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Publications archive - Annual reports


Key departmental publications, e.g. annual reports, budget papers and program guidelines are available in our online archive.

Much of the material listed on these archived web pages has been superseded, or served a particular purpose at a particular time. It may contain references to activities or policies that have no current application. Many archived documents may link to web pages that have moved or no longer exist, or may refer to other documents that are no longer available.

Environment Australia Annual Report 2000-01

Environment Australia, 2001
ISSN 1441-9335


Maintaining the Antarctic Treaty System and Enhancing Australia's Influence in it


The Australian Antarctic Division seeks to maintain the Antarctic Treaty System and enhance Australia's influence in it by having a strong presence at Antarctic Treaty System meetings, taking the lead on issues and developing initiatives for international consideration; complying with the requirements of the Antarctic Treaty System; and cooperating with Australia's Antarctic Treaty partners.


Antarctic Treaty System forums

The Australian Antarctic Division (AAD) develops and advances Australia's Antarctic policy interests, which are promoted through the forums of the Antarctic Treaty System. These forums include the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting, the Committee for Environmental Protection, the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources, the Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programmes, the Standing Committee on Antarctic Logistics and Operations, and the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research.

The AAD took a leading role in advancing protection of the Antarctic environment and ecologically sustainable use of the region's resources, including the marine living resources, and the use of Antarctica for tourism.

Comprehensive briefings were provided for Australian delegations to all forums of the Antarctic Treaty System. Notably, information was provided to support decisions of the Committee for Environmental Protection and the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources. Positions advanced in all forums resulted in enhanced environmental protection measures.

At the 12th Special Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting, Australia was instrumental in progressing negotiations aimed at meeting the Madrid Protocol's obligation to develop rules on liability for environmental damage in the Antarctic. The AAD provided leadership in forums discussing the future monitoring and management of non-governmental activities in the Antarctic so that as tourism and adventure activities continue to evolve they comply with environmental and safety requirements.

The AAD continued to ensure that the protocol's environmental protection obligations are fully implemented for all Australian Antarctic activities, particularly ensuring appropriate assessment of potential environmental impact.

The AAD was represented on the steering committee for a new international terrestrial biology program - Regional Sensitivity to Climate Change in Antarctic Ecosystems - and on the international steering committee of the Ecology of the Antarctic Sea Ice Zone program of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research. An AAD staff member acted as secretary of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research Bird Biology Working Group. AAD scientists provided advice on diseases of Antarctic wildlife to the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research and the Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programs.

Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources

In the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources, Australia continued to promote improved, scientifically based management approaches to new and exploratory fisheries.

Effort was also focused on refining the catch documentation scheme for toothfish adopted by the commission in 1999 and on further developing effective responses to illegal, unregulated and unreported catching of Patagonian toothfish. Australia chaired a multilateral informal working group to review the catch documentation scheme which is designed to combat such fishing. The group recommended considerable improvements to the scheme which were adopted by the commission with minor changes. The new scheme requires all parties to verify the origins of toothfish catches and prohibits parties from accepting imports not accompanied by valid catch documentation. It has already restricted the market availability and prices for toothfish not caught in accordance with the commission's requirements.

Australia provided improved catch data for management of fish stocks. AAD staff continued to play an important role in the commission's Fish Stock Assessment Working Group and its scientific committee, of which Australia holds the deputy chair. The sustainable harvesting of fish and krill in the Southern Ocean and the effects of fishing on other Antarctic species were addressed. AAD staff were influential in developing improved management measures for new and exploratory fisheries to ensure that such fishers also gather data for the research needed to guide future management of the fishery.



The Australian Antarctic Division seeks to protect the environment of Antarctica, the Southern Ocean and the Territory of Heard and McDonald Islands by developing ways to minimise human impact; remediating past work sites; and undertaking research to ensure that environmental and fisheries management is based on sound scientific principles. The AAD administers legislation covering environmental impact assessment and conservation of flora and fauna.


