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National recovery plan for Albatrosses and Giant-petrels

Wildlife Scientific Advice, Natural Heritage Division
Environment Australia, October 2001

Note:This publication has been superseded by the National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011—2016

6. Recovery

This section states the Overall objective of the Recovery Plan and the criteria to be used to determine if this objective has been achieved. It should be noted that the Overall objective is a long-term goal, and may not be achieved in the five-year life of this Recovery Plan. Consequently, Specific objectives that are achievable within the life of this Plan have also been set.

The Recovery Actions (including both Management Actions and Research Actions) considered necessary to achieve the Specific objectives are described. The Recovery criteria, Estimated Costs, Recovery Schedule and managers responsible for each action are also identified in this section.

6.1 Overall objective

6.1.1 Recovery objective

Rationale

The most common Overall objective for a Recovery Plan is to achieve the downgrading of the threatened status of the species within a specified time frame (eg see Appendix 2, section 2a). However, such an Overall objective is not appropriate for this multi-species Recovery plan.

Seventeen of the 23 albatross and giant-petrel species covered by this Recovery Plan are deemed threatened according to IUCN Red List criteria (Table 1.1). Ten of these species are listed as Vulnerable in keeping with IUCN criterion D2. That is, they are characterised by an acute restriction in their area of occupancy (typically less than 100km2) or in the number of breeding locations (typically less than five). This means that species that are naturally restricted in their breeding range will, by definition, always be classed as Vulnerable. For example, Shy Albatrosses are listed as Vulnerable according to the EPBC Act (1999) as they are naturally restricted to breeding on only three small islands (Croxall and Gales 1998). Hence, their listing as Vulnerable cannot be improved upon, irrespective of any increase in population size. For these reasons, the downlisting of the threatened status of these species is an unachievable goal and therefore inappropriate as an Overall objective for this Recovery Plan.

Five albatross species occurring within the AFZ are listed as threatened species in accordance with IUCN Red List criterion A1, that is their populations have been significantly reduced over the last ten years or three generations (whichever is longer). Two of these species, Grey-headed Albatrosses and Wandering Albatrosses breed within the AFZ (Table 1.1). For both species the Australian breeding populations represent less than 0.1 per cent of the total global populations. Therefore, it is not feasible to improve the international conservation status of these species, solely by increasing the size of the Australian populations. To achieve this goal, international action is required. This is not to say that these small populations are of a lower conservation priority in any way. To the contrary, this Recovery Plan recognises the central importance of small populations in maintaining genetic diversity, which is essential for the long-term viability of a species.

Populations decline whenever mortality rates consistently exceed recruitment rates. Thus, to ensure that all breeding populations within areas under Australian jurisdiction are maintained and that population growth is established, those factors causing mortality and/or limiting reproductive success must be reduced.

Overall objective

The overall objective of this Recovery Plan is to minimise (or eliminate) threats due to human activity to albatrosses and giant-petrels to ensure their recovery in the wild.

It is important to note that this overall objective will only be achieved by:

  1. minimising (or eliminating) all human-induced threats occurring on Australian breeding islands and within Australian waters; and
  2. minimising human-induced threats occurring outside of the AFZ via international action.

Both are vital to the recovery of all albatross and giant-petrel species.

6.1.2 Recovery criteria

The Recovery Plan will be deemed successful when the following Recovery criteria have been met:

Recovery criteria
  1. Incidental by-catch during longline fishing operations is consistent with the criteria specified in the Longline Fishing Threat Abatement Plan for all albatross and giant-petrel species within the AFZ; and
  2. all human induced threats to albatrosses and giant-petrels have been minimised (or eliminated); and
  3. no breeding population within areas under Australian jurisdiction declines due to human activities; and
  4. all albatross and giant-petrel breeding populations within areas under Australian jurisdiction that have declined exhibit a sustained increase in population size.

As noted above, the Overall objective is a long-term goal, and may not be achieved in the five-year time frame of this Plan. Under the EPBC Act guidelines, Specific objectives and Recovery Actions that are to be achieved within the life of this Recovery Plan have been prescribed.

