Emissions from domestic solid fuel burning appliances (wood-heaters, open fireplaces)

Technical Report No. 5
J. Gras, C.Meyer, I. Weeks, R. Gillett, I. Galbally, J. Todd, F. Carnovale, R. Joynt, A. Hinwood, H. Berko and S. Brown.
Environment Australia, March 2002
ISBN 0 6425 4867 6

12. Definitions

firewood that has dried to the stage where it has reached equilibrium with atmospheric water vapour. In practice, this is usually about 15% moisture, measured on a wet-weight basis (see moisture definition below).
Australian heater compliance test procedure. In its 1999 revision the AS4013 emission limits are 4 g/kg for conventional woodheaters and 2.25 g/kg for catalyst-equipped woodheaters, when tested using the AS4013 procedure.
AS4013 standard fuel moisture
12% to 16% water expressed on a wet weight basis.
Emission Factor
the emission of a substance expressed as the mass of substance emitted per unit weight dry fuel, e.g. g/kg.
Emission Rate
the emission of a substance expressed as the mass of substance emitted per unit time, e.g. g/h or g/kg/h.
wood in stick form, split and cut to length.
firewood that is freshly cut and unseasoned.
Initial temperature
the temperature recorded at the entrance to the flue when the fuel charge is loaded.
Initial burn off
proportion of fuel that is burnt on low flow setting to establish combustion in the AS4013 test (20%).
Manufactured fuel
a fuel produced by forming woodchips into a solid 'log' using high pressure.
Moisture Content, fuel moisture
the proportion of free water in firewood. Here it is always expressed as the percentage weight of water relative to the weight of the solid wood plus moisture, commonly referred to as per cent moisture (wet weight basis).
Open Fireplace
masonry or metal enclosure with at least one face of the combustion zone open to the living area. The Australian Standard (AS4013) defines an open appliance as one where the concentration of carbon dioxide in the flue does not exceed 5% by volume when the appliance is operated at its maximum burn rate with any optional doors fitted and closed.
air-dried firewood
a residential space heater fuelled with stick-wood. In US and some other literature the term wood-stove or woodstove is used.