Atmosphere

Review of data on heavy metals in ambient air in Australia

Technical Report No. 3
Environment Australia, May 2002
ISBN 0 6425 4781 5

4. Results of Australian studies

This section reviews the results of Australian studies, which have measured the concentrations of metals or metalloids in air. These have been placed into two categories: (1) those that measured lead only and (2) those that measured two or more metals (these may include lead). Measurements falling in the first category normally involved the routine monitoring of ambient lead concentration in particulate matter by the various State and Territory environment authorities (as required under the NEPM for Ambient Air Quality). The studies in the second category involved the measurement of the concentration of several species, including metals and non-metals, in particulate matter. Only those measurements completed in Australia during the past decade have been considered in this report.

4.1. Lead measurements

Lead associated with particulate matter is the most measured heavy metal in ambient air. Its ambient concentration is measured routinely in the metropolitan areas of Australia where the main emission sources are motor vehicle exhausts. Lead is also emitted in significant quantities by mining and other industrial activities at places such as Mount Isa (Queensland), Port Kembla (NSW) and Port Pirie (SA). There have been several studies that have identified different lead sources by characterising stable lead isotopes in particulate matter collected from indoors or outdoors. Australian lead-only measurement studies are summarised in Appendix F.

4.1.1. Ambient lead data from the jurisdictions

Lead in particulate matter is determined using Australian Standard AS2800 (1985), which involves collection of total suspended particles (TSP) or PM10, followed by analysis for lead using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) techniques. Most jurisdictions have been measuring lead in particulate matter since 1990. Samples have been collected on a 6-day cycle for 24 hours. Appendix F shows the monitoring sites used by the various environment authorities, the particle sizes determined and the periods for which data were provided for this report. All the State and Territory environment authorities that determined lead used the AAS technique for analysis, except WA, which used X-ray Fluorescence.

Data on ambient lead concentrations were available for cities in NSW, SA, ACT, Tasmania, Queensland, WA and Victoria. Three-monthly average data, which were calculated from 24-hour average TSP lead data from Sydney-Wollongong-Newcastle NSW, Adelaide SA, Canberra ACT, Hobart Tasmania, South-East Queensland, Perth WA and Port Pirie-Whyalla-Port Augusta SA, are plotted in Figure 3, for the period 1990 to 2000, when data were available. TSP lead data from Melbourne Victoria, were provided as annual averages and are plotted as such in Figure 4. The monitoring sites used by the jurisdictions are listed in the table in Appendix F. For example, the sites for Melbourne were at Collingwood and Alphington, and the data in Figure 4 were the averages of the annual averages for both sites. The SE Queensland data were averaged for data from Woolloongabba, Rocklea, Darra, Hamilton, Pinkenba, Eagle Farm and Valley.

Figure 3: Concentration of lead associated with TSP in NSW, SA, ACT, Tasmania, Queensland and WA (data are plotted as 3-monthly averages)

Figure 3a: Concentration of lead associated with TSP in NSW, SA, ACT, Tasmania, Queensland and WA (data are plotted as 3-monthly averages)
Figure 3b: Concentration of lead associated with TSP in NSW, SA, ACT, Tasmania, Queensland and WA (data are plotted as 3-monthly averages)

Similar plots for lead in PM10 are shown for NSW-regional areas, Sydney-Wollongong-Newcastle NSW, Launceston Tasmania and Perth WA, in Figure 5 as three-monthly averages, and for Melbourne Victoria as annual averages in Figure 6.

Consistently decreasing trends in TSP and/or PM10 lead concentrations were observed in the lead data from Adelaide, Canberra, Hobart, Launceston, Perth and Melbourne. For example, the winter TSP lead peak in Hobart fell from approximately 0.7 µg/m3 in 1989, to 0.3 µg/m3 in 1996 when sampling ceased (Figure 3d). Figure 5c shows the 3-monthly running average for lead in PM10 measured in Launceston peaked at approximately 0.06 µg/m3 during the winter of 1997, compared to the 0.12 µg/m3 peak in the winter of 1993. Similarly, Perth PM10 data peaked around 2 µg/m3 during the winter of 1990 but fell to less than 0.2 µg/m3 during the winter of 1999.

Figure 4: Concentration of lead associated with TSP in Victoria (data are plotted as annual averages)

Figure 4: Concentration of lead associated with TSP in Victoria (data are plotted as annual averages)

Data provided by NSW EPA covered only a few months, which was not sufficient to observe any trend in lead concentration there. However, present lead levels in Sydney were much lower than levels measured in 1979-1981 (Gulson et al., 1983). The fall in lead concentrations in Australian cities can be attributed to the introduction of unleaded petrol in Australia in1982, the mandatory requirements for new cars to use unleaded petrol (1986 in Sydney) and the reduction of lead content in petrol (1992). Lead replacement petrol was introduced in Perth in January 2000.

The annual average lead concentration in Hobart in 1996 (based on available data) was approximately 0.2 µg/m3. Based upon the 3-monthly average data in Figure 3 and lead reduction programs in Australia, present TSP lead concentrations in Australian capital cities are expected to be lower than the NEPM Ambient Air Quality standard for lead of 0.50 µg/m3 annual average.

Lead is emitted mainly from industries in Port Pirie, Whyalla Norrie, Whyalla and Port Augusta. The annual average TSP lead concentration from these sites is higher than the NEPM standard.

A seasonal trend was observed in the lead data from Adelaide, Canberra, Hobart, S.E. Queensland, Perth and Launceston, where PM10 or TSP lead concentrations peaked in winter and were low in summer. The limited amount of data for the Sydney-Wollongong-Newcastle airshed was consistent with this observation.

Figure 5: Concentration of lead associated with PM10 in NSW, Tasmania and WA (data are plotted as 3-monthly averages)

Figure 5: Concentration of lead ssociated with PM10 in NSW, Tasmania and WA (data are plotted as 3-monthly averages)

Figure 6: Concentration of lead associated with PM10 in Victoria (data are plotted as annual averages)

Figure 6: Concentration of lead associated with PM10 in Victoria (data are plotted as annual averages)

4.1.2. Lake Illawarra region lead study

There have been some studies in Australia that used the ratios of stable lead isotopes to identify different lead emission sources. The variations in the ratios of lead isotopes 207Pb/206Pb and 208Pb/206Pb, as a result of the decay of the parent isotope, can be used as tracers of anthropogenic processes which input lead into the natural environment (Maring et al., 1987).

Chiaradia et al., (1997a) measured lead isotope concentrations in roof dusts from houses in the Lake Illawarra region of NSW. The region included the Port Kembla industrial complex, including the BHP steelworks and Southern Copper smelter, the Kariakhooka base-metal smelter, and the coal-fired Tallawarra power station. Roof dusts provided historical data (~1935-1995) on industrially- and urban-derived particulate matter.

Samples were collected from sweepings of roof dust, digested by a hydrochloric acid/nitric acid mixture, and lead isotope concentrations determined by a Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (TIMS). The roof dusts in the houses had an excess of 250 µg g-1 lead. The ratio of 206Pb/204Pb was observed to be relatively constant (~17.0) irrespective of the age of the house providing the sample. Isotopic modelling of the house dust data indicated a significant contribution from gasoline-air lead and copper smelter lead. There were indications that lead-derived from coal combustion was also present (Chiaradia et al., 1997a).

