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Grampians Pincushion Lily (Borya mirabilis Churchill) Recovery Plan 2001-2005

Fiona Coates
La Trobe University School of Botany, February 2000

Note: This publication has been superseded by the 2010 Recovery plan

Contents


Acknowledgments

The preparation of this plan was funded by the Biodiversity Group, Environment Australia, Threatened Species and Communities Unit and La Trobe University. Adrian Moorrees (NRE) and Recovery Team members Neville Walsh (RBG), Jill Read (PV), Dave Handscombe (PV), and Graham Parkes (PV) contributed in a number of ways, including help with plant identification, advice on propagation and site management, and proof read the draft manuscript. The Recovery Plan benefited considerably from the information provided by Simon Cropper (Botanicus Pty Ltd). Mara Walsh, Max Bartley and Doug Oakley (La Trobe University) provided cheerful administrative support throughout the project.

Abbreviations: PV = Parks Victoria; ESP = Endangered Species Program, Environment Australia, Canberra; LTU = La Trobe University; RBG = Royal Botanic Gardens, Melbourne; NRE = Department of Natural Resources and Environment.

Summary

Current species status

Endangered Species Protection Act 1992: Listed on Schedule 1 (Vulnerable, to be updated to Endangered)

Victorian Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 Listed on schedule 2

ESAC Priority A

ROTAP (Briggs and Leigh 1996): 2ECit

IUCN (1994) CR

ANZECC (1999) E

Habitat requirements and limiting factors

Borya mirabilis is a narrow endemic lily and resurrection plant restricted to low open shrubland on a single rocky outcrop in the Wonderland Range, Grampians National Park, western Victoria. The only known population consists of approximately 70 ramets distributed between five colonies within an area of approximately 60 m by 20 m. Its habitat requirements include adequate moisture availability during autumn and winter, and substrate stability.

Die-back, including leaf shedding has recently been observed. Major current threats include soil drying caused by burrowing and digging by rabbits, as well as general soil disturbance and erosion, failure to annually set seed, and small population size. Its pre European distribution is not known, but fire may have contributed to its current restricted distribution (Churchill 1985).

Recovery Goals

The long term goal is to prevent extinction or further decline in numbers of B. mirabilis, by maintaining and augmenting the population, and by managing existing habitat for the future self sustainability of the species.

Within the life span of the Recovery Plan, the short term goals of recovery are:

1. Significantly reduce the impact of immediate threats.

2. Increase the size of the existing population.

3. Attempt to extend the range of B. mirabilis.

4. Establish a genetically representative ex-situ collection.

Recovery Criteria

The criteria for assessing the achievement of these objectives are:

1. Establishment of a comprehensive biological, ecological and horticultural knowledge base.

2. A decrease in disturbance and damage to the site where the population occurs.

3. A measurable increase in the population's productivity and resurrection potential.

4. Completion of a comprehensive search.

5. Maintain plants in cultivation and translocated plants in the wild.

Recovery Actions

1. Prevent further soil disturbance.

2. Measure plant health against habitat management

3. Search for new sites

4. Establish an ex-situ collection.

5. Translocation.

6. Prepare Action Statement and Critical Habitat Determination under the Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988.

Estimated Cost of Recovery Actions

Year

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

TC

$49,450

$54,350

$14,800

$33,200

$33,200

Biodiversity Benefits

Management of the site will contribute to habitat viability and integrity, species richness and protection of other threatened flora associated with B. mirabilis. Implementation of the Recovery Plan will contribute to achieving the objectives of the Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988, by managing potentially threatening processes.


1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Species description

B. mirabilis is a clump forming, herbaceous lily up to about 15 cm high. It has brown erect or ascending stems, covered with the remains of leaf sheaths which have the appearance of fine scales, and on their lower parts support aerial roots. Leaves are spiky, linear, 10-16 mm long, and approximately 0.5 mm wide, their base tapering gradually from the persistent sheath. Growth of new shoots and inflorescences is terminal. Flowers are white, consisting of borne on scapes 3-7 cm long, ovoid with 4-12 flowers surrounded by several sharp, involucral bracts (Churchill 1985, 1987; Cropper 1993; Conran 1994).

