Biodiversity publications archive

Two way track

Biodiversity Conservation and Ecotourism: an investigation of linkages, mutual benefits and future opportunities
Biodiversity Series, Paper No. 5

Noel Preece and Penny van Oosterzee, Ecoz-Ecology Australia and David James, Ecoservices Pty Ltd
Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories, 1995

References

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ANZECC Task Force on Biological Diversity. 1993. Draft National Strategy for the Conservation of Australia's Biological Diversity. Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories, Canberra.

Biological Diversity Advisory Committee. 1992. A National Strategy for the Conservation of Australia's Biological Diversity: Draft for Public Comment. Department of the Arts, Sport, the Environment and Territories, Canberra.

Biodiversity Unit. 1993. Biodiversity and its Value. Biodiversity Series, Paper No 1, Biodiversity Unit, Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories, Canberra.

Bridgewater P.B., Walton, D.W., Busby, J.R. and Reville, B.J. 1992. Theory and Practice in Framing a National System for Conservation in Australia. In: Biodiversity Broadening the Debate: A Trilogy of Discussion Papers. Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Canberra.

Buckley, R. 1993. 'How Well Does the EIA Process Protect Biodiversity?', Australian Environmental Law News, No 2.

Bureau of Tourism Research. 1994. Australian and International Visitors to Regions of Australia. Bureau of Tourism Research, Canberra.

Bureau of Tourism Research. 1993. International Visitor Survey. Bureau of Tourism Research, Canberra.

Bureau of Tourism Research. 1993. Domestic Tourism Monitor. Bureau of Tourism Research, Canberra.

Burgess, A.S. 1993. The Environmental Responsibilities of Commercial Ecotourism in Tasmania. Graduate Thesis, Centre for Environmental Studies, Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, University of Tasmania.

Caballos-Lascurain, H. 1988. The Future of Ecotourism, Mexico Journal, January 27, 1988.

Commonwealth Department of Tourism (CDoT). 1992. Tourism. Australia's Passport to Growth. A National Tourism Strategy. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

Commonwealth Department of Tourism (CDoT). 1994a. National Ecotourism Strategy. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

Commonwealth Department of Tourism (CDoT). 1994b. National Rural Tourism Strategy. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

Commonwealth of Australia. 1991. Ecologically Sustainable Development Working Groups, Final Report. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

Coveney J. 1993. Australia's Conservation Reserves. Cambridge University Press.

CSIRO. 1990. Australia's Environment and its Natural Resources: An Outlook. cited in the Draft National Strategy for the Conservation of Australia's Biological Diversity.

DeLacy, T. and Lockwood, M. (eds). 1992. Valuing Natural Areas: Applications and Problems of the Contingent Valuation Method. The Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University, Albury.

Department of Conservation, Forests and Lands. 1989a. Tourism Policy. Department of Conservation, Forests and Lands, Victoria.

Department of Conservation, Forests and Lands. 1989b. Gippsland Hinterland Tourism Strategy. Department Conservation, Forests and Lands; Victorian Tourism Commission; Ministry for Planning and Environment, Victoria.

Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. 1992. Ecotourism A Natural Strength for Victoria Australia. Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Victoria.

Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. 1993. Mallee Tourism and Recreation Strategy. Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Northwest Area National Parks Service, Victoria.

Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories. 1993. Integrating Biological Diversity into a State of the Environment Reporting Framework: Some Preliminary Considerations. Working Paper Prepared by the Biodiversity Section, Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories, Canberra.

Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories. 1994. State of the Environment Reporting: Framework for Australia. Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories, Canberra.

Department of Tourism, Sport and Recreation. 1994. Ecotourism Adding Value to Tourism in Natural Areas: A Discussion Paper on Nature Based Tourism. Department of Tourism, Sport and Recreation, Hobart.

Dixon, J.A. and Sherman, P.B. 1990. Economics of Protected Areas. Island Press, Washington, DC.

Dixon, P.B., Parmenter, B.R., Sutton, J. and Vincent, D.P. 1982. ORANI: A Multisectoral Model of the Australian Economy. North Holland, Amsterdam.

Driml, S. 1987. Economic Impacts of Activities on the Great Barrier Reef, Research Publication, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Townsville.

Driml, S. 1994. Protection for Profit: Economic and Financial Values of the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area and Other Protected Areas. Research Publication No 35. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Townsville.

Driml, S. and Common, M. 1995. 'Economic and financial benefits of tourism in major protected areas', Australian Journal of Environmental Management – Volume 2, pp.19-29.