6.2 Specific objectives

The specific objectives of this Recovery Plan are to:

  1. Quantify and reduce the threats to the survival of albatrosses and giant-petrels within areas under Australian jurisdiction; and
  2. Quantify and reduce the threats to the reproductive success of albatrosses and giant-petrels breeding within areas under Australian jurisdiction; and
  3. Quantify and reduce the threats to the foraging habitat of albatrosses and giant-petrels within areas under Australian jurisdiction; and
  4. Maintain existing population monitoring programs for albatrosses and giant-petrels breeding on Macquarie Island, Albatross Island, Pedra Branca, the Mewstone, and within the Australian Antarctic Territory, and develop population monitoring programs for other representative breeding populations under Australian jurisdiction; and
  5. Educate fishers and promote public awareness of the threats to albatrosses and giant-petrels; and
  6. Achieve substantial progress towards global conservation of albatrosses and giant-petrels in international conservation and fishing fora; and
  7. Assess and revise the Albatross and Giant-Petrel Recovery Plan as necessary

6.3 Recovery and management actions

This Recovery Plan seeks to minimise (or eliminate) all human-induced threats to albatrosses and giant-petrels to ensure their recovery in the wild. The Recovery and Management Actions detailed in this section are derived from the Threats and Issues discussed in Section 5.

One of the key issues to emerge from Section 5 is that longline fishing has been globally identified as the most serious and immediate threat currently facing albatrosses and giant-petrels (Gales 1998). This Recovery Plan acknowledges and emphasises the central importance of the Longline Fishing Threat Abatement Planin the recovery of albatrosses and giant-petrels. Successful implementation of the Longline Fishing Threat Abatement Plan is pivotal to the success of this Recovery Plan.

Another fundamental issue to emerge from Section 5 is that albatrosses and giant-petrels are threatened by numerous other factors. Unequivocal empirical evidence of a negative impact is simply not available for some of these potential threats. This emphasises the need for further research into the factors affecting albatross and giant-petrel survival and reproduction. This lack of quantitative evidence should not prevent the implementation of Recovery Actions that may ameliorate preventable threats to albatrosses and giant-petrels.

The EPBC Act requires that a Recovery Plan 'must provide for the research and management actions necessary to stop the decline of, and support the recovery of, the listed threatened species or ecological community concerned so that its chances of long-term survival in nature are maximised' (see Appendix 2).

Consequently, many actions within the Recovery Plan will be research actions that are essential aids both in ensuring Recovery Actions are appropriately directed, and assessing the efficacy of the recovery process. Hence, the Recovery Actions prescribed below take one of three forms:

  1. to minimise or eliminate the factors that are known to threaten albatrosses and giant-petrels; or
  2. to quantify the effects of factors that potentially threaten albatrosses and giant-petrels; or
  3. to monitor the efficacy of the Recovery Process.

The Recovery and Management Actions listed below (Tables 5.1-5.3) follow the same order as the Threats and Issues discussed in Section 5. The actions are grouped according to subject matter and are not listed according to order of significance or impact.

Table 6.1: Recovery and Management Actions, Managers and Criteria
Specific Objective A: Quantify and reduce the threats to the survival of albatrosses and giant-petrels within areas under Australian jurisdiction
Action Description Managers Performance Criteria
1: Longline fisheries
A 1.1 Implement the Threat Abatement Plan for the Incidental Catch (or By-catch) of Seabirds During Oceanic Longline Fishing Operations. AFMA / EA The incidental catch of seabirds within the AFZ is reduced to below 0.05 birds per 1000 hooks (set across all seasons, strata and fisheries at the 1998 fishing effort) by August 2003, and ultimately reduced to zero via implementation of the Longline Fishing Threat Abatement Plan.
A 1.2

Determine the foraging range and at-sea distribution of:

  • adult and juvenile Shy Albatrosses from Pedra Branca
  • adult and juvenile Shy Albatrosses from the Mewstone
  • juvenile Shy Albatrosses from Albatross Island

using minimal weight equipment and proven techniques of attachment, as approved by the Albatross and Giant-Petrel Recovery Team.