4.1.3. NSW lead study

Lead accumulated in houses in an inner suburb of Sydney and Broken Hill (a mining town in NSW) were determined from analysis of vacuum cleaner dust, surface wipes and dust from lead deposition gauges, in 1992. The study also measured lead in soil and from gutter sweepings. Lead in the particles was analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and stable lead isotopes measured by TIMS. The study found that the finer dust fractions contained up to three times more lead than the bulk fractions, and that Broken Hill bulk dust samples had about two times the amount of lead in Sydney bulk dust. (Isotopic analyses showed that Sydney dust might have originated from different sources.) Lead fall out rates of 1.9 to 940 µg/m2/day were measured from deposition sampling at Broken Hill (Gulson et al., 1995).

4.1.4. Secondary lead sources in Sydney

Several local sources, such as wood burning, soil, coal burning, power stations and aircraft propellants were determined from mathematical modelling to contribute to ambient lead concentration in Sydney air (Chiaradia et al., 1997b). Measurement of lead-isotope concentrations from particulates deposited on filters from high volume sampling in Sydney and analyses of petrol samples showed that petrol still accounted for more than 90% of the lead in Sydney air. This was despite the phasing out of leaded gasoline in Sydney in 1986 and the 25% reduction of lead in leaded petrol in 1994, which together resulted in a 75% reduction of lead in Sydney air. These results were compared with an earlier investigation carried out in 1979-1981 (Gulson et al., 1983), prior to the introduction of the lead reduction programs. The data showed that a source with a 206Pb/204Pb isotopic ratio higher than petrol also contributed to ambient lead levels in Sydney (Chiaradia et al., 1997b).

4.1.5. Port Pirie indoor lead study

The deposition rates of lead from the Lead-Zinc smelter at Port Pirie was investigated in eleven vacant houses over seven periods of 37-69 days in 1993 and 1994 by Kutlaca (1998). Samples collected from the houses when the windows and doors were closed had average lead deposition rates of 14 µg/m2/day. However, an investigation of houses in that area, which were well ventilated (open houses), found lead deposition rates of 137 µg/m2/day. This significant effect of opening doors and windows on the lead levels in the house was suggested to arise from re-contamination by lead-bearing dust entering from outside (Kutlaca, 1998).

4.2. Ambient metals studies

Various Australian studies involving the simultaneous measurement of several metals in ambient air are described below. These studies involved the chemical analysis of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters of 1.0 µm (PM1), 2.5 µm (PM2.5), 10 µm (PM10) or TSP. Most of the studies were source apportionment studies aimed at determining the contributions of various identified sources to the total particle mass loading (Gras et al., 1992; ERDC, 1995; Gras, 1996). Thus these studies involved the measurement of metals, metalloids and non-metals. The concentrations of all metals and metalloids measured in Australian cities are summarised in the subsequent section, and a summary of the sampling and analytical methods used in the various studies is in Appendix G.

4.2.1. Melbourne Aerosol Study (MAS)

The Melbourne Aerosol Study, conducted by the CSIRO-Atmospheric Research and Victoria EPA, investigated the chemistry and microphysics of aerosol particles responsible for periods of reduced visibility in Melbourne (Gras et al., 1992). Samples were collected from Footscray and Alphington, suburbs of Melbourne that had records of frequent incidences of reduced visibility. The period of the study was from April 1990 to February 1991.

Fine Particulate Matter (FPM, < 2.5 µm in diameter) was collected onto filters for 8 hours by low volume samplers during periods of low visibility, when FPM loading was greater than 30 µg/m3. Samples were collected in parallel onto 3 different filter paper types. Eighteen elements including fourteen metals/metalloids were determined by PIXE analysis of the fractions on the nuclepore filters. This filter type was also used to determine inorganic carbon. Samples from the other two filter types were analysed for organic compounds and soluble ions respectively.

This was a source apportionment study and required the fingerprinting or characterisation of the sources to determine the relative amounts of the pollutants they emitted. The source profiles were then related to the ambient concentrations of the elements through multivariate analysis methods such as principal component analysis to determine the source contribution to fine particle mass.

The metals used in the study (Gras et al., 1992) as tracers to fingerprint the sources were potassium ion for smoke emissions, sodium ion for sea-salt and calcium ion for soil emissions. The non-metals, bromine and (hydrogen + ammonium) ions were tracers for motor vehicle emissions and processes involving secondary aerosol production, respectively. Fine particle matter loading was found to be seasonal with elevated levels occurring during autumn. Visibility loss at Alphington was predominantly associated with potassium, a tracer for smoke. At Footscray, secondary aerosol production and motor vehicle emissions were the main sources of fine particles in autumn and winter. Contributions associated with motor vehicles were similar at Footscray and Alphington.

Ambient concentration data from the study (Gras et al., 1992) showed that the dominant metals were aluminium, calcium, iron, potassium, lead, silicon, and zinc-their maximum concentrations were each above 0.1 µg/m3. Lead (also an indicator for motor vehicle emissions) was the most significant heavy metal. Its concentration average0.420 µg/m3 and ranged from 0.035 - 3.32 µg/m3, while the concentration of potassium (the indicator for smoke emissions) averaged 0.094 µg/m3 and the maximum reached 0.4 µg/m3. Aluminium, calcium and silicon, which were indicators of crustal matter, were detected at relatively low levels. However, iron, which is an indicator for crustal matter, smoke and motor vehicle emissions, was present at appreciable levels. This was one of the few Australian studies that reported the concentration of arsenic associated with particulate matter; the average was 0.016 µg/m3 with a maximum concentration of 0.040 µg/m3.

4.2.2. South Eastern Arterial (SEA) Freeway study

In 1994, VicRoads and Victoria EPA conducted a study near the South Eastern Arterial (SEA) Freeway in Melbourne, which determined the composition of PM10 (VicRoads/EPA, 1994). Lead, an indicator of motor vehicle emissions, was present at significant levels in the finer fraction of the collected particulate matter. The dominant metals in the coarse and fine fractions, with concentrations above 0.1 µg/m³, were aluminium, silicon, potassium, iron and lead. Contributions from aluminium, silicon, calcium and iron were attributed to road dust, since a greater portion of these metals occurred in the coarse fraction (2.5-10 µm) than in the fine fraction (< 2.5 µm).

4.2.3. Aerosol Sampling Program (ASP)

The Energy Research and Development Corporation (ERDC) funded a source apportionment study, the Aerosol Sampling Program (ASP) from January 1992 to June 1993 in NSW (ERDC, 1995). The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), assisted by representatives from Pacific Power, NSW EPA, the University of New South Wales and Macquarie University, conducted the program.

The Aerosol Sampling Program established a fine particle-monitoring network covering Wollongong, Sydney and Newcastle. It investigated the relationship between fuel combustion and fine particles in urban and rural environments and identified sources of fine particles in NSW. Most significantly, the ASP enhanced the application of accelerator-based Ion Beam Analysis techniques such as PIXE for analysis of elements in particulate matter in Australia.

Fine-aerosol particle (PM2.5) samples were collected from 24 monitoring sites, twice weekly, over a period of 18 months. Over 5,000 samples were analysed for twenty elements including fifteen metals. The study showed that motor vehicles and wood smoke were the major contributors to PM2.5 (ERDC, 1995). Lead contributed 2%, iron 1% and potassium 0.6% of the average PM2.5 for the Sydney area in 1992 (organic matter contributed 23%). The 1992 data showed that sodium was the dominant metal with a maximum concentration of 2.8 µg/m³. Other metals that recorded ambient concentrations above 0.1 µg/m³ were calcium, iron, potassium, manganese, lead, silicon and zinc.