1.2 Taxonomy and nomenclature

Borya mirabilis was recognised by Churchill (1985; 1987) as a narrow Victorian endemic, having been previously included under B. nitida Labill., a species restricted to the southwest of Western Australia. B. mirabilis is distinguished by its bracteoles being longer than the floral bracts.

Nomenclature used throughout the Recovery Plan follows Cameron et al. (1999).

1.3 Distribution

Borya Labill. is a genus of about 10 species, mainly confined to southwestern Australia but with one species known from northern Queensland and one from northern Western Australia and the Northern Territory (Churchill 1985). In Victoria, in occurs in the Greater Grampians Bioregion (DNRE 1997), but has only been recorded with certainty from a single population in the Wonderland Range, Grampians National Park. There is one unconfirmed report of another population in the Victoria Range (S. Cropper pers. comm.), but otherwise no firm evidence of a previously more widespread distribution.

C. W. Dalton collected the first B. mirabilis specimens in 1924 from the Grampians National Park but the site was thought to have become extinct (Gaff and Churchill 1976) until 1983, when it was re-discovered (Cropper 1994). Its location was made known to the National Parks and Wildlife Service in 1992, but otherwise is largely kept confidential.

1.4 Habitat

The site supporting B. mirabilis in the Wonderland Range consists of low open shrubland on a ferruginous sandstone outcrop consisting of a series of rocky terraces (Cropper 1994). Colonies are distributed over an area approximately 60 m x 20 m. Soils are seasonally moist by virtue of seepage, which has also caused erosion of the bedrock and contributed to the accumulation of fine sandy loam soil, a relatively rare occurrence in rocky environments which may have favoured the persistence of the population at this site. Soil depth ranges from just a few centimetres, up to one metre. Slopes supporting B. mirabilis colonies are about 150 on average, facing northeast. Charcoal particles distributed across the site suggest that it has been burnt in the past, although there are no records of fire.

Dominant species are Grevillea aquifolium, Kunzea parvifolia, Calytrix tetragona, Melaleuca decussata and Dodonaea viscosa spp. spatulata. Associated species include Lepidosperma viscosa, Gonocarpos mezianus, Phyllanthus hirtellus, Leptospermum scoparium and Austrodanthonia setacea. Callitris rhomboidea and Eucalyptus alaticaulis are occasional emergents. A number of annual herbs appear in spring, associated with bryophyte and lichen communities, including Siloxerus multiflora, Drosera whittakeri subsp. aberrans, D. peltata subsp. auriculata, Centrolepis strigosa, and C. aristata.

One other rare species (Cameron et al. 1999), Austrostipa hemipogon has been recorded from the site.

1.5 Life History

Borya mirabilis is a perennial herb. Plants flower between September and October, although no fruit or seed development have been observed. Plants gradually change from green to orange over summer, until fully desiccated by February, although a return to moist conditions can reverse this process (D. Handscombe, PV, pers. comm.). Further discolouration to a yellowish straw like appearance continues until early autumn, when leaves rehydrate and gradually become green once more. Leaves may also be shed during the desiccation period. Buds probably develop in June, although the complete life history of the species has not been observed.

1.6 Ecology and Biology

B. mirabilis is a resurrection plant, having the ability to tolerate desiccation over summer and rehydrate after the onset of autumn rains. However, disturbance to soils or litter cover, or unseasonal weather patterns which restrict or disrupt moisture levels may in turn disrupt physiological processes critical to revival.

In general, resurrection plants such as Borya are unable to recover from a quiescent state which extends beyond a couple of years, after which time a proportion of cells fail to regenerate and ultimately the plant dies (D. Gaff, Monash University, pers. comm). Resurrection plants tend to be poor competitors, depending on shallow soils where more deep rooted, vigorous species are unable to establish.

