Review of data on heavy metals in ambient air in Australia

Technical Report No. 3
Environment Australia, May 2002
ISBN 0 6425 4781 5

7. References

Abbey, D.E., Lebowitz, M.D., Mills, P.K., Petersen, F.F., Beeson, W.L. and Burchette, R.J., 1995. Inhal. Toxicol., 7, 18.

AMAP, 1997. Arctic Pollution Issues: A State of the Arctic Environment Report, Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), Oslo, Norway. ISBN 82-7655-060-6 Olsen & Olsen Academic Publishers, Fredensborg, Denmark. Also available at 

AS2724.1, 1984. Ambient Air – Particulate Matter Part 1 – Determination of Deposited Matter Expressed as Insoluble Solids, Ash, Combustible Matter, Soluble Solids and Total Solids, Standards Australia, Sydney.

AS2724.3, 1984. Ambient Air – Particulate Matter Part 3 – Determination of Total Suspended Particles (TSP) – High Volume Sampler Gravimetric Methods, Standards Australian, Sydney.

AS2800, 1985. Ambient Air – Determination of Particulate Lead – High Volume Sampler Gravimetric Collection-Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Method, Standards Australia, Sydney.

AS2922, 1987. Ambient Air – Guide for Siting of Sampling Units, Standards Australia, Sydney.

AS3580.9.6, 1990. Methods for Sampling and Analysis of Ambient Air, Method 9.6: Determination of Suspended Particulate Matter – PM10 High Volume Sampler with Size-Selective Inlet-Gravimetric Method, Standards Australia, Sydney.

AS3580.9.7, 1990. Methods for Sampling and Analysis of Ambient Air, Method 9.7: Determination of Suspended Particulate Matter – PM10 Dichotomous Sampler-Gravimetric Method, Standards Australia, Sydney.

Ayers, G.P., Keywood, M.D., Gras, J.L., Cohen, D., Garton, D. and Bailey, G.M. 1998. Chemical and Physical Properties of Australian Fine Particles: A Pilot Study. Final Report to Environment Australia from CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research and Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation.

Ayers G.L., Parry, D.L., Gillet and Artaxo, P., Unpublished Data.

Brody, A.R., Warheit, D.B., Chang, L.Y., Roe, M.W., George, G. and Hill, L.H., 1984. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 428. 108.

Cahill, T.A., 1992. Particle induced x-ray emission in metals. In 'Materials Characterisation Handbook,' 9th Ed, Vol. 10, American Society for Metals, 102–108.

Casuccio, G.S., Janocko, P.B., Lee, R.J., Kelly, J.F, Dattner, S.L. and Mgebroff, J.S., 1983. The use of computer controlled scanning electron microscopy in environmental studies. Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association, 33, 937–943.

Chan, Y.C., Simpson, R.W., McTainsh, G.H., Vowles, P.D., Cohen, D.D. and Bailey, G.M., 1997. Characterisation of chemical species in PM2.5 and PM10 aerosols in Brisbane, Australia. Atmospheric Environment 31, 3773–3785.

Chiaradia, M., Chenhall, B.E., Depers, A.M., Gulson, B.L. and Jones, B.G. (1997a) Identification of historical lead sources in roof dusts and recent lake sediments from an industrialised area: indications for lead isotopes. The Science of the Total Environment 205, 107–128.

Chiaradia M, Gulson, B.L., James, M., Jameson, C.W. and. Johnson, D. (1997b). Identification of secondary lead sources in the air of an urban environment. Atmospheric. Environment. 1997, 31, 3511–3521.

Chow, J.C., 1995. Measurement Methods to determine Compliance with Ambient Air Quality Standards for Suspended Particle. J. Air and Waste Manage. Assoc. 45, 320–382.

Cohen, D.D., 1992. Ion beam analysis techniques in aerosol analysis. Clean air, 26, 113–121.

Cohen, D.D., 1995. Ion beam analysis techniques for the elemental fingerprinting of fine particle smoke from vegetation burning in NSW. 9th Australian Nuclear Techniques of Analysis Conference, 27–29 November. University of Newcastle, NSW.

Cohen, D.D., 1996. Have fine particle lead concentration fallen in Sydney during the last 4 years? 13th International Clean Air Conference, 22–25 September, Adelaide.

Cohen, D.D., 1998. Characterisation of atmospheric fine particles using IBA techniques. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B136–138, 14–22.

Cohen, D.D., 1999. Seasonal and regional variations in ambient fine particle concentrations and sources in New South Wales, Australia: A seven year study. ICB-99 & ICUC-99, Sydney.

Cohen, D.D., Kondepudi, R., Hyde, R., Young, M. and Crisp P.T., 1995. Meteorological and Chemical Interpretation of Air Pollution by Fine-aerosol Particles in the Region 200km around Sydney. Environmental Trust Grant 1993/RD/G02. Final Report March 1995.

Cohen, D.D., Bailey, G.M. and Kondepudi, R., 1996. Elemental analysis by PIXE and other IBA techniques and their application to source fingerprinting of atmospheric fine particle pollution. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 109/110, 218–226.