The data collected from the ASP were used with meteorological data to calculate chemical fingerprints of six fine particle sources (Cohen et al., 1995). The metals present in the source fingerprints were:

Several non-metals such as carbon, hydrogen and sulfur were also found to contribute significantly to the composition of emissions from these sources. When the fingerprints were used to calculate the contribution of the sources to the composition of fine particles, it was determined that fine particles at Sydney urban sites were dominated by motor vehicle emissions in winter and by combustion sources in summer (Cohen et al., 1995). Vegetation burning was a significant contributor at outer Sydney sites in winter and sea-spray a dominant summer component. Soil was a minor component of the fine particles, coal combustion dominated inland rural sites during most of the year and industrial combustion products were relatively high at industrial sites around Newcastle, Sydney and Wollongong (Cohen et al., 1995).

There have been several publications including a newsletter on the data obtained from the Aerosol Sampling Program. Sample collection and analysis continued at some ASP sites after 1993 (Cohen 1995; Cohen 1996; Cohen et al., 1996; Cohen, 1998; Cohen, 1999; Huo et al., 1998; Huo et al., 1999).

4.2.4. Perth Haze study

The Perth Haze study was conducted by the CSIRO-Atmospheric Research, with the aid of the WA Department of Environmental Protection (WA DEP) in Perth from April 1994 to August 1995 (Gras, 1996). This source apportionment study involved the collection of fine particulate matter at three sites:

Fine particulate matter (FPM) was collected onto filters using samplers fitted with size-selective inlets. Specially constructed low volume samplers were installed at Swanbourne and Caversham. Each sampler comprised of a 90 mm diameter inlet line tapering to a multi-jet impactor, which removed the larger particles. Air from the impactor was directed to a stainless steel plenum chamber fitted with ten ports carrying mountings for 47 mm filter housings. A computer-based control system was used to sample the air through three different filters simultaneously, and the volume of air pumped through each filter was measured accurately (Gras, 1996). The filters were used to determine the elemental, organic and soluble ion contents of the FPM. The sampler operated at Duncraig was similar to the type used during the Melbourne Aerosol Study. Samples were collected on a six-day cycle for 24 hours and for 12 hours during periods of low visibility. A signal from a continuous particle-monitoring instrument was used to initiate sampling when particulate concentration above a set threshold was detected for an extended period of time. Twenty elements, including sixteen metals/metalloids, were determined using PIXE analysis of the fraction collected on polycarbonate filters. Soluble ions, organic carbon and inorganic carbon were measured on different filters (Gras, 1996).

The metal with the highest ambient concentration in Perth was potassium. It recorded a maximum concentration of 3.59 µg/m3 in 1994. Aluminium, silicon, calcium, iron, copper, zinc and lead all recorded maximum concentration values above 0.1 µg/m3 during the period of the study.

The sources and their major metal contributors, determined after principal component analysis of all the data for days when visibility was low, were motor vehicle emissions (lead), smoke (potassium), soil (iron, calcium and chromium), sea-salt (magnesium and sodium), processes which produce organic acids aerosols (non-metals), processes which produce inorganic acid aerosols (non-metals) and an unknown zinc-copper source (zinc and copper). Most of the chemical species showed strong seasonal cycles. Combustion sources contributed most strongly in winter and in spring, whereas natural sources such as soil and sea-salt dominated in summer. Data from the low visibility measurements showed that when visibility was poor, FPM was dominated by smoke. In summer, motor vehicle and smoke contributions to FPM were minor. Lead contributed only 0.7% of the average FPM, compared to organic carbon, which made up 38% of the FPM.

4.2.5. Australian Fine Particle (AFP) study

The Australian Fine Particle (AFP) study, funded by Environment Australia, was conducted by the CSIRO in conjunction with ANSTO and various State and Territory environment authorities from August 1996 to December 1997 (Ayers et al., 1998). The study was conducted consecutively, for short periods of time, at sites in Sydney, Brisbane, Melbourne, Canberra, Launceston and Adelaide. The chemical and physical properties of atmospheric aerosol particles were measured at a total of six sites in these cities. Aerosol samplers were co-located with continuous fine particle-measuring instruments such as the Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM) and the light integrating nephelometer.

The program was established to determine the comparability of fine particle measurements made by various State and Territory environment authorities. It also determined the distribution of chemical species across the fine particle size range (10 nm to 20 µm), and how well the PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 measurements discriminated between different chemical species. Finally, the number-size distributions of particles found in Australian urban environments were related to the particle number concentrations of the FPM and to particle scattering coefficients derived from nephelometer measurements. Several types of co-located samplers were operated for approximately four weeks in each city.

Sampler types were:

Elements were determined by PIXE analysis, and soluble ions by ion chromatography. The results provided a distribution of the metals in the different size ranges, PM1, PM2.5 and PM10. Although PM10 and PM2.5 data showed a strong structural relationship, the variability in PM10 was dominated by the variability in the PM2.5, rather than in the PM2.5 - PM10 fraction. This suggested that ambient aerosol standards should be based on PM2.5 not PM10. Also, it was shown than PM1 measurements did not offer any clear advantages over PM2.5 measurements as a mass-based indicator of potential health effects (Ayers et al., 1998).

The PM10 metals that recorded maximum values above 0.1 µg/m3 in any of the cities were sodium, silicon, potassium, calcium, iron, nickel (Queensland), zinc (Victoria) and lead. The dominant PM2.5 metals were sodium, silicon, potassium, iron, zinc and lead. Sodium was the most abundant metal associated with PM10 and PM2.5.

4.2.6. Charles Point study

A study of coarse and fine particles was conducted at Charles Point west of Darwin in the Northern Territory from July 1993 to March 1996 (Ayers et al., unpublished data). In this study, the concentrations of up to 21 metals in particulate matter were determined. Staff from the CSIRO-Atmospheric Research and NT University collected the samples using a stacked filter sampler. Analysis was done using PIXE in a laboratory in Brazil. A larger range of metals was determined in this study. However, data from this study had not been published at the time of writing this report. The PM10 metals with maximum concentrations above 0.1 µg/m3 were aluminium, silicon, potassium, calcium and iron. Silicon dominated the PM10 metals and potassium dominated the PM2.5 metals.

4.2.7. Brisbane ultra-fine particles study

Ultra-fine particles are particles with aerodynamic diameters less than 0.1 µm, and they have been identified as potential factors influencing the health impacts of inhaled particulate matter (Linak et al., 2000). Metals in ultra-fine particles have been analysed using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and an ICP-MS (Morawska et al., 1996; Morawska et al., 1996b; Thomas et al., 1996). The SMPS classified particles according to their sizes within the range of 0.005 to 1.0 µm. The ICP-MS coupled to the SMPS determined the concentration of the metals. A variation in elemental composition of airborne particles over time periods as short as 15 minutes was obtained. All the metals detected in the particle size range of 0.016 µm to 0.63 µm had maximum concentrations above 0.1 µg/m3, and the dominant metals were calcium, zinc and iron and copper. This study reported the concentration of metals such as barium (0.45 µg/m3), cadmium (0.15 µg/m3) and antimony (0.15 µg/m3) (Morawska et al., 1996b).

4.2.8. Brisbane aerosols

Chemical species in PM2.5 and PM10 aerosols collected on filters in Brisbane were determined by PIXE analysis (Chan et al., 1997). Samples were collected from September 1993 to August 1994 at five sites, Griffith University, Pinkenba, Woolloongabba, Rocklea and Darra, representing major land use patterns in Brisbane. A dichotomous sampler operated at one site to measure PM2.5- PM10. The other sites had a PM10 high volume sampler. Samples were collected from the sites on separate days, but the annual averages were calculated from the results of all sites. The chemical composition of the samples, reconstructed from the observed elemental components, showed crustal matter comprised 25% by mass of the PM10. Temporal trends at the site collecting PM2.5- PM10 samples suggested that road side dust and industry-sourced crustal matter contributed to more than 50% of the mass of crustal matter.