Reproduction is vegetative, presumably by adventitious roots which occur on stems, or by separation of sections of the colony. On more vertical sections of rock, B. mirabilis colonies appear to be part of lithoseral stages, where bare rock is colonised by algae and crustose lichens, followed by bryophytes, herbs and geophytes which facilitate soil accumulation, and subsequent colonisation by more deep rooted or woody species. At a critical stage, when the substrate is no longer able to support their weight, parts or the whole of the colonising community will break away.

The response of B. mirabilis to fire is unclear, although the site does appear to have been burnt at some time in the past.

B. mirabilis is likely to be insect pollinated. However, the population is thought to consist of only two widely separated genotypes and plants may be unable to breed because of genetic restrictions (Cropper 1994).

1.7 Population structure and condition

Approximately 70 ramets are distributed within five colonies over an area approximately 60 m x 20 m, although all except one colony occur within 20 m of each other. Ramets in each colony appear as irregular shaped 'clumps', but are not always easy to separate into individual plants.

Leaf shedding and a gradual decline in the ability of plants to produce new growth or resurrect fully from a desiccated state has been observed by Parks Victoria Rangers since 1996 (D. Handscombe, J. Read, PV, pers. comm.). Although some Western Australian Borya species are known to avoid drought by shedding leaves during periods of stress (Churchill 1987), this has not been observed in B. mirabilis and the current cause of leaf loss is unknown. Some basal resprouting was observed in early summer, 1997, but seemed to be restricted to plants growing in deeper soils protected from disturbance and moisture loss, beneath shrubs and in crevices between boulders.

Plants confined to more open sites are generally in poor health and often rooted in raised mounds of soil, suggesting that there has been a significant amount of erosion of soil within the population. There are a number of dead shrubs at the site, although the species affected suggest that this is most likely a result of drought or natural senescence, rather than infection by fungal pathogens such as Phytophthora cinnamomi.

Thus, it is likely that the current observed decline can be attributed to inadequate moisture supplies throughout autumn and winter since 1996, exacerbated by additional soil drying related to habitat disturbance. As a consequence, plants may be dessicated for too long a period and have been unable to fully recover, or the period and degree of rehydration between long spells of dryness is inadequate to sustain them in the following season.

1.8 Propagation potential

B. mirabilis can be cultivated from cuttings but appears to require a reasonably specific watering regime, including wet and dry periods (N. Walsh, RBG, pers. comm.).

A large collection of Australian Borya spp., including B. mirabilis, was maintained at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Melbourne, but has declined in recent years. There is some anecdotal evidence of a private collection of B. mirabilis grown from material collected in the Victoria Range by Dr Ross McDonald (S. Cropper, pers. comm.).

Three to four plants were also held in cultivation at Monash University, established from a single plant donated by David Churchill in the early 1980s. During their cultivation, it was apparent that well watered, flourishing plants gradually lost their ability to desiccate and rehydrate. However, had they been given sufficient water stress so that the green appearance of leaves diminished gradually before full air drying, resurrection may have been more successful (Dr Don Gaff, Botany Department, pers. comm.). Plants also tended to get long and leggy in cultivation and probably need occasional pruning (D. Gaff, pers. comm.).

1.9 Reasons for listing

The single, small population prompted listing as an Endangered species under the Endangered Species Protection Act 1992. In its recommendation for listing as a threatened taxon on Schedule 2 of the Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988, the Scientific Advisory Committee determined that B. mirabilis is very rare in terms of abundance and distribution, is significantly prone to future threats which are likely to result in extinction and is possibly one of the most endangered plant species in Australia.

1.10 Threats

The site is prone to erosion due to slope and soil characteristics, and hydrology of the area (S. Cropper, Department of Natural Resources and Environment file 89/2950-1). However, this is likely to have been exacerbated in recent periods by prolonged drought, sometimes followed by sudden episodes of unseasonal heavy rainfall in western Victoria in 1997 and 1998.