Committee for Environmental Protection

The AAD led the work of an intersessional contact group of the Committee for Environmental Protection to investigate introduction of diseases to Antarctic wildlife. The AAD also participated in intersessional groups tasked with reporting to the committee. The groups reported on specially protected Antarctic species, on assessing environmental impact statements, on protected area planning processes, and on exchange of information between Antarctic Treaty parties. Australia was represented at the 3rd Committee for Environmental Protection meeting in September 2000 and on the steering group of the Antarctic Environment Officers' Network. An AAD representative took part in a joint inspection with the Chairman of the Committee for Environmental Protection of a cooperative deep drilling site in Queen Maud Land (Norwegian sector) in January to assess compliance with a comprehensive environmental evaluation.

Waste disposal, cleaning up

Research priorities for the year included development of methods for remediating old waste disposal sites and for monitoring the environmental impacts of these sites. Research at Casey indicates that the main impacts are localised in the adjacent marine environment. Methods were tested for controlling melt water during extraction and removal of contaminated material from the Thala Valley tip at Casey. Results are promising and indicate that, with care, these sites could be excavated without causing greater environmental impacts.

An extensive cleanup was undertaken of the abandoned station site at Atlas Cove on Heard Island between November 2000 and February 2001. The cleanup removed over 25 tonnes of building debris and waste.

Marine debris

The visit to Heard Island provided an opportunity for simultaneous surveys of marine debris washing ashore on west-facing beaches at both Heard and Macquarie islands. The research produced evidence that various plastics constitute most floating debris and that fisheries are the major source. A number of wildlife interactions with plastic debris were observed and pieces of plastic were found in the carcasses and scats of various species.

Invasive species, wildlife diseases

Several mechanisms to prevent and otherwise manage introduction of invasive species to Antarctic and subantarctic regions have been identified. This information is being used to improve cargo storage and handling procedures and the provision of fresh fruit and vegetables to stations. It is also being used to identify personnel that may be a particular risk of being vectors for alien species because of locations visited before travelling south.

Heard Island research

Heard Island is unusual among subantarctic islands because no predators have been introduced; it therefore provides the opportunity to study population trends of subantarctic sea bird populations undisturbed by introduced pests.

The year 2000-01 saw a major Heard Island research programme that included surveys of those species for which long-term data already existed (building on these data sets is an efficient way to begin to understand the variability of long-lived species). This research indicates that populations of some species are increasing. These include the black-browed albatross, which has increased from about 200 pairs in 1947-48 to more than 1000 pairs in 2000-01. Also included in the research are king penguins (nearly wiped out by sealers on Heard Island and since recovered to over 10 000 breeding pairs), the endangered Heard Island shag and the Antarctic fur seal. Other species appear to be decreasing, such as Macaroni penguins which are also reported to be decreasing at South Georgia and Marion islands.

Other outcomes of the Heard Island programme included evidence that many plant species have increased their range over the past decade. Genetic studies will help determine reasons for this. Preliminary results of Heard Island biological assessments include the discovery of new species from the island.

Aircraft use

New guidelines for the use of helicopters at Antarctic stations and other commonly visited sites were developed to minimise disturbance to wildlife. The guidelines are based on recent research into the behavioural response of Antarctic animals to aircraft, together with up-to-date information on the locations and sizes of colonies. A study to characterise the disturbance stimuli, such as frequency and volume of noise created by aircraft and other vehicles, and to relate these to disturbance responses, began during the year. In future this information will be used to provide indicative guidelines when new types of vehicles are used.

Environmental management

Work began on development of an internationally recognised environmental management system for the AAD's activities. The system is intended to cover all AAD activities and draw together and enhance the many environmental protection procedures already in place.

A database was developed to facilitate thorough and efficient tracking of environmental impact assessments. It is to ensure compliance with authorisations as well as provide customised guidelines for proponents that reflect the guidelines developed through the Antarctic Treaty System.

Management plans

Information was obtained for the joint development of a management plan with Russia and China. The management plan is for the Larsemann Hills, 100 kilometres south of Davis. A review of the Territory of Heard and McDonald Islands management plan and an Atlas Cove heritage conservation management plan will benefit from data obtained at Atlas Cove in 2000-01.

A start was made to developing management and heritage conservation strategies for the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions (ANARE) station site on Macquarie Island, a World Heritage property administered by Tasmania. These strategies will form part of the overall island plan being developed by the Tasmanian Government in consultation with the AAD.