4.2.9. Queensland particles study

Particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter up to 2.5 µm (PM2.5) have been collected by the Queensland EPA at two sites, Rocklea (a semi rural site) and Brisbane central business district from April 1995 to June 2000. Light industrial and residential areas surrounded the Rocklea site, and the Brisbane site is a commercial business area. Twenty-four hour samples were collected onto filter papers twice a week at each site, and analysed at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) at Lucas Heights, NSW, using Ion Beam Analyses (IBA) techniques.

Analysis of the Queensland data, which formed part of this project, showed that there were large variations in the range of concentrations observed for each of the elements. The most abundant metals were sodium (annual mean concentration ranged from 0.15 to 0.50 µg/m3), aluminium (0.03 to 0.42 µg/m3) and potassium (0.07 to 0.39 µg/m3). Lead was the dominant heavy metal, its annual mean concentration ranging from 0.01 µg/m3 to 0.07 µg/m3.

Figure 7: Trends in SE Queensland metals concentration expressed as three-monthly averages

Figure 7: Trends in SE Queensland metals concentration expressed as three-monthly averages

Other heavy metals, titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper and zinc were present at lower concentrations.

Seasonal trends were observed in the metals concentrations, which are plotted as three-monthly averages in Figure 7. In this diagram the metals have been grouped according to their concentration range. Statistically significant seasonal differences were observed for a number of years for all of the metals, with the exception of chromium. Two metals, aluminium and potassium showed significant seasonalities each year, from 1996 to 1998, and calcium and titanium, from 1997 to 1999. Lead, iron and silicon showed significant seasonal differences during the years 1996, 1997 and 1999. The concentrations of several elements showed significant seasonal dependencies in 1999. No discernible pattern was apparent for any of the metals over all years (1996 to 1999, when data were available for all seasons). For elements depicting significant seasonalities, winter concentrations were generally higher than summer concentrations.

The majority of the elements analysed demonstrated a decrease in annual mean concentrations between April 1995 and June 2000. Iron and copper showed statistically significant decreases of 3.5% and 2.3% per annum, respectively, at the Brisbane site. Lead showed a statistically significant decrease of 1.6% per annum for combined data from both sites (Rocklea and Brisbane). Aluminium had a statistically significant increase of 2.3% in its annual mean concentration, measured at Rocklea. Although the data were collected over six years, only partial data were available for the year the program started (1995) and the year it ended (2000), thus the data did not span 4 or more calendar years which is required for long-term statistical trend analysis (SPSS, 1998).

It was not possible to determine if the large changes observed in the concentrations of some of the metals were due to limitations of the sampling method, which required sampling on two fixed days a week. However, a good correlation was obtained between monthly mean PM2.5 lead data from this work and monthly-mean TSP lead data from the Queensland EPA monitoring station at Rocklea, even though the samples were collected on different days, at different frequencies.

4.2.10. SA EPA monitoring data

In addition to monitoring for lead in TSP at several sites in South Australia (Appendix F), the South Australia EPA also measured the concentration of zinc, iron and some non-metallic elements in TSP at some of the sites. The sites at which lead, zinc and iron were measured, were Northfield, Thebarton, Whyalla Norrie and Whyalla. Samples were collected on a 6-day cycle for 24 hours. However, after 1994 lead was the only metal measured at any of these sites. Complete data on zinc and iron were not available for most years (from 1990 to 1994).

4.2.11. McArthur River mine study

Munksgaard and Parry (1998) sampled fallout dust at nine locations around the McArthur River Zinc-Lead mine site in the Northern Territory, from November 1992 to September 1997. Samples were collected into rain gauges. Zinc in the samples was analysed by ICP-AES and lead by GFAAS after digestion with a nitric acid-perchloric acid solution. An ICP-MS was used to determine the 207Pb/206Pb and 207Pb/208Pb isotopic ratios. Results of the isotope analysis provided evidence that ore-derived lead from mining operations rather than soil-derived lead had become the source of increased particulate fallout at distances up to 8.6 km from the mine site. Lead and zinc fallout rates were 0.1-151 µg/m2/day and 5-2000 µg/m2/day respectively (Munksgaard and Parry, 1998).

4.2.12. Port Pirie lead-zinc smelter study

Heavy metal deposition rates have been determined downwind of a lead-zinc smelter facility in Port Pirie, SA, using short deposition times (van Alphen, 1999). Samples were collected on ten different days, for short periods of 1 to 3 hours, when the wind was blowing from the general direction of the smelter. Metal deposition profiles were determined using ten deposition trays placed close to the ground at sites along a 1500 m line, at150 m intervals, and at a distance of 500 m from the smelter. The deposited material was removed by wipes, digested with concentrated nitric acid and analysed by ICP-AES and ICP-MS for heavy metals content. The bulk deposition rate was determined from the average of the highest five deposition values (from five adjoining sites), and was an index of deposition over a 600 m nominal plume width. The geometric mean of the bulk deposition rates for lead, zinc, iron, copper, arsenic and cadmium was 18800, 22200, 12200, 614, 403 and 52 µg/m2/day, respectively (van Alphen, 1999).

4.3. Ambient concentration of metals

The annual average concentrations of metals reported from major Australian studies (Appendix G) have been consolidated in Tables 3-8 according to State or Territory, and particle size. Annual average TSP data, determined from available data, are in Table 3, PM10 data are in Tables 4 and 5; PM2.5 data are in Tables 6 and 7 and PM1 data are in Table 8. The maximum and minimum metal concentrations are in parenthesis.

Data in electronic form were not available for some of the studies. For such studies, available statistical data were obtained from tables or graphs in the reports or publications and are summarised in Table 9. This table shows the average and/or maximum concentrations for each metal over the period of each study. An electronic database was compiled for all data obtained in electronic form, and where there was agreement for the publication of such data. The electronic database was submitted with this report.

The annual average concentration should not be interpreted as the State or Territory annual average for the year, but as the average of data that were available for that year at the measurement sites listed in Appendix G. Data for sodium and potassium have been included in the tables even though they are not heavy metals and not considered as air toxics – silicon and calcium are also not air toxics. All these studies reported data on non-metal elements obtained from PIXE analysis and soluble metal ions concentration obtained from ion chromatography analysis, which were not included in the tables. The data on the metal ions were excluded since most of them were not heavy metals.

Most of the metals studies were performed on either PM2.5 and PM10; a few were on TSP and only one study involved PM1. The average concentrations of all the metals in the TSP were above the minimum detection limits (Table 3). The abundant metals were sodium (Na), silicon (Si), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), and lead (Pb). Very high zinc concentrations were measured in SA in 1990 and 1991, but lower levels were measured in later years. The concentration of nickel measured in Queensland TSP and PM10 were much higher than the nickel concentrations from the other cities. Also, manganese concentrations measured in Tasmania and zinc concentrations measured in Victoria were much higher than the corresponding metals concentrations measured in TSP and PM10 from the other cities in the period 1993 to 1997 (Tables 4 and 5). These differences were not consistent with the NPI emissions data shown in Figures 1 and 2.

The consolidated data for PM10 (Tables 4 and 5) show that the most abundant metals were sodium, aluminium (Al), silicon, potassium, calcium, iron, lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). The least abundant were titanium (Ti), vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni). Similar results were observed for PM2.5 data (Tables 6 and 7). However, the low manganese concentration measured in the Northern Territory was inconsistent with the high emissions reported in the 1998/99 NPI data.

Only the AFP study determined the concentration of metals in PM1 (Table 8). The average concentrations were low for most of the metals, sodium and potassium being the dominant metals. Metals concentrations measured in PM1 in Tasmania appear to be much higher than the corresponding metals concentrations in the other cities.