Ecologically Sustainable Development Working Groups (ESDWG). 1991. Final Report – Tourism. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

Explore International Pty Ltd. 1993. Dream Green. South Australia's Future in Ecotourism.

Figgis, P.J. (1994) Fragile Lands: the Australian Experience: Nature Centred Visitation. Paper to the 1994 World Congress on Ecotourism and Adventure Tourism, Hobart, Tasmania.

Finucane, S.J. 1993. The Environmental Impacts of Ecotourism in Western Australia. Report prepared from results of a survey undertaken for N422 Environmental Impact Assessment Project, Murdoch University, Western Australia.

Forestry Tasmania. 1994a. Guided nature based Tourism in Tasmania's Forests: Trends, Constraints and Implications. Forestry Tasmania, Hobart.

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Forey, P.L., Humphries, C.J. & Vane-Wright, R.I. (eds). 1994. Systematics and Conservation Evaluation. Clarendon Press, Oxford

Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (GBRMPA) 1992. Basis for Zoning. The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. Cairns Section and the Cairns Marine Park, 1992. GBRMPA, Townsville, Qld.

Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (GBRMPA) 1995. The State of the Marine Environment Report for Australia. Technical Summary. GBRMPA, Townsville, Ocean Rescue 2000 Program, and Commonwealth Dept of Environment, Sport and Territories.

Griffiths, A. 1993. Ecotourism: The Nature of Travel – An Issues Paper. Released by the Minister for Tourism, Alan Griffiths.

House of Representatives Standing Committee on Environment, Recreation and the Arts (HORSCERA). 1993. Biodiversity: the role of protected areas. Commonwealth of Australia, AGPS Canberra.

Hufschmidt, M.M., James, D.E., Meister, A.D., Bower, B.T. and Dixon, J.A. 1983. Environment, Natural Systems and Development: An Economic Valuation Guide. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

James, D. 1993. Using Economic Instruments for Meeting Environmental Objectives: Australia's Experience. Environmental Economics Research Paper No 1, Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories, Canberra.

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Kinhill Cameron McNamara and National Centre for Studies in Travel and Tourism. 1993. Northern Territory Travel Monitor. Northern Territory Tourist Commission, Darwin.

Knapman, B., Lea, J. and Stanley, O. 1990. The Economic and Financial Significance of Current and Potential Recreation and Tourism in Kakadu National Park and the Conservation Zone. Resource Assessment Commission, Canberra.

Knapman, B., Stanley, O. and Lea, J. 1991. Tourism and Gold in Kakadu: The Impact of Current and Potential Natural Resource Use on the Northern Territory Economy. Australian National University, North Australia Research Unit, Darwin.

Knapman, B. and Stanley, O. 1991. A Travel Cost Analysis of the Recreational Value of Kakadu National Park. Resource Assessment Commission, Canberra.

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Land Conservation Council. 1987. Report on the Mallee Area Review. Land Conservation Council, Victoria.

Land Conservation Council. 1989. Mallee Area Review Final Recommendations. Land Conservation Council, Victoria.

Lindberg, K. 1991. Policies for Maximising Nature Tourism's Ecological and Economic Benefits. World Resources Institute, Washington DC.

Margules C., Higgs A.J. & Rafe R.W. 1982. Modern biogeographic theory: are there any lessons for nature reserve design? Biological Conservation 24, 115-128.

Margules C.R., Nicholls A.O. and Pressey R.L. 1988. Selecting networks of reserves to maximise biological diversity. Biological Conservation 43:63-76.

Margules, C.R. & Austin, M.P. 1994. Biological Models for Monitoring Species Decline: the Construction and use of Data Bases. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 344, 69-75.

McKenzie N.L., Belbin L., Margules C.R. & Keighery G.J. 1989. Selecting representative reserve systems in remote areas: A case study in the Nullarbor Region, Australia. Biological Conservation 50, 239-261.

Mitchell, R.C. and Carson, R.T. 1989. Using Surveys to Value Public Goods: The Contingent Valuation Method. Resources for the Future, Washington, DC.

Morison, J.B., West, G.R. and Jensen, R.C. 1982. Regional Input-Output Tables for Queensland 1978-79. Report to the Queensland Department of Commercial and Industrial Development.

Mummery, J., Hardy, N. et al. 1994. Australia's Biodiversity. An overview of significant selected components. Paper No. 2, Biodiversity Series, DEST, Canberra.