A conservation management plan for Cape Denison, site of the huts used by Sir Douglas Mawson's party in 1911-1914, was completed by heritage consultants to the Australian Associated Press (AAP) Mawson's Huts Foundation. The AAD played a significant part in the development of the plan and in supporting the efforts of the foundation.

Energy conservation

A drop of around 12 per cent in overall station energy consumption during 2000-01 has resulted from a concerted campaign over several years to manage and conserve energy at the stations. It has been achieved by audits and awareness raising amongst expeditioners together with the introduction of a computerised monitoring and control system to control heating, ventilation and lighting systems.

Sustainable energy

Adoption of sustainable energy to power Antarctic stations was given priority in 2000-01. Having determined that harnessing the powerful coastal winds of Antarctica provided the best alternative to current diesel generation of electricity, the AAD sought a contract to set up an advanced wind power generation system at Mawson station capable of withstanding wind speeds in excess of 300 kilometres per hour. Negotiations were at an advanced stage at 30 June 2001.

Fisheries conservation

Australian Antarctic research continued to prove its utility in the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources, where 10 conservation measures based on AAD research were adopted by the 19th meeting of the commission. These included measures concerning fish resources in Antarctic waters, the Patagonian toothfish and mackerel icefish fishery around the Territory of Heard and McDonald Islands and general measures involving new and exploratory fisheries.

Ecosystem studies

Papers describing the physical and biological environment of the waters off the Australian Antarctic Territory were published. Models were developed to improve assessment of fish stocks, and fieldwork produced data for a study of the summer food requirements of emperor penguins. The Ecosystem Monitoring Programme based at Mawson continued through the year.

A study to examine feeding relationships between marine vertebrates and commercial species in the Southern Ocean was set up to develop new techniques to obtain information on vertebrate species.

Sea bird populations

The abundance at sea of several species of albatrosses and petrels, known to be captured on longline fisheries in the Southern Ocean, appears to be decreasing within the Prydz Bay region. Data gathered in the region in the 2000-01 summer showed that the sea bird community within Prydz Bay continues to oscillate between two states - one dominated by the nine resident, breeding species including Adélie penguins and fulmarine petrels, and the other dominated by approximately 20 non-resident species such as shearwaters and albatrosses from subantarctic and temperate regions.

Seal populations

Southern elephant seals foraging on the Antarctic continental shelf have been found to eat the common squids Psychroteuthis and Alluroteuthis.

Psychroteuthis is also common in the diet of emperor penguins and Weddell seals. One seal near Casey was found to have consumed euphausiids, the first time elephant seals have been found to feed on these crustaceans. Analysis of annual variability in fur seal pupping rates over the past 10 years indicated that between 60 and 85 per cent of adult females pup each year, and that there is a strong negative relationship between pupping and the average sea-surface temperature around Macquarie Island in the preceding autumn.

Impact on terrestrial plants

Biological studies indicated a significant effect of human activity in Antarctica in terms of increased fungal levels, especially around sites of high activity. Molecular genetic analysis has found mutations in Antarctic mosses to be due probably to exposure to ultraviolet-B radiation.

Mertz Glacier

Using molecular methods, bacterial diversity in Mertz Glacier sediments was found to be exceptionally high. Closer analysis indicated many clone groups closely related to those found in deep ocean locations elsewhere in the world including the Arctic Ocean.



The Australian Antarctic Division seeks a better understanding of the role of Antarctica in the global climate system by contributing to knowledge of global climate through the study of ice, water and atmosphere, and contributing data to the world's climate research and meteorological communities.


Amery Ice Shelf

Floating ice shelves are the part of the Antarctic continent most sensitive to a changing climate. Melt from beneath floating ice shelves accounts for the loss of as much as half the snow falling on the continent. A pattern of melt and refreeze beneath the floating Amery Ice Shelf is being discerned from a variety of different techniques combining numerical modelling and remote sensing. A hole was drilled through nearly 400 metres of the Amery Ice Shelf to measure conditions in the ocean cavity beneath and to study processes of ice shelf-ocean interaction.

A companion oceanographic survey off the front of the Amery Ice Shelf measured the properties and volume of ocean circulation into the sub-shelf cavity, and deployed a series of moored instruments that are recording seasonal change in this circulation. Sediment cores were collected from the ocean floor both through the borehole and at a number of locations off the front of the shelf to determine a history of ice shelf variability. Further boreholes will be made through the Amery Ice Shelf in 2001-02 and following seasons.

