land-based science projects, and 12 out of 15 planned marine science projects
- approved 125 science projects, of which 70 were related to climate and climate change.
As part of its focus on improving performance, the Australian Antarctic Division has outlined a 2020 roadmap to achieve the following outcomes:
- be recognised as an international leader in:
- science focused on national needs
- environment and Occupational Health and Safety Management, and
- a healthy Antarctic Treaty System and related forums
- have an effective policy and administrative framework for the Australian Antarctic Territories (AAT)
- have an enhanced capability to deliver Australian Antarctic priorities
- have an enhanced community understanding and buy in for the Australian Antarctic program (AAp), and
- have fulfilled, capable, motivated and empowered staff.
In pursuit of these outcomes a set of pathways has been developed, which cover the development of: integrated planning processes; flexible capability; a marketing strategy; alignment of organizational culture; resolution of legacy issues; optimisation of international collaboration; and securing whole-of-Government buy in.
The following activities have already begun:
- Establishment of a project to help define the top-level objectives, to 2020, for Australia's engagement in Antarctica. The project's scope includes Australia's science, environment, policy, legal, operational and economic interests in the Antarctic region.
- Commissioning of the development of a Preliminary Operating Concept document which aims to: inform discussion around organisational management; control processes and structures; and provide capability development pathways to improve the operational performance of the AAD.
- A re-evaluation within the organisation of strategic thinking around the:
- science strategy, including collaborative efforts to bring together researchers to determine mutually agreed: research priorities; research methods; population status and trends; data collection; data management; and collaborative initiatives
- way we can utilise our airlink capability to increase collaboration with other nations on shared logistics, and working effectively in these very challenging economic times, and
- way we work to achieve better coordination with a range of government areas: for example with Science, Climate Change, Defence, Customs, and the Attorney General's Department.
The AAD undertook a number of research projects during the year on the state of balance of the ice mass in Antarctica and its role in sea level change.
Two of the larger projects were airborne geophysical surveys in East Antarctica, undertaken as international collaborations to which Australia contributed as part of the International Polar Year 2007-2008. One of these multinational collaborations surveyed an area of nearly 1 million square kilometres of the Aurora and Wilkes sub-glacial basins inland from Casey. A specially instrumented aircraft was used to measure: ice sheet elevation and thickness; internal ice structure; gravity; and the geomagnetic field. The Aurora Basin includes potentially the deepest, oldest ice and lies within the Australian Antarctic Territory. It also includes the Totten Glacier, east of Casey Station. The surface of the lower part of this glacier has been lowering at a rate of up to 0.6 metres per year, over the last 20 years, and contributing to sea level rise. The aerial survey data complement earlier Australian land-based measurements and satellite laser altimeter measurements of changes to the Totten Glacier, one of the few regions in East Antarctica that is losing ice.
The second international aerial ice sheet survey completed the first comprehensive study of the sub-glacial Gamburtsev Mountains (in the interior of East Antarctica beneath the highest part of the ice sheet). The survey involved partners from the United Kingdom, Germany, Australia, China, Japan and Canada. Working from two remote inland ice camps, one of which was operated by the AAD, instrumented light aircraft surveyed about 2 million square kilometres of the ice sheet.
The knowledge gained from both these airborne surveys will underpin a new generation of ice sheet models, allowing better estimates of future contributions of the ice sheet to sea-level rise. The surveys also help locate potential sites where an Antarctic ice core could be obtained that would provide a record of past climate over more than one million years.
During the 2008-09 ice sheet program a 130 metre long ice core was retrieved from Law Dome near Casey. This will produce improved records, which reflect the southern ocean and mid-latitude climate over the last 250 years. Further short ice cores were also collected from remote sites on the Totten Glacier and on Mill Island, in the Shackleton Ice shelf, 400km west of Casey. These cores provide a short snapshot of snowfall variability over the past few years to a decade, and also an assessment of suitability for future deeper drilling.
As part of the Aliens in Antarctica project an experiment was set up to determine the likelihood of propagules attached to clothing being deposited in Antarctica. Here ABC Television's Catalyst presenter Paul Willis has his boots laced with seeds by Dana Bergstrom, before walking through a patch of sand, a typical action of an Antarctic tourist.