Nature Based Tourism Advisory Committee. 1994. Nature Based Tourism Strategy for Western Australia: Discussion Paper. Western Australian Tourism Commission, Perth.

Norse, E.A. (ed). 1993. Global Marine Biological Diversity. Center for Marine Conservation, World Conservation Union (IUCN), World Wildlife Fund, United Nations Environment Programme, and World Bank.

Northern Rivers Regional Development Board. 1993. Focus on the Future of Ecotourism Search Conference (October 1993) organised by the Northern Rivers Regional Development Board, Grafton NSW.

Northern Territory Tourist Commission. 1993. Annual Report 92/93. Northern Territory Tourist Commission, Darwin.

Northern Territory Tourist Commission. 1994a. Northern Territory Tourism Development Master Plan: A Commitment to Growth. Northern Territory Tourist Commission, Darwin.

Northern Territory Tourist Commission. 1994b. Regional Tourism Development Plan Central Australia. Northern Territory Tourist Commission, Darwin.

Northern Territory Tourist Commission. 1994c. Regional Tourism Development Plan Top End. Northern Territory Tourist Commission, Darwin.

Northern Territory Tourist Commission. 1994d. Regional Tourism Development Plan Katherine. Northern Territory Tourist Commission, Darwin.

Northern Territory Tourist Commission. 1994e. Regional Tourism Development Plan< Tablelands. Northern Territory Tourist Commission, Darwin.

Office of the Coordinator General. 1993a. Cairns Region Tourism Strategy. Prepared by the Office of the Coordinator General, Far North Queensland Promotion Bureau, Queensland Tourism and Travel Corp., Department of Tourism, Sport and Racing, and Cairns Port Authority.

Office of the Coordinator General. 1993b. Cairns Region Tourism Strategy. Context Report (Appendix 1). Prepared by Office of the Coordinator General, Queensland.

Pressey R.L. 1994. Ad Hoc Reservations: Forward or Backward Steps in Developing Representative Reserve Systems. Conservation Biology 8:662-668.

Pressey R.L. 1994. Adapting a GIS for Interactive Conservation Planning. Tropical Forest Update. 4, No.3.

Pressey, R.L., Johnson, I.R. & Wilson, P.D. 1994. Shades of Irreplaceability: Towards a Measure of the Contribution of Sites to a Reservation Goal. Biodiversity and Conservation 3, 242-262.

Pressey, R.L. and Nicholls, A.O. 1989. Efficiency in Conservation Evaluation: Scoring versus Iterative Approaches. Biological Conservation 50:199-218.

Pressey, R.L., Humphries, C.J., Margules, C.R., Vane-Wright, R.I. & Williams, P.H. 1993. Beyond Opportunism: Key Principles for Systematic Reserve Selection. Tree Vol.8, 124-128.

Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage. 1994. Great Sandy Region Management Plan. Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage, Fraser Implementation Unit.

Resource Assessment Commission. 1991. Kakadu Conservation Zone Inquiry – Final Report, Volumes 1 and 2. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

Resource Assessment Commission. 1992. Forest and Timber Inquiry – Final Report, Volumes 1, 2A and 2B. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

Richardson, J. 1993. Ecotourism and Nature-Based Holidays. Simon and Schuster, Sydney.

Sinden, J.A. and Worrell, A.C. 1979. Unpriced Values: Decisions Without Market Prices. Wiley, New York.

Thackway, R. and Cresswell, I.D. 1995. An Interim Biogeographical Regionalisation for Australia – A Framework for setting priorities in the national reserves system cooperative program. Version 4.0, Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Canberra.

Tourism New South Wales n.d. 1994. New South Wales Tourism Master Plan: An Overview.

Valentine, P.S. 1992. Ecotourism and Nature Conservation: A Definition with Some Recent Developments in Micronesia. In B. Weiler (ed) Ecotourism Incorporating the Global Classroom: 1991 International Conference Papers, University of Queensland. Bureau of Tourism Research, Canberra.

Victorian Department of Conservation and Environment. 1992. Ecotourism: A Natural Strength for Victoria – Australia. Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, East Melbourne.

WA CALM. 1989. Purnululu National Park Plan of Management. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Western Australia.

Walton D.W., Forbes, M.A. and Just, J. 1992a. Theory and Practice in Framing a National System for Conservation in Australia. Biodiversity Broadening the Debate: A Trilogy of Discussion Papers. Australian Nature Conservation Agencies, Canberra.