DEST. 1996. Australia State of the Environment. Department of Environment Sport and Territories, CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.

Dockery, D.W., Pope III, C.A., Xu, X., Spengler, J.D., Ware, H.J., Fay, M.E., Ferris Jr., B.G. and Speizer, F.E., 1993. An association between air pollution and mortality in six U.S. cities. New Engl. J. Med., 329, 1753–1759.

Donaldson, K. and MacNee, W., 1998. The mechanism of lung injury caused by PM10. In 'Issues in Environmental Science and Technology: 10. Air Pollution and Health' R.E. Hester and R.M. Harrison, Eds., The Royal Society of Chemistry, Letchworth, UK.

EA, 1999. National Pollutants Inventory Contextual Information, Environment Australia, Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra.

EA, 2000. State of Knowledge Report: Air Toxics and Indoor Air Quality in Australia (Draft), Environment Australia, Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra.

EIS, 2000. EU/UN-ECE: Commission proposes ratification of protocol on heavy metals. Europe Environment. 566, 9–10. Europe Information Service.

Erisman, J.W., Mennen, M.G., Fowler, D., Flechard, C.R., Spindler, G., Gruner, A., Duyzer, J.H., Ruigrok, W. and Wyers, G.P., 1998. Deposition monitoring in Europe. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 53, 279–295.

ERDC,1995. Contributions of fuel combustion to pollution by airborne particles in urban and non-urban environments. Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, University of NSW and Macquarie University, Publication 259, June.

Finlayson-Pitts, B.J. and Pitts Jr., J.N., 1986. Atmospheric Chemistry: Fundamentals and Experimental Techniques, John Wiley and Sons, NY, pp. 786–790.

Fishbein, F.L., 1991. In 'Metals and their Compounds in the Environment', F. Fishbein, Ed., Washington DC, p. 1153.

Gilmour, P.S., Brown, D.M., Lindsay, T.G., Beswick, P.H., MacNee, W. and Donaldson, K., 1996. Occup. Environ. Med., 53, 817.

Gras, J.L., Gillet, R.W., Bentley, S.T., Ayers, G.P. and Firestone, T., 1992. CSIRO-EPA Melbourne Aerosol Study.

Gras, J.L., 1996. The Perth Haze Study: A Report to the Department of Environmental Protection of Western Australia on Fine-Particle Haze in Perth. CSIRO-Division of Atmospheric Research.

Goyer, R.A., 1996. 'Results of Lead Research: Prenatal Exposure and Neurological Consequences,' Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 104, No. 10, p. 1050.

Gulson, B.L., Mizon, K.J. and Korsch, M.J., 1983. Fingerprinting the source of lead in Sydney air using lead isotopes. In 'The Urban Atmosphere of Sydney, a Case Study', J.N. Carras and G.M. Johnson eds., CSIRO, Sydney, pp. 223–244.

Gulson, B.L., Davis, J.J., Mizon, K.J., Korsch, M.J., Bawden-Smith, M.J. and Bawden-Smith, J., 1995. Sources of lead in soil and dust and the use of dust fallout as a sampling medium. The Science of the Total Environment 166, 245–262.

Hahn, D.W. and Lunden, M.M., 2000. Detection and analysis of aerosol particles by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy. Aerosol Science and Technology, 33, 30–48.

HEI, 1998. Attachment A: Summary of a Workshop on Metal-Based Fuel Additives and New Engine Technologies. Health Effects Institute.

Huo, X.X, Crisp, P.T. and Cohen, D.D., 1998. Elemental composition of fine aerosol particles around Sydney during 1992–1993. Clean Air 32(4), 28–38.

Huo, X.X, Crisp, P.T. and Cohen, D.D., 1999. Source apportionment of fine particles in the Wollongong-Port Kembla Area during 1992 & 1993. Clean Air 33(1), 26–35.

Jaklevic, J.M., Loo, B.W. and Goulding, F.S., 1977. Photon-induced X-ray fluorescence analysis using energy-dispersive detector and dichotomous sampler. In 'X-ray Fluorescence Analysis of Environmental Samples'. T.G. Dzubay, Ed., Ann Arbor Science, Michigan, pp. 3–18.

Klee, A.J., 1984. Source Control: Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator, in 'Handbook of Air Pollution Technology', J.G. Calvert and Englund, Eds., New York, NY, John Wiley and Sons, pp 513–550.

Kutlaca, A.,1998. Mechanisms of entry of lead-bearing dusts into houses in Port Pirie. PhD Thesis. Mawson Graduate Centre for Environmental studies, University of Adelaide, SA.

Langmuir, D., 1997. Aqueous Environmental Geochemistry, Aqueous Environmental Geochemistry, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, p. 600.

LBL, 1979. Instrumentation for Environmental Reporting. Air, Vol. 1, Part 2. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) Report, September 1979.