TASPAWS / EA The foraging range and at-sea distribution of Shy Albatrosses is determined.
A 1.3

For Macquarie Island populations:

  1. Continue studies into the foraging ranges and at-sea distributions of:
    • Wandering Albatrosses
    • Light-mantled Albatrosses
    • Grey-headed Albatrosses
    • Black-browed Albatrosses; and
  2. in the longer term, determine the foraging ranges and at-sea distributions of:
    • Northern Giant-Petrels
    • Southern Giant-Petrels
    using minimal weight equipment and proven techniques of attachment, as approved by the Albatross and Giant-Petrel Recovery Team.
TASPAWS / EA

Knowledge of the foraging ranges and at-sea distributions of Macquarie Island populations of the following species are substantially increased:

  • Wandering Albatrosses
  • Light-mantled Albatrosses
  • Grey-headed Albatrosses
  • Black-browed Albatrosses

In the longer term, studies into the foraging ranges and at-sea distributions of Macquarie Island populations are initiated for the following species:

  • Northern Giant-Petrels
  • Southern Giant-Petrels
A 1.4 Ensure that existing population monitoring programs on Macquarie Island, Albatross Island, Pedra Branca, the Mewstone and the AAT also monitor the frequency of fishing equipment ingestion / entanglement at breeding colonies.
Note: implementation of the Longline Fishing Threat Abatement Plan will significantly reduce the possibility for fishing hook ingestion by albatrosses and giant-petrels via the introduction of by-catch mitigation measures.
TASPAWS / EA Fishing equipment ingestion / entanglement at breeding colonies is monitored and quantified.
2: Trawl fisheries
A 2.1 Continue to collect, collate and analyse data regarding incidental mortality of albatrosses and giant-petrels associated with sub-Antarctic trawl fisheries AFMA / EA The incidental mortality of albatrosses and giant-petrels associated with trawl fishing operations around Macquarie Island and Heard and McDonald Islands, and within the South East Fishery is monitored and quantified.
A 2.2 Continue to collect, collate and analyse data regarding incidental mortality of albatrosses and giant-petrels associated with the South East Fishery. AFMA / ISMP / EA The incidental mortality of albatrosses and giant-petrels associated with trawl fishing operations around Macquarie Island and Heard and McDonald Islands, and within the South East Fishery is monitored and quantified.
A 2.3 Quantify the current levels of incidental mortality of albatrosses and giant-petrels associated with trawl fishing operations occurring within the AFZ south of 30˚S (other than the sub-Antarctic and South East Fishery trawl fisheries) through assessment of logbooks and current observer programs. AFMA The incidental mortality of albatrosses and giant-petrels associated with trawl fishing operations occurring within the AFZ south of 30˚S (other than the sub-Antarctic and South East Fishery trawl fisheries) is quantified.
A 2.4 Design and implement an education strategy aimed at commercial trawl fishers to encourage the implementation of simple by-catch mitigation measures. AFMA / EA An effective education strategy is developed and in operation.
3: Intentional shooting / killing
A 3.1 EA to investigate the capacity of the Commonwealth to regulate to prohibit the carrying of firearms on fishing vessels operating within the AFZ. EA The carrying of firearms on fishing vessels within the AFZ is prohibited.
A 3.2   Design and implement an education strategy aimed at commercial and recreational fishers to discourage the intentional killing of albatrosses and giant-petrels. AFMA / EA An effective education strategy is developed and in operation.
4: Trolling vessels
A 4.1   Design and implement an education strategy aimed at commercial and recreational troll fishers to encourage them to set their fishing lines at least 2m below the surface of the water. AFMA / EA An effective education strategy is developed and in operation.
Specific Objective B: Quantify and reduce the threats to the reproductive success of albatrosses and giant-petrels breeding within areas under Australian jurisdiction
Action Description Managers Performance Criteria
5: Feral pest species
B 5.1

Continue the integrated vertebrate pest management program on Macquarie Island targeting:

  • feral cats
  • rabbits
  • rodents
TASPAWS / EA On Macquarie Island, feral cats have been eradicated and rabbit and rodent numbers are maintained at a significantly reduced level or eradicated.
B 5.2 Maintain the current guidelines preventing the introduction of feral species to all albatross and giant-petrel breeding islands. TASPAWS / AAD Current guidelines preventing the introduction of feral species to all albatross and giant-petrel breeding islands within areas under Australian jurisdiction are maintained.
6: Human disturbance at the nest
B 6.1 Maintain the existing 25m minimum approach limit around Wandering Albatrosses on Macquarie Island. TASPAWS The existing 25m minimum approach limit around Wandering Albatrosses on Macquarie Island is maintained.
B 6.2 Continue to manage the seasonal area closures around albatross breeding colonies around Caroline Cove and the Featherbeds on Macquarie Island. TASPAWS Seasonal area closures around Caroline Cove and the Featherbeds on Macquarie Island are closely managed.
B 6.3