Photo: Mat Oakes
Aliens in Antarctica! It sounds like a science fiction thriller, but, in fact, Aliens in Antarctica is the first major investigation of the risk that people may inadvertently cause the invasion of Antarctica by alien (non-native) species from the other continents. The International Polar Year project, that began in the summer of 2007-08, is examining the type and amount of 'propagules' (seed, spores and eggs) that are unintentionally imported into the region (on clothes, shoes or hand luggage), as well as how many propagules are likely to be deposited and whether they will germinate and grow.
Staff members from the Australian Antarctic Division's Environmental Protection and Change program, have been active in the leadership and implementation of this international project. An Australian pilot study conducted a few years ago, found an array of seeds from grasses and other plants, moss spores, plant fragments and soil particles, which could potentially hitch-hike to Antarctica on travellers' belongings. An international team of scientists from nine nations was assembled to investigate the size of the problem across the Antarctic region. In the 2007-08 Antarctic season, passengers on over 40 ships and planes from many Antarctic nations participated in a survey to determine where they had travelled in the last 12 months and hence the risk that they had picked up invasive species. The outdoor clothing and belongings of nearly 1000 expeditioners and tourists were probed with special vacuum cleaners in the search for propagules. Analysis of this enormous amount of samples will provide the first quantitative overview of the threat posed by humans entering Antarctica and bringing in alien species.
Staff and graduate students at the Antarctic Division, also examined over 2000 items of fresh fruit and vegetables destined for Australian Antarctic stations. Eighty-nine per cent of these items were clean, while most of the remaining 11% showed some level of infection by blue moulds (Penicillium sp). Cargo destined for Antarctic stations was also examined over the same period, with some interesting discoveries, including live springtails and mites in packaging material. The material was scheduled to be fumigated, but it demonstrates how important it is to be vigilant in these situations. The organisms found were from taxonomic classes that are already represented in the fauna of Antarctica, suggesting that these non-Antarctic species may be able to live under Antarctic conditions.
With rapid climate change occurring in some parts of Antarctica, greater numbers of alien introductions and more successful invasions by aliens are likely, with consequent increases in impacts on ecosystems. The Aliens in Antarctica project provides the first opportunity to properly assess the threat of alien propagule transfer to the Antarctic region through human activity.
Once the urgency of the threat is established, appropriate methods can be formulated to combat the risk. Data and information gathered during this project will be reported to the Antarctic Treaty's Committee for Environmental Protection in 2010. It will be used to develop practical preventative methods, which will be proposed jointly by Australia, France and New Zealand.
|Australia's policy objectives are met through international forums
Actively participate in the following Antarctic Treaty forums:
|Australia was active in the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting, and, in particular, led the successful negotiation on improved arrangements for the conservation of Antarctic fauna and flora:
|Effective environmental protection measures are in place and are utilised
That environmental protection measures arein place, utilised and performance managedvia the Australian Antarctic Division
Environmental Management System. Performance will be monitored by:
|Significant dieback has been observed this year in the endemic Azorella macquariensis cushion plant species on Macquarie Island. The cause is unknown and investigations are continuing. Stringent measures have been implemented to reduce the risk of spread of the pathogen by humans, including the requirements for all who travel off-station to scrub all boots and outer gear with a virucide/biocide agent. This was also used to clean helicopter blades that may have contacted the pathogen during operations in the field on Macquarie Island.
Only two minor fuel spills (15 and 30 litres) occurred in Antarctica this year, reflecting expeditioner awareness gained through training and improvements in infrastructure, standard operating procedures and equipment. These occurred on stations and were cleaned up immediately using fuel spill gear.
Over 1000 safety and environmental incidents, hazards and improvement suggestions have been logged since the electronic reporting system was launched in October 2004. About one-third of these are environmental incidents. Of these, only 10 incidents still require some action to resolve. They involve possible alien species, minor spills, packaging and cleaning of equipment. There are 3 hazard reports associated with fuel transport, storage and handling in Antarctica that require significant resources to resolve. There are also 16 improvement suggestions remaining to be resourced or otherwise progressed.
|Effective administration of the Australian Antarctic Territory and the Territory of Heard Island and MacDonald Islands
Territories under Australian jurisdiction are administered in accordance with relevant legislation and guidelines (including management plans where appropriate)
|All new research and operational activities in the Territories were assessed for their environmental impacts.
