Atmosphere

Review of literature on residential firewood use, wood-smoke and air toxics

Technical Report No. 4
Environment Australia, June 2002
ISBN 0 6425 4868 4

Definitions

Air-dry
firewood that has dried to the stage where it has reached equilibrium with atmospheric water vapour. In practice, this is usually about 15% moisture, measured on a wet-weight basis (see moisture definition below).
Brand
a term referring to test fuel used in some North American appliance tests where sawn timber has spacers nailed to it to fix the horizontal and vertical spacing of the fuel when it is loaded into the appliance combustion chamber.
Emission factor
the emission of a substance expressed as the mass of substance emitted per unit weight of oven-dry fuel, e.g. g/kg.
Emission rate
the emission of a substance expressed as the mass of substance emitted per unit time, e.g. g/h.
Firewood
wood in stick form, split and cut to length.
High heat value
the energy released during complete combustion of a fuel assuming all water vapour is condensed, thus recovering the latent heat of vaporisation.
Low heat value
the energy released during complete combustion of a fuel assuming latent heat of vaporisation is lost.
Moisture content
the proportion of free water in firewood. In this paper it is always expressed as the percentage weight of water relative to the weight of the solid wood plus moisture, commonly referred to as per cent moisture (wet weight basis). Foresters often use the dry weight basis for expressing the moisture content of wood. In this system the percentage weight of water is expressed relative to the oven-dry weight of wood.
Open fireplace
masonry or metal enclosure with at least one face of the combustion zone open to the living area. The Australian Standard (AS4013) defines an open appliance as one where the concentration of carbon dioxide in the flue does not exceed 5% by volume when the appliance is operated at its maximum burn rate with any optional doors fitted and closed.
Oven-dry
firewood with zero free moisture, that is no further drying of the wood occurs when placed in an oven (to 100°C) or desiccator.
Woodheater
a residential space heater fuelled with stick-wood. In US and some other literature the term wood-stove or woodstove is used.

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