Educational material regarding the impacts of wildlife disturbance should:

  1. continue to be provided to all tourists and ANARE expeditioners prior to arrival on Macquarie Island and the AAT.
  2. be designed, developed and provided to all visitors to Heard Island.
TASPAWS / AAD Education material is prepared and distributed as appropriate.
B 6.4 Continue to manage access to all albatross and giant-petrel breeding islands under Australian jurisdiction. TASPAWS / AAD Access to breeding islands within areas under Australian jurisdiction is restricted to appropriate permit holders only.
B 6.5 Maintain the current guidelines restricting the construction of further infrastructure on albatross and giant-petrel breeding islands under Australian jurisdiction in accordance with the relevant management plans for each island. TASPAWS / AAD Guidelines restricting the construction of further infrastructure on breeding islands within areas under Australian jurisdiction are maintained.
7: Avian parasites and diseases
B 7.1 Conduct an investigation into the parasites and diseases causing mortality of Shy Albatrosses at Albatross Island. TASPAWS / EA An investigation into the parasites and diseases causing mortality of Shy Albatrosses at Albatross Island is completed.
B 7.2 Ensure that existing population monitoring programs on Macquarie Island, Albatross Island, Pedra Branca and the Mewstone also monitor the presence or absence of avian parasites and diseases at breeding colonies. TASPAWS / EA The presence or absence of avian parasites and diseases at breeding colonies is monitored.
8: Interspecific competition for nest space
B 8.1 Ensure that the existing population monitoring program on Pedra Branca also monitors the relative distribution and abundance of Shy Albatrosses and Australasian Gannets. TASPAWS / EA The relative distribution and abundance of Shy Albatrosses and Australasian Gannets at Pedra Branca is monitored.
9: Dependence upon discards
B 9.1 Continue to monitor the effects of offal discharge on the reproductive success of albatrosses and giant-petrels. TASPAWS / EA The effects of offal discharge on the reproductive success of albatrosses and giant-petrels are monitored.
B 9.2

Investigate the foraging ranges of albatrosses and giant-petrels.

Note: specific studies determining the foraging ranges of sensitive breeding populations are prescribed under Actions A 1.3 and A 1.4.

TASPAWS / EA See entries under Actions A 1.3 and A 1.4
B 9.3 IAATO to regulate to prohibit the intentional provisioning of seabirds during tourist operations. IAATO / EA The intentional provisioning of food sources to seabirds during tourist operations is prohibited.
Specific Objective C: Quantify and reduce the threats to the foraging habitat of albatrosses and giant-petrels within areas under Australian jurisdiction
Action Description Managers Performance Criteria
10: Competition with fisheries for marine resources
C 10.1 As required by the EPBC Act, AFMA will strategically assess the ecological sustainability of each fishery that overlaps with any albatross and giant-petrel species by taking into account the total dietary requirements of each albatross and giant-petrel population. AFMA / EA

The total dietary requirements of albatrosses and giant-petrels have been taken into account when AFMA:

  1. strategically assesses the ecological sustainability of each fishery that overlaps with any albatross and giant-petrel species (under the EPBC Act); and
  2. develops or revises management arrangements (eg. the setting of TACs) for fisheries overlapping with any albatross and giant-petrel population.
11: Marine pollution
C 11.1

Ensure that existing population monitoring programs on Macquarie Island, Albatross Island, Pedra Branca and the Mewstone also monitor the incidence of:

  1. hatching failure due to egg-shell thinning; and
  2. oiled birds at the nest;
  3. marine debris egestion / entanglement at the nest.
TASPAWS/ EA
  1. Hatching failure due to egg-shell thinning; and
  2. the presence of oiled birds at the nest; and
  3. marine debris egestion / entanglement at the nest, at breeding colonies is monitored and quantified.
C 11.2 Design and implement an education strategy aimed at the general public to increase understanding of the environmental consequences of using industrial, agricultural and domestic chemicals. WWF / EA An effective education strategy is developed and in operation.
Specific Objective D: Maintain existing population monitoring programs for albatrosses and giant-petrels breeding on Macquarie Island, Albatross Island, Pedra Branca and the Mewstone, and develop population monitoring programs for other representative breeding populations under Australian jurisdiction.
Action Description Managers Performance Criteria
12: Population monitoring programs
D 12.1