Levels of the metals concentrations in Table 9 were consistent with the other ambient concentrations in Tables 3 to 8, with a few exceptions; namely, the annual average PM10 silicon concentration of 1.20 µg/m3 from the Brisbane Aerosols (Chan et al., 1997) and the average lead concentration of 0.420 µg/m3 from the Melbourne Aerosol Study (Gras, et al 1992). (Note that the MAS is unique in that samples were taken only in periods of high haze and therefore are worst case, not ambient.) The maximum concentrations of the ultra-fine particles appear to be high, but they represent short-term averages of only 15 minutes (Morawska et al., 1996b).

There were no ambient concentration data available for mercury. Other compounds that were not measured consistently in most of the studies included arsenic (As), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), magnesium (Mg), bismuth (Bi), gallium (Ga), rubidium (Rb), strontium (Sr) and yttrium (Y). These metals were omitted from the consolidated tables since there were no other similar data to be used for comparison.

Finally, since it was not possible to compare data from studies that measured metals fallout rates from deposition sampling with ambient concentration data, the former have been compiled and compared in Table 10.

Table 3: Annual Average TSP Metals Concentration (µg/m3) in ACT, Tasmania, Victoria, and NSW. Minimum and Maximum are in parenthesis.
  ACT¹ Tasmania¹ Victoria¹ New South Wales¹
Na
1996
1997

1.25 (0.733, 1.81)

1.46 (0.599, 3.49)

2.55 (1.38, 3.79)
0.584 (0.191, 1.212)
Al
1996
1997

0.056 (0.04, 0.077)

0.071 (0.022, 0.225)

0.049 (0.022, 0.073)
0.076 (0.022, 0.13)
Si
1996
1997

0.475 (0.339, 0.642)

0.332 (0.114, 0.771)

0.479 (0.178, 0.617)
0.409 (0.081, 0.702)
K
1996
1997

0.198 (0.102, 0.306)

0.347 (0.179, 0.561)

0.089 (0.045, 0.122)
0.111 (0.036, 0.173)
Ca
1996
1997

0.060 (0.027, 0.09)

0.128 (0.017, 0.214)

0.169 (0.075, 0.298)
0.090 (0.010, 0.144)
Ti
1996
1997

0.011 (0.009, 0.015)

0.014 (0.005, 0.037)

0.022 (0.008, 0.029)
0.019 (0.004, 0.032)
V
1996       0.004 (0.003, 0.005)
1997 0.004 (0.003, 0.005) 0.003 (0.003, 0.004) 0.004 (0.004, 0.004)  
Cr
1996
1997

0.004 (0.003, 0.004)

0.008 (0.004, 0.025)

0.004 (0.003, 0.004)
0.003 (0.003, 0.004)
Mn
1996
1997

0.005 (0.004, 0.007)

0.075 (0.003, 0.268)

0.008 (0.005, 0.013)
0.007 (0.003, 0.008)
Fe
1996
1997

0.16 (0.112, 0.184)

0.237 (0.052, 0.558)

0.297 (0.209, 0.372)
0.232 (0.042, 0.346)
Co
1996
1997

0.002 (0.002, 0.002)

0.002 (0.002, 0.002)

0.002 (0.002, 0.002)
0.002 (0.002, 0.003)
Ni
1996
1997

0.013 (0.002, 0.027)

0.042 (0.014, 0.056)

0.002 (0.002, 0.002)
0.005 (0.002, 0.008)
Cu
1996
1997

0.004 (0.002, 0.006)

0.003 (0.002, 0.006)

0.003 (0.002, 0.005)
0.006 (0.003, 0.009)
Zn
1996
1997

0.014 (0.007, 0.02)

0.038 (0.012, 0.069)

0.234 (0.041, 0.708)
0.039 (0.008, 0.096)
Pb
1996
1997

0.105 (0.04, 0.194)

0.085 (0.044, 0.173)

0.059 (0.023, 0.135)
0.113 (0.061, 0.154)

Note: 1 Australian Fine Particle Study (CSIRO)

Table 3 (cont'd): Annual Average TSP Metals Concentration (µg/m3) in Queensland and SA. Minimum and Maximum are in parenthesis.
  Queensland¹ South Australia¹ South Australia²
Na
1996
1997
2.87 (1.67, 4.70)
1.98 (0.492, 4.31)
 
Al
1996
1997
0.042 (0.022, 0.101)
0.059 (0.021, 0.159)
 
Si
1996
1997
0.296 (0.153, 0.547)
0.481 (0.275, 1.117)
 
K
1996
1997
0.247 (0.128, 0.434)
0.128 (0.079, 0.254)
 
Ca
1996
1997
0.317 (0.147, 0.506)
0.288 (0.165, 0.553)
 
Ti
1996
1997
0.015 (0.005, 0.032)
0.011 (0.005, 0.023)
 
V
1996
1997
0.003 (0.002, 0.005)
0.003 (0.003, 0.004)
 
Cr
1996
1997
0.003 (0.003, 0.004)
0.003 (0.003, 0.004)
 
Mn
1996
1997
0.006 (0.004, 0.01)
0.01 (0.004, 0.02)
 
Fe
1990
1991
1996
1997


0.16 (0.052, 0.326)



0.271 (0.181, 0.5)
0.07 (bdl, 1.02)
0.03 (bdl, 0.09)
Co
1996
1997
0.002 (0.001, 0.002)
0.002 (0.001, 0.002)
 
Ni
1996
1997
0.198 (0.122, 0.323)
0.006 (0.002, 0.015)
 
Cu
1996
1997
0.007 (0.003, 0.012)
0.007 (0.004, 0.01)
 
Zn
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1996
1997





0.051 (0.029, 0.065)






0.039 (0.017, 0.059)
3.08 (bdl, 54.7)
1.39 (bdl, 26.4)
0.09 (bdl, 1.83)
0.07 (bdl, 1.70)
bdl (bdl, 0.16)
Pb
1996
1997
0.028 (0.012, 0.051)
0.259 (0.126, 0.387)
 

Notes:
1 Australian Fine Particle Study (CSIRO)
2 SA EPA

Table 4: Annual average PM10 metals concentration (µg/m3) in ACT, NSW, NT and Queensland. Minimum and Maximum are in parenthesis.
  ACT¹ New South Wales¹ Northern Territory² Queensland¹
Na
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997




1.02 (0.55, 1.54)



0.47 (0.16, 0.94)
 


2.16 (1.19, 3.59)
Al
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997




0.04 (0.03, 0.06) 1



0.06 (0.02, 0.08)
0.11 (0.02, 0.40)
0.17 (0.01, 0.70)
0.15 (0.01, 0.89)
0.12 (0.04, 0.25)



0.03 (0.02, 0.07)
Si
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997




0.30 (0.17, 0.44)



0.29 (0.07, 0.43)
0.30 (0.04, 1.23)
0.45 (0.01, 1.95)
0.41 (0.02, 2.20)
0.30 (0.05, 0.68)



0.21 (0.11, 0.37)
K
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997




0.18 (0.09, 0.29)



0.10 (0.03, 0.16)
0.10 (0.03, 0.57)
0.10 (0.03, 0.37)
0.12 (bdl, 0.41)
0.11 (0.05, 0.32)



0.20 (0.11, 0.37)
Ca
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997




0.05 (0.02, 0.08)



0.07 (0.01, 0.11)
0.16 (0.04, 2.05)
0.13 (0.03, 0.54)
0.13 (bdl, 0.69)
0.12 (0.05, 0.33)