Brown Glacier

A detailed survey was made of the elevation, ice thickness, ice velocity and surface mass balance of the Brown Glacier on the eastern end of Heard Island. Since 1947 the Brown Glacier has retreated by 1.1 kilometres, decreased in area by 3.7 square kilometres (33 per cent) and decreased in volume by 38 per cent. The survey data will enable a numerical model of the glacier to be developed, which will help in determining the climate change necessary to cause the glacier's recession. An automatic weather station was deployed to measure the present glacier climate.

Law Dome ice core

Chemical and isotopic analysis of a 125 metre ice core collected from the Law Dome summit in 1999-2000 has been completed. The record from this core fills in a gap in the climatic record from an earlier deep ice core from this site and extends the record to the present day. Analyses of the Law Dome deep ice core have provided a record of past volcanic activity and demonstrated potential techniques for recovering records of past sea ice extent and past solar events from the trace chemical record in the core.

Sea ice

High-resolution satellite data were used to monitor the seasonal variability of land-fast sea ice to the west of the Mertz Glacier. The extent of this ice impacts on access to food sources for emperor penguin colonies in the region.

Surface melt

Methods were developed to monitor the occurrence and extent of surface melt over the Antarctic ice sheet and changes to surface snow grain size (which is related to snowfall events and temperature) with satellite remote-sensing data.

The middle atmosphere

A Lidar laser instrument used to gather atmospheric data was deployed at Davis over the summer and subsequently commissioned. This centrepiece of the AAD's atmospheric and space physics program will increasingly concentrate on the middle atmosphere over Antarctica. This is the coldest region of the atmosphere anywhere on earth and is expected to be more sensitive to global climate change than other regions. It is also the region least understood in terms of the transport of energy vertically through the atmosphere. Early Lidar measurements of atmospheric temperature profiles agree well with balloon measurements in the lower atmosphere, following the expected seasonal variation. In the region near the stratopause (50 kilometres altitude) temperatures are 5 to 10 degrees higher than expected. (Previous Lidar measurements at Kingston, Tasmania, did not show increased temperatures.)

Noctilucent clouds

There has been an apparent increase in the frequency of sightings of noctilucent clouds - high-altitude clouds that reflect the sun's light after sunset. The seasonal window during which sightings are made also seems to have widened. These variations may indicate alterations to atmospheric chemistry resulting from changed temperatures.

Atmospheric tides

Radar measurements have been employed to study 12-hourly atmospheric tides - daily or half-daily air movements caused by solar heating and subsequent cooling - in the middle atmosphere above Davis. A new model was developed that explains the shift in the times of these tides and also explains how these timings vary with altitude. This is a significant new understanding of the physics of the middle atmosphere and will be valuable in improving our understanding of atmospheric change.

Emission measurements

Measurements of atmospheric emissions are an indicator of the extent of sea-level global warming, which causes middle atmosphere cooling. Antarctic atmospheric emission measurements over the past seven years were found to be consistent with temperature changes caused by solar cycle variations at the boundary between the middle and upper atmosphere, in possible conflict with published estimates of significant middle atmosphere changes over recent decades. Measurements over the next few years as solar minimum activity is approached should give definitive results.

Weather research

Many aspects of the Antarctic atmosphere display a twice-yearly periodicity, even though the sun exerts an annual cycle. Analysis of weather records for four decades is yielding an understanding of the physical influences on the pattern of origin and expression of cyclonic cycles.

Bacteria mortality

Southern Ocean bacterial studies are important for understanding the effect of the ocean on the carbon cycle in this vast region. Using specific staining techniques AAD biologists found that only around 20 per cent of bacteria in the surface waters of the Southern Ocean are alive and that metabolically active cells may comprise as little as five per cent of these live bacteria. These findings have major ramifications for understanding carbon flow and nutrient cycling in the Southern Ocean.

Plankton mortality

A model has been developed which predicts the mortality of plankton concentrations and increases in ultraviolet-tolerant heterotrophic protozoans in Antarctic coastal waters. This enables calculation of community changes for different ultraviolet loads and water depths.