Maintain existing population monitoring programs on Macquarie Island measuring demographic and breeding parameters of:

  • Wandering Albatrosses
  • Black-browed Albatrosses
  • Grey-headed Albatrosses
  • Light-mantled Albatrosses
  • Northern Giant-Petrels
  • Southern Giant-Petrels.
TASPAWS / AAD / EA Existing population monitoring programs on Macquarie Island are continued.
D 12.2

Maintain existing population monitoring programs measuring demographic and breeding parameters of Shy Albatrosses breeding on:

  • Albatross Island
  • Pedra Branca
  • the Mewstone.
TASPAWS / EA Existing population monitoring programs on Albatross Island, Pedra Branca and the Mewstone are continued.
D 12.3 Maintain AAD's existing program of opportunistically estimating the population size and breeding success of Southern Giant-Petrels breeding within the AAT. AAD / EA AAD's existing program of opportunistically estimating the population size and breeding success of Southern Giant-Petrels breeding within the AAT is continued.
D 12.4

For Heard Island populations, representative population monitoring programs using non-intrusive techniques should be conducted whenever the island is visited (during the breeding season) or every ten years (whichever is sooner) in order to determine the population status of:

  • Black-browed Albatrosses
  • Light-mantled Albatrosses
  • Wandering Albatrosses (if present)
  • Southern Giant-Petrels.
AAD / EA

On Heard Island, representative, non-intrusive population monitoring programs are conducted for:

  • Black-browed Albatrosses
  • Light-mantled Albatrosses
  • Wandering Albatrosses (if present)
  • Southern Giant-Petrels.
D 12.5

For McDonald Island populations, representative population monitoring programs using non-intrusive techniques should be conducted whenever the island is visited (during the breeding season) or every ten years (whichever is sooner) in order to determine the population status of:

  • Black-browed Albatrosses
  • Light-mantled Albatrosses
  • Southern Giant-Petrels.
AAD / EA

On McDonald Island, representative, non-intrusive population monitoring programs are conducted for:

  • Black-browed Albatrosses
  • Light-mantled Albatrosses
  • Southern Giant-Petrels.
D 12.6 Continue investigations into remote population-monitoring techniques to enable rapid assessment of isolated albatross and giant-petrel populations. TASPAWS / EA Effective remote population-monitoring techniques are developed.
13: Reduced genetic variability
D 13.1 Complete the genetic profiling of the three Shy Albatross populations and the closely related White-capped Albatross from NZ. These data are to be used to assess the impact of Longline Fishing operations. TASPAWS/ ANU / EA The genetic profiling of all Shy Albatross and White-capped Albatross populations is completed, and the data are used in assessing the impact of Longline Fishing operations.
D 13.2

Initiate genetic profiling programs of populations breeding on Macquarie Island for:

  • Wandering Albatrosses
  • Black-browed Albatrosses
  • Grey-headed Albatrosses
  • Light-mantled Albatrosses.
TASPAWS/ ANU / EA

Genetic material of Macquarie Island populations of the following species are collected:

  • Wandering Albatrosses
  • Black-browed Albatrosses
  • Grey-headed Albatrosses
  • Light-mantled Albatrosses.
Specific Objective E: Educate fishers and promote public awareness of the threats to albatrosses and giant-petrels
Action Description Managers Performance Criteria
14: Education strategies
E 14.1

Design and implement education strategies aimed at:

  1. commercial and recreational fishers;
    • to encourage longline and trawl fishers to employ effective by-catch mitigation measures (TAP Actions 6.1 & 6.2; Action 2.4)
    • to discourage intentional shooting (Action 3.2)
    • to encourage troll fishers to employ effective by-catch mitigation measures (Action 4.1)
  2. visitors to breeding colonies (Action 6.3); and
  3. the general public (Action 11.2).
AFMA / EA Effective education strategies are developed and in operation.
Specific Objective F: Achieve substantial progress towards global conservation of albatrosses and giant-petrels in international conservation and fishing for a
Action Description Managers Performance Criteria
15: International conservation agreements
F 15.1 Promote seabird by-catch mitigation with foreign fishers through international fora including CCAMLR, CCSBT, COFI, IOTC, FFC and other applicable international conventions to which Australia is a signatory (as prescribed in the Longline Fishing Threat Abatement PlanAction 7.1). EA The efficacy of seabird by-catch mitigation measures is promoted through international fora.
F 15.2