0.21 (0.11, 0.33)
Ti
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997




0.01 (0.01, 0.01)



0.01 (bdl, 0.02)
0.01 (bdl, 0.04)
0.02 (bdl, 0.08)
0.01 (bdl, 0.06)
0.01 (bdl, 0.02)



0.01 (bdl, 0.02)
V
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997




bdl



bdl

bdl
bdl
bdl



bdl
Cr
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997




bdl



bdl
bdl

bdl
bdl



bdl

Notes:
1 Australian Fine Particle Study (CSIRO)
2 Charles Point study

Table 4 (cont'd): Annual average PM10 metals concentration (µg/m3) in ACT, NSW, NT and Queensland. Minimum and maximum are in parenthesis.
  ACT¹ New South Wales¹ Northern Territory² Queensland¹
Mn
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997




bdl (bdl, 0.01)



0.01 (bdl, 0.01)
bdl (bdl, 0.04)
bdl (bdl, 0.03)
bdl (bdl, 0.03)
bdl



bdl (bdl, 0.01)
Fe
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997




0.12 (0.08, 0.14)



0.18 (0.03, 0.25)
0.08 (0.01, 0.26)
0.15 (0.01, 0.55)
0.14 (0.01, 0.67)
0.10 (0.02, 0.21)



0.12 (0.04, 0.26)
Co
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997




bdl



bdl
 


bdl
Ni
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997




0.01 (bdl, 0.03)



bdl (bdl, 0.01)
bdl (bdl, 0.02)
bdl
bdl



0.15 (0.08, 0.25)
Cu
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997




bdl (bdl, 0.01)



0.01 (bdl, 0.01)
0.01 (bdl, bdl)
bdl
bdl
bdl



bdl (bdl, 0.01)
Zn
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997




0.01 (0.01, 0.02)



0.04 (0.01, 0.09)
0.01 (bdl, 0.17)
bdl (bdl, 0.01)
bdl (bdl, 0.01)
bdl



0.04 (0.02, 0.06)
Pb
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997




0.10 (0.04, 0.19)



0.11 (0.06, 0.15)
bdl
bdl
bdl
bdl



0.03 (0.01, 0.05)

Notes:
1 Australian Fine Particle Study (CSIRO)
2 Charles Point Study

Table 5: Annual average PM10 metals concentration (µg/m3) in SA, Tasmania, Victoria and WA. Minimum and maximum are in parenthesis.
  South Australia¹ Tasmania¹ Victoria¹ Western Australia²
Na
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997




1.45 (0.37, 3.05)




1.09 (0.46, 2.67)




1.92 (1.19, 2.97)
 
Al
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997




0.04 (0.02, 0.10)




0.06 (0.02, 0.22)




0.04 (0.02, 0.06)


0.12 (0.02, 0.28)
Si
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997




0.28 (0.14, 0.59)




0.19 (0.07, 0.27)




0.32 (0.11, 0.41)


0.13 (0.07, 0.21)
K
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997




0.09 (0.06, 0.17)




0.32 (0.16, 0.53)




0.07 (0.03, 0.09)


0.26 (0.02, 0.58)
Ca
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997




0.18 (0.09, 0.32)




0.08 (0.01, 0.12)




0.12 (0.05, 0.21)


0.01 (bdl, 0.02)
Ti
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997




0.01(bdl, 0.01)




0.01 (bdl, 0.02)




0.01 (bdl, 0.01)


0.01 (bdl, 0.01)
V
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997




bdl




bdl




bdl


bdl
Cr
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997




0.01 (bdl, 0.02)




bdl




0.01 (bdl, 0.01)


bdl

Notes:
1 Australian Fine Particle Study (CSIRO)
2 Perth Haze Study (CSIRO-AR/WA DEP)

Table 5 (cont'd): Annual average PM10 metals concentration (µg/m3) in SA, Tasmania, Victoria and WA. Minimum and maximum are in parenthesis.
South Australia¹ Tasmania¹ Victoria¹ Western Australia²
Mn
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997




0.01 (bdl, 0.01)




0.06 (bdl, 0.23)




bdl (bdl, 0.01)


bdl (bdl, 0.01)
Fe
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997




0.19 (0.12, 0.33)




0.15 (0.03, 0.26)




0.21 (0.15, 0.26)


0.05 (0.01, 0.12)
Co
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997




bdl




bdl




bdl


bdl
Ni
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997




0.01 (bdl, 0.01)




0.03 (0.01, 0.05)




bdl


bdl (bdl, 0.01)
Cu
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997




0.01 (bdl, 0.01)




bdl (bdl, 0.01)




bdl


0.17 (bdl, 0.65)
Zn
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997




0.03 (0.02, 0.05)




0.04 (0.01, 0.06)




0.21 (0.04, 0.64)


0.12 (0.01, 0.43)
Pb
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997



0.25 (0.12, 0.36)



0.08 (0.04, 0.17)



0.06 (0.02, 0.13)

0.59 (0.14, 1.57)

Notes:
1 Australian Fine Particle Study (CSIRO)
2 Perth Haze Study (CSIRO-AR/WA DEP)

Table 6: Annual average PM2.5 metal concentration (µg/m3) in ACT, NSW, NT and Queensland. Minimum and maximum are in parenthesis.
  ACT¹ New South Wales¹ Northern Territory² Queensland¹ Queensland³
Na
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000




0.40 (0.32, 0.53)



0.19 (0.12, 0.28)
 


0.48 (0.22, 0.98)


0.34 (0.13, 0.71)
0.37 (0.10, 1.10)
0.50 (0.17, 1.87)
0.37 (0.06, 2.39)
0.17 (0.04, 0.63)
0.15 (0.03, 0.46)
Al
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000




0.01 (0.01, 0.02)



0.02 (0.01, 0.02)
0.02 (bdl, 0.06)
0.03 (bdl, 0.20)
0.04 (0.01, 0.18)
0.03 (0.01, 0.04)



0.01 (0.01, 0.02)


0.03 (0.003, 0.19)
0.03 (0.003, 0.16)
0.03 (0.002, 0.29)
0.16 (0.002, 1.09)
0.36 (0.12, 0.83)
0.42 (0.13, 1.44)
Si
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000




0.09 (0.05, 0.13)



0.08 (0.03, 0.12)
0.05 (0.02, 0.12)
0.08 (0.02, 0.54)
0.06 (0.01, 0.49)
0.05 (0.01, 0.12)



0.06 (0.03, 0.11)


0.08 (0.01, 0.45)
0.08 (0.01, 0.42)
0.09 (0.01, 0.85)
0.09 (0.0004, 1.79)
0.04 (0.0003, 0.51)
0.01 (0.0006, 0.10)
K
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000




0.14 (0.06, 0.26)



0.08 (0.03, 0.15)
0.11 (0.01, 0.55)
0.15 (bdl, 0.60)
0.11 (bdl, 0.62)
0.03 (0.01, 0.08)



0.09 (0.03, 0.22)


0.07 (0.01, 1.19)
0.07 (0.01, 0.60)
0.08 (0.02, 1.94)
0.39 (0.002, 2.52)
0.29 (0.04, 1.13)
0.29 (0.08, 0.98)
Ca
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000




0.01 (bdl, 0.02)



0.02 (bdl, 0.03)
0.01 (0.01, 0.04)
0.02 (bdl, 0.04)
0.02 (bdl, 0.05)
0.02 (0.01, 0.04)



0.03 (0.03, 0.04)


0.04 (0.01, 0.15)
0.03 (0.003, 0.10)
0.04 (0.01, 0.22)
0.06 (0.01, 0.35)
0.05 (0.003, 0.23)
0.05 (0.01, 0.14)