The Australian Antarctic Division undertakes and supports scientific work of practical, economic and national significance by providing data and support for Australian and international clients and conducting research in physical, biological and human science.


Automated measurements

It was decided to change atmospheric and space physics operations at Casey, Mawson and Macquarie Island observatories to operate remotely from Australia, without local year-round supervision. This involved a major automation programme for the experiments at those stations. New data logging systems and remote control systems were developed for instruments at all stations and the all-sky camera systems at Casey and Macquarie Island. Enhancements were made to the automatic cosmic ray observatory at Mawson. Real time riometer and magnetic pulsation data are now passed directly to the Ionospheric Prediction Service for inclusion in its space weather prediction services and for use in its high frequency communication prediction service which, amongst other things, supports air transport from New Zealand to the major United States Antarctic base at McMurdo. Transfers of magnetometer data to the Australian Geological Survey Organisation-Geoscience Australia and cosmic ray data to the AAD are also fully automated.

Radar data

The Tiger SuperDARN radar on Bruny Island, southern Tasmania, completed its first year of operation. Eighty per cent observing time was achieved during debugging and resolution of teething problems. It is expected that 95 per cent coverage will be the future pattern. Simultaneous observations with the radar at Halley Station (operated by the United Kingdom) have shown convection changes in the ionosphere caused by the dynamic solar wind. These observations demonstrate that the radar will provide important input into space weather prediction.

Cosmic radiation

The two largest solar cosmic radiation bursts in the past decade were observed. Fine-time resolution analysis of the first of these indicates that the near-earth magnetic field may be more important in mitigating the impact of solar radiation bursts than previously believed. This has implications for predicting likely radiation damage to spacecraft.

Weather data

The AAD maintains a network of 18 automatic weather stations that provide hourly near-surface data from remote locations on the ice sheet, including potential airfield sites, to the Bureau of Meteorology. Meteorological information provided under international obligations included reports to the World Meteorological Organization for the Antarctic Basic Synoptic Network, weather forecasting for Antarctic operations, and publication of the handbook Weather Forecasting in Antarctica. Atmospheric data were also provided for the world data centres, Ionospheric Prediction Services and other international organisations.

Human cold stress tests

Biophysical and physiological studies of Antarctic expeditioners are the aim of a cooperative research and development agreement between the AAD and the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, a leading thermal physiology laboratory. The programme entered its first phase in October 2000 when 36 expeditioners participated in a pre-Antarctic assessment of their response to a two-hour cold stress test. The test will be repeated when the same expeditioners return in the summer of 2001-02.


Antarctic Science Grants

The Australian Antarctic Division funds and administers the Antarctic Science Grants Scheme. The grants are directed to research in high priority areas that contribute to the achievement of the Government's goals in Antarctica.

Of 175 proposals received, 139 were identified as being of sufficient quality and relevance to Australia's Antarctic Science Programme to warrant operational support. Ninety-five of the 175 applicants sought grant funding from the AAD Grants Scheme, which supports university scientists in research that contributes significantly to the goals of Australia's Antarctic programme. Grants totalling $600 000 were awarded to 57 projects from 18 Australian universities and other eligible institutions.

Australian Antarctic science was organised into the following theme areas relevant to Australia's interests:

Annual progress reports of scientific achievements as measured against the science strategic plans are published on the AAD website at

Territorial administration

The AAD administers the Australian Antarctic Territory and the Territory of Heard and McDonald Islands. Effort is aimed primarily at protecting the Antarctic environment and includes administering environmental legislation dealing with environmental impact assessment and measures for the conservation of flora and fauna. All activities conducted in Antarctica by Australian government and non-government organisations and individuals were subjected to environmental evaluation consistent with the Guidelines for Environmental Impact Assessment in Antarctica approved by the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting.



The Australian Antarctic Division administers the Antarctic Treaty (Environment Protection) Act 1980 and regulations, which together put into effect Australia's obligation to protect the Antarctic environment under the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (Madrid Protocol).

The Act prescribes that the Minister must act in a manner that is consistent with the basic environmental principles set out in Article 3 of the Madrid Protocol. These principles essentially accord with the principles of ecologically sustainable development.