Develop an effective regional agreement for the conservation of albatrosses and giant-petrels in the Southern Hemisphere through CMS via:

  1. conducting second meeting of the working group to continue development of albatross regional agreement (Australia to host); and
  2. continuing to facilitate development and implementation of the albatross regional agreement.
EA A regional agreement is developed and in operation.
Specific Objective G: Assess and revise the Albatross and Giant-Petrel Recovery Plan as necessary.
Action Description Managers Performance Criteria
16: Assess the efficacy of the Recovery Plan
G 16.1

The Albatross and Giant-Petrel Recovery Team will meet annually or as required to assess the progress of the Recovery Plan and to revise the actions and priorities of the Plan as necessary.

Note: actions specified in the Longline Fishing Threat Abatement Plan will be taken into consideration when assessing the progress of the Recovery Plan.

Recovery Team / EA Implementation and progress of the Recovery Plan is assessed annually.
G 16.2 Evaluate the efficacy of the Recovery Plan after five years of operation and make revisions where necessary. Recovery Team / EA The Recovery Plan is reassessed and progress is measured against the recovery criteria, actions, timeframe and objectives.

6.4 Recovery Costs and Schedule

Table 6.2: Priority, Feasibility and Estimated Costs (x $1000) of Recovery Actions
Action Description Priority Feasibility Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Total
1: Longline fisheries
A 1.1 Implement the Threat Abatement Plan for the Incidental Catch (or By-catch) of Seabirds During Oceanic Longline Fishing Operations. High High            
A 1.2

Determine the foraging range and at-sea distribution of:

  • adult and juvenile Shy Albatrosses from Pedra Branca
  • adult and juvenile Shy Albatrosses from the Mewstone
  • juvenile Shy Albatrosses from Albatross Island

using minimal weight equipment and proven techniques of attachment, as approved by the Albatross and Giant-Petrel Recovery Team.

  • High
  • High
  • Mod.
  • High
  • High
  • High
  • High
  • High
 
0
50
0
 
50
0
0
 
0
0
25
 
0
0
0
 
0
0
0
 
50
50
25
A 1.3

For Macquarie Island populations:

  1. Continue studies into the foraging ranges and at-sea distributions of:
    • Wandering Albatrosses
    • Light-mantled Albatrosses
    • Grey-headed Albatrosses
    • Black-browed Albatrosses; and
  2. in the longer term, determine the foraging ranges and at-sea distributions of:
    • Northern Giant-Petrels
    • Southern Giant-Petrels
    using minimal weight equipment and proven techniques of attachment, as approved by the Albatross and Giant-Petrel Recovery Team.
  1. High
  2. Low (possibly occurring outside the life of this plan)
  3. - High
  1. High
  2. Mod.

0

N/A

50 50 50 50 200
A 1.4

Ensure that existing population monitoring programs on Macquarie Island, Albatross Island, Pedra Branca, the Mewstone and the AAT also monitor the frequency of fishing equipment ingestion / entanglement at breeding colonies.

Note: implementation of the Longline Fishing Threat Abatement Plan will significantly reduce the possibility for fishing hook ingestion by albatrosses and giant-petrels via the introduction of by-catch mitigation measures.

Moderate High            
2: Trawl fisheries
A 2.1 Continue to collect, collate and analyse data regarding incidental mortality of albatrosses and giant-petrels associated with sub-Antarctic trawl fisheries. Moderate-High High 500 500 500 500 500 2500#
A 2.2 Continue to collect, collate and analyse data regarding incidental mortality of albatrosses and giant-petrels associated with the South East Fishery. Moderate-High High 500 500 500 500 500 2500#
A 2.3 Quantify the current levels of incidental mortality of albatrosses and giant-petrels associated with trawl fishing operations occurring within the AFZ south of 30˚S (other than the sub-Antarctic and South East Fishery trawl fisheries) through assessment of logbooks and current observer programs. Moderate-High High 200 200 200 200 200 1000# +
A 2.4 Design and implement an education strategy aimed at commercial trawl fishers to encourage the implementation of simple by-catch mitigation measures. Moderate High            

# Fishing effort can vary markedly inter-annually. Therefore, it is difficult to project monitoring costs over the next five years with full confidence.