Walton D.W., Forbes, M.A. and Thackway, R.M. 1992b. Biological Diversity, Environmental Monitoring and the Nature Conservation Estate in Australia: Relationship to Ecologically Sustainable Development. Biodiversity Broadening the Debate: A Trilogy of Discussion Papers. Australian Nature Conservation Agencies, Canberra.

Walton D.W., Forbes, M.A., Busby, J.R. and Just, J. 1992c. Biological Diversity and the Essentiality for a National Nature Conservation Reserve System for Australia. Biodiversity Broadening the Debate: A Trilogy of Discussion Papers. Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Canberra.

WA Tourism Commission. 1989a. The Eco Ethics of Tourism Development. Prepared for the Western Australian Tourism Commission and the Environmental Protection Authority.

WA Tourism Commission. 1989b. An Administrative Guide to Environmental Requirements for Tourism Developments in Western Australia. Prepared for the Western Australian Tourism Commission and the Environmental Protection Authority.

WA Tourism Commission. 1994. Western Australia's Natural Advantage Towards a Nature Based Tourism Strategy for Western Australia. Discussion Paper. August 1994.

Weiler, B. (ed). 1991. Ecotourism Incorporating the Global Classroom: 1991 Conference Papers, University of Queensland, Australia. Bureau of Tourism Research, Canberra.

Weiler B. 1993. nature based Tour Operators: Are They Environmentally Friendly or Are They Faking It? Tourism Recreation Research Vol. 18: 5560.

Wet Tropics Management Authority. 1992. Wet Tropics Plan. Strategic Directions; Draft for public comment. Wet Tropics Management Authority, Cairns Queensland.

Wilks, L.C. 1990. A Survey of the Contingent Valuation Method. Resource Assessment Commission, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

Wood M.E. 1992. Ecotourism is tested as global Conservation Strategy. The Ecotourism Society Newsletter. Spring/Summer 1992, Vermont USA.

Ziffer K.A., Conservation International, and Ernst and Young. 1989. Ecotourism: The Uneasy Alliance. First in Conservation International's Series of Working Papers on Ecotourism.

Personal Communications

John Bates 1994, Tourism NSW

Nancy Bennett 1994, Tourism NSW

Dorana Bettiol 1994, Tourism Victoria

Alistair Birtles 1994, James Cook University

Craig Brennan 1994, Gagudju Lodge Cooinda, NT

Ralph Buckley 1994, Centre for Ecotourism Studies, Griffith University

Arthur Chapman 1994, ERIN, Commonwealth Department of Environment, Sport and Territories

Max Chappell 1994, Wet Tropics Management Authority

Graham Chambers 1994, ACT Tourism Commission

Guy Chester 1994, Queensland Tourism Commission

Ian Cresswell 1994, Australian Nature Conservation Agency

David Crinion 1994, South Australia Tourism

Davie 1995, WTMA

Brian Doolan 1994, Victorian Department of Conservation and Natural Resources

David Douglas 1994, South Australian Travel Centre

Ross Dowling 1994, University of Notre Dame, Perth

Sally Driml 1994, Center for Resource and Environmental Studies, ANU

Ann Fasham 1994, Department of Environment Land and Planning

Stan Fleetwood 1995, Australian Bureau of Statistics

Jane Foley 1994, Tasmanian Tourism Department

Andreas Glanznig 1994, Commonwealth Department of Environment, Sport and Territories

Jill Grant 1995, Commonwealth Department of Tourism

Judy Green 1994, South Australia Tourism Commission

Francis Grey 1994, Economist at Large

Neil Hamilton 1995, CSIRO Division of Wildlife & Ecology

Helen Hardwick 1994, South Australia Tourism Commission

Dave Howe 1994, Northern Territory CCNT

Mike Hutchinson 1994, Australian National University

Liz Jack 1994, Western Australia

Barry Jones 1994, Bureau of Tourism Research

Wendy Jones 1995, Tourism Training, Darwin

Louise Kelly 1994, Tourism Victoria

Bruce Knapman 1994, James Cook University

Deb Lewis 1994, Tasmanian Department of Tourism, Sport and Recreation

John Koldowski 1994, Northern Territory Tourism Commission

Nicholls 1995, Victorian Department of Conservation and Natural Resources

Ian Oelrichs 1994, Northern Rivers Regional Development Council

Katherine Parsons 1994, Commonwealth Department of Tourism

Noel Scott 1994, Queensland Tourism Commission

Elizabeth Smith 1994, WA Tourism Commission

Janet Southern 1995, The Ecotour Travel Agency, Sydney

Peter Wirne, 1995, Bureau of Tourism Research