The Act makes provision for the protection of flora and fauna, the declaration of protected areas, environmental impact assessment of activities in Antarctica, and control of certain activities by a permit system.

As a party to the 1980 Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources, which seeks sustainable management of species and ecosystems in Antarctic waters, Australia promotes the ecologically sustainable use of resources through scientifically based management approaches to fisheries. The Australian Antarctic Division administers the Antarctic Marine Living Resources Conservation Act 1981 and undertakes research to provide information necessary to ensure fishing activities are managed in an ecologically sustainable manner.


The Australian Antarctic Division contributes directly to the principles of ecologically sustainable development through its four key outputs: maintaining the Antarctic Treaty System and enhancing Australia's influence in it; protecting the Antarctic environment; understanding the role of Antarctica in the global climate system; and conducting scientific research of practical, economic or national importance.


Major achievements have included further development of the catch documentation scheme for Patagonian toothfish; leading work under the Committee for Environmental Protection; investigating the introduction of diseases in Antarctic wildlife; progressing the cleanup and remediation of waste sites in Antarctica and the cleanup of the abandoned Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions station on Heard Island; developing guidelines to minimise disturbance of Antarctic wildlife by aircraft; and introducing sustainable energy options at Australia's Antarctic stations.

Australia's operational and scientific activities may have impacts through transport, permanent stations, and scientific activities. Impacts which may arise include emissions, noise, fuel spills, wastes and introduced species that could affect flora, fauna, freshwater, seawater, soil, air or ice.

The Australian Antarctic Division activities outside the permanent stations affect the Antarctic environment only in a localised and transitory manner. Activities in Antarctica are subject to environmental impact assessment before they proceed, to ensure impacts are minimised.

The Australian Antarctic Division has established an environmental management and audit unit, which has responsibility for managing and overseeing environmental aspects of the Division's activities. Coordination of this function is provided through the Division's environment committee, which oversees development of environmental policy and major environmental issues affecting scientific activities and operations. Head office and station subcommittees deal with day-to-day operational matters of environmental concern.

The Australian Antarctic Division subjects its activities to a rigorous environmental impact assessment process established under the Madrid Protocol. The protocol provides for three categories of environmental impacts: less than a minor or transitory impact; a minor or transitory impact; and more than a minor or transitory impact. These are reflected in the level of assessment: preliminary assessment, initial environmental evaluation or comprehensive environmental evaluation, respectively. During 2000-01, 117 proposed activities were assessed. No activities were referred under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act.

Review and measure of effectiveness

The Australian Antarctic Division participates in the exchange of information under Article VII of the Antarctic Treaty which provides for scrutiny by Antarctic Treaty partners of Australia's scientific and operational activities in Antarctica.

Under Article VII, the Antarctic Treaty provides for a comprehensive system of international inspection of the activities of consultative parties in Antarctica. Observers from Belgium and France reported on their inspection of Australian facilities at Mawson, Davis and Casey stations and the abandoned Wilkes station and RSV Aurora Australis. This report was presented to the 24th Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting in St Petersburg in July 2001.

The Australian Antarctic Division began the process of developing an environmental management system to be accredited to ISO14001 to cover its operations in Antarctica and Australia. The Division reviews its activities through a system of environmental auditing of its stations and expeditions. All initial environmental evaluations and comprehensive environmental evaluations are subject to external scrutiny.

Resources table: Outcome three - Antarctica

  (1) Budget* 2000-2001 $'000 (2) Actual expenses 2000-2001 $'000 Variation (col (2) less (1)) $'000 Budget** 2001-2002 $'000
(including third party outputs) Write down of assets
Output Group 3.1 - Influence in the Antarctic Treaty System
Sub-total Output Group 3.1
Output Group 3.2 - Protection of the
Antarctic environment
Sub-total Output Group 3.2
Output Group 3.3 - Understanding the
global climate system
Sub-total Output Group 3.3
Output Group 3.4 - Science of practical,
economic or national significance
Sub-total Output Group 3.4
Revenue from Government (Appropriation) for departmental outputs
Revenue from other sources
TOTAL FOR OUTCOME 3 (Total price of outputs and administered expenses)

Average Staffing levels 2000-2001 2001-02

* Full-year budget, including additional estimates
** Budget prior to additional estimates

Australia, exclusive economic zone and external territories