Notes:
1 Australian Fine Particle Study (CSIRO)
2 Charles Point Study
3 Queensland Particles Study

Table 6 (cont'd): Annual average PM2.5 metal concentration (µg/m3) in ACT, NSW, NT and Queensland. Minimum and maximum are in parenthesis.
  ACT¹ New South Wales¹ Northern Territory² Queensland² Queensland³
Ti
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000




bdl



0.01 (bdl, 0.01)
bdl
bdl (bdl, 0.02)
bdl (bdl, 0.01)
bdl



bdl (bdl, 0.01)


0.01 (0.001, 0.04)
0.01 (0.0003, 0.04)
0.01 (0.001, 0.14)
0.04 (0.004, 0.48)
0.04 (0.003, 0.28)
0.02 (0.006, 0.05)
V
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000




bdl



bdl

bdl
bdl
bdl



bdl


0.001 (0.001, 0.003)
0.001(0.0001, 0.004)
0.001 (0.001, 0.01)
0.01 (0.0001, 0.10)
0.01 (0.0003, 0.06)
0.001 (0.0003, 0.03)
Cr
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000




bdl



bdl
0.0 (bdl, 0.01)

0.0 (bdl, bdl)
bdl



bdl


0.001 (0.001, 0.01)
0.001 (0.0001, 0.003)
0.001 (0.001, 0.01)
0.001 (0.0001, 0.004)
0.001 (0.0001, 0.003)
0.001 (0.0001, 0.004)
Mn
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000




bdl



bdl (bdl, 0.01)
bdl
bdl
bdl
bdl



bdl (bdl, 0.01)


0.004 (0.001, 0.03)
0.003 (0.0002, 0.02)
0.004 (0.001, 0.02)
0.001 (0.0001, 0.005)
0.001 (0.0001, 0.004)
0.001 (0.0001, 0.002)
Fe
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000




0.04 (0.02, 0.05)



0.07 (0.02, 0.10)
0.01 (bdl, 0.03)
0.02 (bdl, 0.10)
0.02 (bdl, 0.10)
0.01 (bdl, 0.04)



0.04 (0.01, 0.10)


0.05 (0.004, 0.30)
0.05 (0.004, 0.28)
0.06 (0.01, 0.43)
0.003 (0.0001, 0.02)
0.003 (0.0001, 0.03)
0.002 (0.0001, 0.02)

Notes:
1 Australian Fine Particle Study (CSIRO)
2 Charles Point Study
3 Queensland Particles Study

Table 6 (cont'd): Annual average PM2.5 metal concentration (µg/m3) in ACT, NSW, NT and Queensland. Minimum and maximum are in parenthesis.
  ACT¹ New South Wales¹ Northern Territory² Queensland¹ Queensland³
Co
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000




bdl



bdl
bdl
bdl
bdl
bdl



bdl


0.001 (0.001, 0.002)
0.001 (0.0001, 0.002)
0.001 (0.001, 0.01)
0.07 (0.01, 0.83)
0.07 (0.01, 0.59)
0.04 (0.004, 0.20)
Ni
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000




bdl (bdl, 0.01)



bdl
bdl
bdl
bdl
bdl



0.05 (0.03, 0.07)


0.001 (0.001, 0.01)
0.001 (0.0001, 0.01)
0.001 (0.001, 0.01)
0.0006 (0.0001, 0.005)
0.0006 (0.0001, 0.004)
0.0005 (0.0001, 0.003)
Cu
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000




bdl



bdl (bdl, 0.01)
 


bdl (bdl, 0.01)


0.01(0.10, 1.10)
0.01(0.10, 1.10)
0.003(0.10, 1.10)
0.001(0.10, 1.10)
0.001(0.10, 1.10)
0.0005(0.10, 1.10)
Zn
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000




0.01 (bdl, 0.01)



0.03 (0.01, 0.07)
bdl
bdl
bdl
bdl



0.02 (0.01, 0.05)


0.03 (0.002, 0.44)
0.03 (0.0003, 0.30)
0.02 (0.001, 0.08)
0.004 (0.0001, 0.12)
0.004 (0.0001, 0.05)
0.002 (0.0001, 0.01)
Pb
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000




0.09 (0.03, 0.17)



0.10 (0.06, 0.14)
bdl
bdl
bdl
bdl



0.02 (0.01, 0.04)


0.07 (0.01, 0.27)
0.06 (0.002, 0.23)
0.05 (0.01, 0.18)
0.02 (0.001, 0.09)
0.02 (0.001, 0.12)
0.01 (0.001, 0.05)

Notes:
1 Australian Fine Particle Study (CSIRO)
2 Charles Point Study
3 Queensland Particles Study

Table 7: Annual average PM2.5 metal concentration (µg/m3) in SA, Tasmania, Victoria and WA. Minimum and maximum are in parenthesis.
  South Australia¹ Tasmania¹ Victoria¹ Western Australia²
Na
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997




0.26 (0.09, 0.49)




0.53 (0.26, 0.86)




0.63 (0.33, 0.89)
 
Al
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997




0.01 (0.01, 0.02)




0.04 (0.01, 0.16)




0.01 (0.01, 0.02)

0.08 (0.01, 0.44)
0.11 (bdl, 0.56)
Si
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997




0.05 (0.03, 0.09)




0.05 (0.02, 0.08)




0.11 (0.06, 0.16)

0.17 (0.04, 2.66)
0.19 (bdl, 0.82)
K
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997




0.04 (0.01, 0.08)




0.27 (0.10, 0.50)




0.03 (0.01, 0.06)

0.10 (0.01, 3.59)
0.08 (bdl, 0.73)
Ca
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997




0.03 (0.02, 0.05)




0.02 (bdl, 0.02)




0.03 (0.01, 0.04)

0.03 (bdl, 0.22)
0.02 (bdl.0.10)
Ti
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997




bdl




bdl




bdl (bdl, 0.01)

bdl (bdl, 0.02)
bdl (bdl, 0.03)
V
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997




bdl




bdl




bdl

bdl
bdl (bdl, 0.01)
Cr
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997




bdl




0.01 (bdl, 0.02)




bdl

bdl (bdl, 0.02)
bdl (bdl, 0.02)

Notes:
1 Australian Fine Particle Study (CSIRO)
2 Perth Haze Study (CSIRO-AR/WA DEP)

Table 7 (cont'd): Annual average PM2.5 metal concentrations (µg/m3) in SA, Tasmania, Victoria and WA. Minimum and maximum are in parenthesis.
  South Australia¹ Tasmania¹ Victoria¹ Western Australia²
Mn
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997




bdl




0.03 (bdl, 0.08)




bdl (bdl, 0.01)

bdl (bdl, 0.01)
bdl (bdl, 0.02)
Fe
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997




0.05 (0.03, 0.07)




0.07 (0.01, 0.15)




0.08 (0.06, 0.11)

0.03 (bdl, 0.14)
0.04 (bdl, 0.16)
Co
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997




bdl




bdl




bdl

bdl
bdl
Ni
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997




bdl (bdl, 0.01)




0.02 (0.01, 0.04)




bdl

bdl
bdl (bdl, 0.01)
Cu
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997




bdl




bdl




bdl

bdl (bdl, 0.39)
bdl (bdl, 0.02)
Zn
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997




0.02 (0.01, 0.04)




0.03 (0.01, 0.04)




0.03 (0.02, 0.46)

0.01 (bdl, 0.24)
0.01 (bdl, 0.08)
Pb
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997




0.18 (0.10, 0.24)




0.08 (0.04, 0.15)




0.10 (0.02, 0.12)

0.05 (bdl, 0.57)
0.09 (bdl, 0.80)