+ The monitoring program in the Great Australian Bight Fishery is a pilot program and coverage in other fisheries has been largely opportunistic. It is difficult to project monitoring costs over the next five years with full confidence.

Action Description Priority Feasibility Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Total
3: Intentional shooting / killing
A 3.1 EA to investigate the capacity of the Commonwealth to regulate to prohibit the carrying of firearms on fishing vessels operating within the AFZ. High High 1 0 0 0 0 1
A 3.2   Design and implement an education strategy aimed at commercial and recreational fishers to discourage the intentional killing of albatrosses and giant-petrels. High   High            
4: Trolling vessels
A 4.1 Design and implement an education strategy aimed at commercial and recreational troll fishers to encourage them to set their fishing lines at least 2m below the surface of the water. Low-Moderate High            
5: Feral pest species
B 5.1

Continue the integrated vertebrate pest management program on Macquarie Island targeting:

  • feral cats
  • rabbits
  • rodents
High High            
B 5.2 Maintain the current guidelines preventing the introduction of feral species to all albatross and giant-petrel breeding islands. High High 0 0 0 0 0 0
6: Human disturbance at the nest
B 6.1 Maintain the existing 25m minimum approach limit around Wandering Albatrosses on Macquarie Island. Moderate High 0 0 0 0 0 0
B 6.2 Continue to manage the seasonal area closures around albatross breeding colonies around Caroline Cove and the Featherbeds on Macquarie Island. Moderate High 0 0 0 0 0 0
B 6.3

Educational material regarding the impacts of wildlife disturbance should:

  1. continue to be provided to all tourists and ANARE expeditioners prior to arrival on Macquarie Island and the AAT.
  2. be designed, developed and provided to all visitors to Heard Island.
Moderate
Moderate
High
High
v 0 0 0 0 0 0
B 6.4 Continue to manage access to all albatross and giant-petrel breeding islands under Australian jurisdiction. Moderate High 0 0 0 0 0 0
B 6.5 Maintain the current guidelines restricting the construction of further infrastructure on albatross and giant-petrel breeding islands under Australian jurisdiction in accordance with the relevant management plans for each island. Moderate High 0 0 0 0 0 0
Action Description Priority Feasibility Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Total
7: Avian parasites and diseases
B 7.1 Conduct an investigation into the parasites and diseases causing mortality of Shy Albatrosses at Albatross Island. High Moderate 0 0 0 0 20 20
B 7.2 Ensure that existing population monitoring programs on Macquarie Island, Albatross Island, Pedra Branca and the Mewstone also monitor the presence or absence of avian parasites and diseases at breeding colonies. High High            
8: Interspecific competition for nest space
B 8.1 Ensure that the existing population monitoring program on Pedra Branca also monitors the relative distribution and abundance of Shy Albatrosses and Australasian Gannets. Moderate High            
9: Dependence upon discards
B 9.1 Continue to monitor the effects of offal discharge on the reproductive success of albatrosses and giant-petrels. Moderate Low-Moderate            
B 9.2

Investigate the foraging ranges of albatrosses and giant-petrels.

Note: specific studies determining the foraging ranges of sensitive breeding populations are prescribed under Actions A 1.3 and A 1.4.

High Moderate - High            
B 9.3 IAATO to regulate to prohibit the intentional provisioning of seabirds during tourist operations. Moderate High 0 0 0 0 0 0
10: Competition with fisheries for marine resources
C 10.1 As required by the EPBC Act, AFMA will strategically assess the ecological sustainability of each fishery that overlaps with any albatross and giant-petrel species by taking into account the total dietary requirements of each albatross and giant-petrel population. High Moderate 0 30 60 30 0 120
11: Marine pollution
C 11.1

Ensure that existing population monitoring programs on Macquarie Island, Albatross Island, Pedra Branca and the Mewstone also monitor the incidence of:

  1. hatching failure due to egg-shell thinning; and
  2. oiled birds at the nest;
  3. marine debris egestion / entanglement at the nest.
  1. Mod.
  2. Mod.
  3. Mod.
  1. High
  2. High
  3. High
           
C 11.2 Design and implement an education strategy aimed at the general public to increase understanding of the environmental consequences of using industrial, agricultural and domestic chemicals. High High            
Action Description Priority Feasibility Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Total
12: Population monitoring programs
D 12.1