Linak, W.P., Miller, C.A. and Wendt, J.O.L., 2000. Comparison of particle size distributions and elemental partitioning from the combustion of pulverized coal and residual fuel oil. J. Air & Waste. Manage. Assoc., 50, 1532–1544.

Maring, H., Settle, D.M., Buat-Menard, P. Dulac, F. and Patterson, C.C., 1987. Stable lead isotope tracers of air mass trajectories in the Mediterranean region. Nature 300, 154–156.

Morawska, L., Bofinger, N., Thomas, S., Morgan, P., Wainwright, D. and Neale, D., 1996a. Fine Particles in Ambient Urban Air: Comprehensive Characterisation, Part 1, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland.

Morawska, L., Bofinger, N., Thomas, S., Wainwright, D. and Neale, D., 1996b. Characterisation of airborne particulate pollution. In 'Proceedings of the 13th International Clean Air & Environment Conference', Adelaide, SA, 22–25 September, 285–280.

Munksgaard, N.C. and Parry, D.L., 1998. Lead isotope ratios determined by ICP-MS: Monitoring of mining-derived metal particles in atmospheric fallout, Northern Territory, Australia. The Science of the Total Environment 217, 113–125.

NEPC, 1998. National Environment Protection Measure for Ambient Air Quality, National Environmental Protection Council, Commonwealth Government of Australia, 26 June.

Noller, B.N., Bloom, H. and Arnold, A.P., 1981. Sampling and analysis of metals in atmospheric particles by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Progress in Analytical and Atomic Spectroscopy 4, 81–189.

NPI, 1999. The National Pollutant Inventory, Environment Australia, Canberra.

NPI, 2001. The National Pollutant Inventory, .

OSHA, 2000. Occupational Safety and Health Administration US Department of Labor,  last accessed on 12 April 2000.

Pope III, C.A., Thun, M.J., Namboodiri, M.M., Dockery, D.W., Evans, J.S., Speizer, F.E. and Heath, C.W., 1995. Particulate air pollution as a predictor of mortality in a prospective study of US adults. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med., 151, 669.

Richardson, C.M. and Crerar, J.M., 1999. Fine Particulate Measurement Calibration Study: Phase A – Literature Review and Analysis. Commonwealth Government of Australia, Canberra. Prepared for Environment Australia by Air Noise Environment Pty. Ltd., Brisbane.

Sawicki, E., Mulik, J.D. and Wittgenstein, E. (Eds.), 1978. Ion Chromatographic Analysis of Environmental Pollutants, Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, MI.

Silbergeld, E.K., 1995. The international dimensions of lead exposure. International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Vol. 1, No. 4 (Oct./Dec), pp 338–340.

Silbergeld, E. 1996. The Elimination of Lead from Gasoline: Impacts of Lead in Gasoline on Human Health, and the Costs and Benefits of Eliminating Lead Additives, draft paper. The World Bank, Washington, D.C., p. 3.

SPSS, 1998. Instruction Manual for SPSS Base 8.0 Software Package, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL.

Thomas, S., Morawska, L. and Bofinger, N, 1996. Ultra-trace metal characterisation of airborne particulate matter. Proceedings of the 13th International Clean Air & Environment Conference, Adelaide.

UN/ECE, 2000. The 1998 Aarhus Protocol on Heavy Metals. 

US EPA, 1996. Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter. vI. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Research Triangle, NC. Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office. EPA Report No.: EPA/600/P-95/001aF.

US EPA, 1999a. National Air Toxics Program: The Integrated Urban Strategy, United States Environmental Protection Agency's Federal Register Vol. 64, No. 137,1999'), available at: .

US EPA, 1999b. Compendium Method for the Determination of Inorganic Compounds in Ambient Air. EPA/625/R-96/010a. United States EPA, Office of Research and Development, Washington DC.

van Alphen, M. 1999. Atmospheric heavy metal deposition plumes adjacent to a primary lead-zinc smelter. The Science of the Total Environment 236, 119–134.

VIC EPA, 1996. Report on the Air Emissions Trials for the National Pollutant Inventory, Volumes 1 and 2. Environment Protection Authority, State Government of Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria.

VIC EPA, 1998a. State of Knowledge Airborne Particles in Australia and New Zealand. Report to ANZECC. Environment Protection Authority, State Government of Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria.

VIC EPA, 1998b. Air Emissions Inventory, Port Phillip Region. Environment Protection Authority, State Government of Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria.

VIC EPA, 1999. Hazardous Air Pollutants: A Review of Studies Performed in Australia and New Zealand. Vols. I and II. Environment Protection Authority, State Government of Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria.

VicRoads/EPA, 1994, Particle and Carbonyl Air Monitoring South Eastern Arterial Freeway. Malvern (Unpublished Report).

WHO, 1987. Air Quality Guidelines for Europe. World Health Organisation (WHO), WHO Regional Publications, Series No. 23, European Office, Copenhagen.

Before you download

Most publications are available as PDF files. Adobe Acrobat Reader  is required to view PDF files.

If you are unable to access a publication, please contact us to organise a suitable alternative format.


   Links to another web site
   Opens a pop-up window