Notes:
1 Australian Fine Particle Study (CSIRO)
2 Perth Haze Study (CSIRO-AR/WA DEP)

Table 8: Annual average PM1 metals concentration (µg/m3) in ACT, Tasmania, Victoria and NSW. Minimum and maximum are in parenthesis.
  ACT¹ Tasmania¹ Victoria¹ New South Wales¹
Na
1996
1997

0.186 (0.158, 0.201)

0.287 (0.143, 0.39)

0.249 (0.151, 0.36)
0.103 (0.081, 0.127)
Al
1996
1997

0.009 (0.009, 0.009)

0.021 (0.009, 0.071)

0.009 (0.008, 0.011)
0.01 (0.009, 0.011)
Si
1996
1997

0.032 (0.015, 0.052)

0.023 (0.014, 0.041)

0.048 (0.02, 0.091)
0.026 (0.019, 0.041)
K
1996
1997

0.103 (0.047, 0.204)

0.211 (0.046, 0.409)

0.024 (0.009, 0.045)
0.065 (0.026, 0.124)
Ca
1996
1997

0.003 (0.002, 0.003)

0.005 (0.002, 0.009)

0.005 (0.003, 0.009)
0.004 (0.003, 0.006)
Ti
1996
1997

0.002 (0.002, 0.002)

0.002 (0.002, 0.002)

0.002 (0.002, 0.003)
0.002 (0.002, 0.003)
V
1996
1997

0.002 (0.001, 0.003)

0.001 (0.001, 0.002)

0.002 (0.001, 0.002)
0.002 (0.001, 0.003)
Cr
1996
1997

0.002 (0.001, 0.002)

0.006 (0.001, 0.023)

0.001 (0.001, 0.002)
0.002 (0.001, 0.002)
Mn
1996
1997

0.001 (0.001, 0.001)

0.008 (0.001, 0.02)

0.003 (0.001, 0.007)
0.002 (0.002, 0.004)
Fe
1996
1997

0.012 (0.007, 0.015)

0.047 (0.002, 0.107)

0.03 (0.022, 0.045)
0.027 (0.007, 0.039)
Co
1996
1997

bdl

bdl (bdl, 0.001)

bdl
0.001 (bdl, 0.002)
Ni
1996
1997

0.002 (bdl, 0.003)

0.015 (0.004, 0.03)

bdl (bdl, bdl)
0.002 (bdl, 0.003)
Cu
1996
1997

0.001 (bdl, 0.002)

0.002 (bdl, 0.005)

0.001 (bdl, 0.002)
0.003 (0.001, 0.005)
Zn
1996
1997

0.005 (0.003, 0.008)

0.015 (0.009, 0.023)

0.062 (0.012, 0.208)
0.014 (0.006, 0.029)
Pb
1996
1997

0.07 (0.03, 0.132)

0.061 (0.031, 0.126)

0.04 (0.01, 0.106)
0.086 (0.053, 0.114)

Note: 1 Australian Fine Particle Study (CSIRO)

Table 8 (cont'd): Annual average PM1 metals concentration (µg/m3) in Queensland and SA. Minimum and maximum are in parenthesis.
  Queensland¹ South Australia¹
Na
1996
1997
0.149 (0.072, 0.272)
0.09 (0.056, 0.134)
Al
1996
1997
0.009 (0.005, 0.011)
0.009 (0.006, 0.011)
Si
1996
1997
0.023 (0.01, 0.04)
0.014 (0.008, 0.025)
K
1996
1997
0.048 (0.014, 0.151)
0.029 (0.007, 0.068)
Ca
1996
1997
0.011 (0.006, 0.016)
0.009 (0.005, 0.014)
Ti
1996
1997
0.002 (0.001, 0.002)
0.001 (0.001, 0.001)
V
1996
1997
0.002 (bdl, 0.002)
0.001 (bdl, 0.002)
Cr
1996
1997
0.002 (0.001, 0.002)
0.001 (bdl, 0.002)
Mn
1996
1997
0.002 (0.001, 0.004)
0.001 (bdl, 0.003)
Fe
1996
1997
0.020 (0.003, 0.043)
0.012 (0.006, 0.016)
Co
1996
1997
bdl
bdl (bdl, 0.001)
Ni
1996
1997
0.014 (0.006, 0.037)
0.004 (bdl, 0.012)
Cu
1996
1997
0.002 (bdl, 0.004)
bdl
Zn
1996
1997
0.016 (0.002, 0.044)
0.012 (0.004, 0.023)
Pb
1996
1997
0.019 (0.005, 0.033)
0.124 (0.071, 0.178)

Note: 1 Australian Fine Particle Study (CSIRO)

Table 9: Metal Concentrations from other Studies (data from these studies were not provided in electronic form and were read off graphs/tables in the cited references)
  Brisbane aerosols1
(µmg/m3)
NSW, ASP2
(µmg/m3)
Brisbane particles3
(µmg/m3)
MAS4
(µmg/m3)
SEA5
(µmg/m3) average
  Average
Finea
Average
Coarsea
Average
PM10b
Averagec
PM2.5
Maximumd
PM2.5
Ultra-fine
Maximum
Average
PM2.5
Fine Coarse
Al 0.029 0.187 0.585 0.033 0.23   0.079 0.15 0.30
As             0.016    
Ba           0.45 0.013    
Bi             0.009    
Ca 0.029 0.239 0.745 0.025 0.28 3.50 0.042 0.05 0.34
Cd           0.15      
Co       0.0005 0.0055 0.20   <0.01 <0.01
Cr     0.007 0.0005 0.0045 0.35 0.002 <0.01 <0.01
Cu       0.0020 0.023 2.45 0.006 <0.01 0.01
Fe 0.051 0.198 0.452 0.071 1.3 3.10 0.127 0.15 0.56
Ga             0.005    
K 0.055 0.075 0.160 0.052 0.30   0.094 0.14 0.10
Mg     0.146            
Mn 0.004 0.004 0.011 0.0058 0.32 0.45 0.005 <0.01 0.01
Na     0.878 0.212 2.8        
Ni       0.0005 0.010 0.40 0.001 <0.01 <0.01
Pb 0.048 0.010 0.106 0.088 0.80 0.75 0.470 0.40 0.12
Rb             0.022    
Sb           0.15      
Si 0.080 0.655 1.20 0.058 0.29   0.130 0.16 1.04
Sr             0.007    
Ti 0.005 0.032 0.013 0.0028 0.025 1.25 0.006 0.01 0.05
V       0.0004 0.0044 1.70 0.003 <0.01 <0.01
Y             0.026    
Zn 0.026 0.008 0.024 0.017 0.175 3.75 0.087 0.04 0.02

Notes:

1 Chan et al., 1997
a Annual average from one site
b Annual average from all sites

2 ERDC, 1995
c Average of 1992 data
d Maximum of 1992 & 1993 data

3 15-min average, Morawska et al., 1996b

4 8-hour average, Gras et al., 1992, all sites

5 24-hour average, VicRoads/ EPA, 1994

Table 10: Fallout rates of metals (µg/m2/day) measured by deposition sampling
Location Type Year(s) Pb Zn Fe Cu As Cd Reference
Broken Hill, NSW Mining town 1992 1.9-940           Gulson et al., 1995
McArthur River, NT Mining area 1995-1997 0.1-151 5-2000         Munksgaard and Parry, 1998
Port Pirie, SA Indoor (closed buildings) 1993-1994 14           Kutlaca, 1998
Indoor (opened buildings) 1993-1994 137          
Port Pirie, SA Mining town 1997-1998 18800 22200 12200 614 403 52 van Alphen, 1999

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