Public comment was invited on the environmental impact assessment of the proposed replacement of the ageing incinerators at Mawson, Casey and Davis stations.
Australian Antarctic Division initiatives to prevent introduction of non-native species via Australian operations were given effect, with the assistance of Quarantine Tasmania.
The Australian Antarctic Division convened a meeting of Antarctic Treaty Parties operating in the Larsemanns Hills, Princess Elizabeth Land, to review the conduct of activities in this Antarctic Specially Managed Area.
|Maintenance of an effective communications strategy, which provides Australians with a connection with Antarctica, via:
||The main Antarctic Division web site at www.aad.gov.au provided more than 14 million page views during the financial year, with an estimated 2.5 million visits to the site.
A new Australian Marine Mammal Centre web site was launched in January 2009 at www.marinemammals.gov.au .
The Antarctic Data Centre continued to provide a wide range of data through their site at data.aad.gov.au .
||Australian Antarctic Division Public Affairs deals with a range of media reporting. During 2008-09, an average of three to four media releases was issued each month.
Greatest reach was achieved through continued building of relationships with local, national and international media outlets.
Major AAD initiatives covered in 2008-09 included International Polar Year projects:
||Visual artist Stephen Eastaugh was announced as the Australian Antarctic Arts Fellow for 2009. He will spend a year in Antarctica, the first Arts fellow to do so.|
||2 editions of the Australian Antarctic Magazine were produced. A total of 4000 magazines are produced per issue, plus online publication.|
|Effective administration of sites of recognised heritage significance
Sites are effectively administered, as demonstrated through achievements against the DEWHA Heritage Strategy
|Drafting of a plan for the protection of the Commonwealth heritage listed values of the original (circa 1954) station buildings at Mawson commenced.
Work continued on the restoration of the original Mawson station living quarters, 'Biscoe hut'.
A work plan was developed to guide the Mawson's Huts Foundation's 2008-09 summer conservation works, on the 1911-14 Australasian Antarctic Expedition huts and artefacts at Cape Denison.
In accordance with the management plan, tourist visits to the Cape Denison historic site were supervised by approved guides.
Monitoring, to assist in detecting any changes to the natural and cultural heritage values of the Territory of Heard Island and McDonald Islands, was undertaken during a visit to Heard Island made in December 2008.
|Successful completion of elements of the Antarctic Science Strategy 2004-05 to 2009-10
|119 projects undertaken in 2008-09|
||242 institutions from 28 countries|
|That scientific research of practical, economic and national significance is undertaken
|Australian Antarctic program scientists undertook significant research in support of policy goals. Major scientific contributions were made in support of Australia's activities in the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR), in the area of fish stocks, and also marine conservation, with two Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems being declared by CCAMLR following an AAD led marine science voyage.|
||104 scientists active in Antarctica and Southern Ocean science|
||Antarctic and sub-Antarctic marine and terrestrial data have been provided to global data networks including the Global Biodiversity Information Facility and Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research Marine Biodiversity Information Network (an Antarctic-themed node of the Ocean Biogeographical Information System.
In the past 12 months, the Australian Antarctic Data Centre (AADC) has established a service to host the Antarctic community's place names gazetteer, which now holds approximately 36 000 place names.
The AADC has also established an international online catalogue of maps, with over 5700 items registered and a catalogue of aerial photographs and images, with approximately 48 000 entries.
This year an international sea-ice database was developed and launched, to aid the international scientific community in collating disparate data on sea ice thickness and extents.
|Extent to which science outcomes lead to achievement of Antarctic policy goals
The provision of high quality scientific advice as required to support and underpin Australia's Antarctic policy goals at international forums
|Departmental Outputs||Budget 2008-09
|Actual Expenses 2008-09
|Subtotal for Output Group 2.1||48,389||47,927||462|
|Departmental Outputs|| Budget 2008-09
| Actual Expenses 2008-09
|Subtotal for Output 2.2||102,828||103,327||(499)|
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