Maintain existing population monitoring programs on Macquarie Island measuring demographic and breeding parameters of:

  • Wandering Albatrosses
  • Black-browed Albatrosses
  • Grey-headed Albatrosses
  • Light-mantled Albatrosses
  • Northern Giant-Petrels
  • Southern Giant-Petrels.
High High 100 100 100 100 100 500
D 12.2

Maintain existing population monitoring programs measuring demographic and breeding parameters of Shy Albatrosses breeding on:

  • Albatross Island
  • Pedra Branca
  • the Mewstone.
High High 10 10 10 10 10 50
D 12.3 Maintain AAD's existing program of opportunistically estimating the population sizes and breeding success of Southern Giant-Petrels breeding within the AAT. High Moderate 15 15 15 15 15 75
D 12.4

For Heard Island populations, representative population monitoring programs using non-intrusive techniques should be conducted whenever the island is visited (during the breeding season) or every ten years (whichever is sooner) in order to determine the population status of:

  • Black-browed Albatrosses
  • Light-mantled Albatrosses
  • Wandering Albatrosses (if present)
  • Southern Giant-Petrels.
Moderate Moderate 5 0 5 0 5 15
D 12.5

For McDonald Island populations, representative population monitoring programs using non-intrusive techniques should be conducted whenever the island is visited (during the breeding season) or every ten years (whichever is sooner) in order to determine the population status of:

  • Black-browed Albatrosses
  • Light-mantled Albatrosses
  • Southern Giant-Petrels.
Moderate Moderate 5 0 5 0 5 15
D 12.6 Continue investigations into remote population-monitoring techniques to enable rapid assessment of isolated albatross and giant-petrel populations. High High 5 5 0 0 0 10
13: Reduced genetic variability
D 13.1 Complete the genetic profiling of the three Shy Albatross populations and the closely related White-capped Albatross from NZ. These data are to be used to assess the impact of Longline Fishing operations. High High 10 10 0 0 0 20
D 13.2

Initiate genetic profiling programs of populations breeding on Macquarie Island for:

  • Wandering Albatrosses
  • Black-browed Albatrosses
  • Grey-headed Albatrosses
  • Light-mantled Albatrosses.
Moderate Moderate 0 0 30 0 0 30
Action Description Priority Feasibility Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Total
14: Education strategies
E 14.1

Design and implement education strategies aimed at:

  1. commercial and recreational fishers;
    • to encourage longline and trawl fishers to employ effective by-catch mitigation measures (TAP Actions 6.1 & 6.2; Action 2.4)
    • to discourage intentional shooting (Action 3.2)
    • to encourage troll fishers to employ effective by-catch mitigation measures (Action 4.1)
  2. visitors to breeding colonies (Action 6.3); and
  3. the general public (Action 11.2).
    • High
    • High
    • Low
  1. Mod.
  2. Mod.
    • High
    • High
    • High
  1. High
  2. High
10 10 10 10 10 50
15: International conservation agreements
F 15.1 Promote seabird by-catch mitigation with foreign fishers through international fora including CCAMLR, CCSBT, COFI, IOTC, FFC and other applicable international conventions to which Australia is a signatory (as prescribed in the Longline Fishing Threat Abatement PlanAction 7.1). High High            
F 15.2

Develop an effective regional agreement for the conservation of albatrosses and giant-petrels in the Southern Hemisphere through CMS via:

  1. conducting second meeting of the working group to continue development of albatross regional agreement (Australia to host); and
  2. continuing to facilitate development and implementation of the albatross regional agreement.
High
High
High
High
100
0
0
20
0
20
0
20
0
20
100
80
16: Assess the efficacy of the Recovery Plan
G 16.1

The Albatross and Giant-Petrel Recovery Team will meet annually or as required to assess the progress of the Recovery Plan and to revise the actions and priorities of the Plan as necessary.

Note: actions specified in the Longline Fishing Threat Abatement Plan will be taken into consideration when assessing the progress of the Recovery Plan.

High High 5 5 5 5 5 25
G 16.2 Evaluate the efficacy of the Recovery Plan after five years of operation and make revisions where necessary. High High 0 0 0 0 5 5
Total (x $1000) 1516 1505 1535 1440 1445 7441