Other factors contributing to soil disturbance and erosion are digging by animals, in particular rabbits, but also echidnas; trampling by black wallabies which have increased in numbers in the Grampians in recent years (P. Menkhorst, NRE, pers. comm.), and possibly damage by goats.

Vegetation at the site may be coming more open with dying back of associated shrubs, with the consequence of reduced shading and increased soil drying.

The Grampians is an extremely popular National Park, and the site is close to areas used by rock climbers and bush walkers. Broken glass at the site suggests site visits, and therefore trampling, has occurred in the past. Illegal collection of plants, or damage to the site from naturalists also threaten the long term survival of the population.

Wildfire may threaten the population's persistence (Churchill 1987), although there is evidence that the site has been burnt in the past. However, fire fighting activities including use of retardant and raking are potential threats.

The population lacks genetic variability and fails to set seed, and its small size and single occurrence suggests it is particularly vulnerable to extinction. Neither the biology nor ecology of B. mirabilis or other members of the genus is particularly well understood, so that population management may be hampered by lack of knowledge.

1.11 Existing conservation measures

Ground searches have been conducted by Field Naturalists and National Parks Officers (S. Cropper pers. comm.), and searches to identify broadly similar habitat were conducted by helicopter in 1993. Three distinct areas were identified. The feasibility of using fine resolution remote sensing techniques to locate other populations or similar habitat was investigated in 1993 (Cropper 1994).

A large ex-situ collection of Borya spp., including B. mirabilis was established at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Melbourne by David Churchill in the 1970s and 1980s. These were included with wild material in an allozyme analysis of Borya, conducted at La Trobe University in 1992 (Dr Yvonne Fripp), to determine the genetic variation within the population (Cropper 1994).

The walking track near to the existing population will realigned by parks Victoria and the location of the site is kept confidential to reduce the likelihood of illegal collection and site damage.

Funding was received from Environment Australia to implement interim recovery actions in 1999, to be completed in mid 2000. Work includes identifying B. mirabilis habitat by comparing its floristic and environmental attributes with adjacent habitat to assess its potential to support translocated plants, and to determine whether the population might have been larger in the past. Permanent transects have also been established through individual plants to measure the proportion of resurrected or new shoots. Identification of life history stages and an assessment of population health is also underway.


2 Strategy for Recovery

The strategy for recovery of B. mirabilis will interpret ecological, biological, genetic and horticultural information to manage existing habitat, establish an ex-situ collection, augment the existing population with cultivated plants, search for new populations and identify habitat suitable for translocation.

2.1 Community Involvement

Community participation will be sought during the ex-situ phases of recovery, by encouraging individuals or groups with demonstrated expertise to assist with propagation and cultivation.

2.2 Recovery goals

The long term goal is to prevent extinction or further decline in numbers of B. mirabilis, by maintaining and augmenting the population, and by managing existing habitat for the future self sustainability of the species.

Within the life span of the Recovery Plan, the short term goals of recovery are:

1. Significantly reduce the impact of immediate threats.

2. Increase the size of the existing population.

3. Attempt to extend the range of B. mirabilis.

4. Establish a genetically representative ex-situ collection.

2.3 Recovery Criteria

The criteria for assessing the achievement of these objectives are:

1. Establishment of a comprehensive biological, ecological and horticultural knowledge base.

2. A decrease in disturbance and damage to the site where the population occurs.

3. A measurable increase in the population's productivity and resurrection potential.

4. Completion of a comprehensive search.

5. Maintain plants in cultivation and translocated plants in the wild.

2.4 Recovery Actions

1. Prevent further soil disturbance.

2. Measure plant health against habitat management

3. Search for new sites

4. Establish an ex-situ collection.

5. Translocation.

6. Prepare FFG Action Statement and Critical Habitat Determination


3 RECOVERY ACTIONS

3.1 Prevent further soil disturbance

3.1.1 Control pests

There is a need to investigate methods for destroying rabbit populations within and nearby the B. mirabilis site, while preventing further soil disturbance. An intensive program might include establishing baiting stations. Rocky terrain and the need to maintain site security will preclude fencing. A survey for feral goats should also be conducted within the Wonderland Range, with a view to controlling animals. A survey to determine whether utilisation of the site by native fauna is a significant threat to the population should also be undertaken. Baiting should be carried out quarterly and surveys should be undertaken annually.

Funds are required to contract a zoologist to carry out the work. Parks Victoria will implement pest control, provide materials, prepare the project brief, engage and manage contractor, and assist with surveys where required.

Year

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

TC

$3,050

$1,350

$1,350

$1,350

$1,350

3.1.2 Habitat restoration

Remedial work at the site should commence immediately, to prevent further soil loss and to minimise further soil drying. Measures to reduce erosion should be investigated and trialled. These might include mulching around Borya plants using litter from taxa known to occur at the site, translocated bryophyte mats or translocated soil which has been suitably tested for physical and chemical properties and screened for Phytophthera cinnamomi. Work should be maintained annually.

Funds are required to contract a specialist horticulturalist such as the Royal Botanic Gardens to carry out the work and conduct follow up monitoring. Parks Victoria will prepare the project brief, manage the work and assist where required.

Year

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

TC

$9,800

$6,000

$6,000

$6,000

$6,000

3.1.3 Prepare a fire response plan

Fire control guidelines should be prepared and circulated to fire crews prior to planned burns, and in the event of unplanned fires, so that the risk of accidental damage to the population is reduced. These should include guidance on the use of retardant, use of rakes and clearing of vegetation for fire breaks. The location of the B. mirabilis population should also be made known to fire crews and its significance explained.

Parks Victoria will prepare and implement the guidelines, update maps for inclusion in operations folders and liaise with NRE to include guidelines in the Horsham District Fire Plan..

Year

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

TC

$2,000

$ 0

$ 0

$ 0

$ 0

3.2 Measure plant health against habitat management

The physiological performance of individual plants should be assessed indirectly each year by comparing the proportions of new or resurrected shoots with dead material in autumn, spring and early summer. A method has been developed using transects divided into 20 x 1 cm intervals permanently placed through each ramet in the population. The number of 1 cm intervals with a living or dead shoot are recorded and ratios calculated.

Funds are required to contract a botanist to collect and analyse the data, and to report on the efficacy of recovery actions. Parks Victoria will prepare the project brief and manage the contract.

Year

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

TC

$2,200

$2,200

$2,200

$2,200

$2,200

3.3 Search for new sites and potential habitat

Risk of extinction would be significantly reduced if the range of B. mirabilis was extended either as existing populations or as translocated populations to suitable sites. New populations are most likely to be seen in late summer, when plants have dessicated and turned bright orange, so that they are easily identified from a distance.

3.3.1 Survey design

Broad areas which might contain suitable Borya habitat were identified by air and searches for unknown populations carried out in 1993 (NRE File 89\19-2950\1; S. Cropper pers. comm.). However, owing to wet, windy conditions, flight time was limited. Furthermore, plants in the Wonderland Range were known to have rehydrated and turned green after unseasonal wet weather, so that any other existing populations were unlikely to have been seen from the air. A predictive analysis using recent (1998/9) vegetation data derived from EVC mapping, combined with recent (1999) geological maps and existing knowledge should be undertaken and potential search sites digitised.

Funds are required to contract a specialist geographer to identify sites and digitise mapping. Parks Victoria will assist wih site identification, prepare the project brief and manage the work.

Year

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

TC

$7,500

$0

$0

$0

$0

3.3.2 Conduct searches

Ground searches of identified areas should be conducted in late February/March, after dry weather when plants are most likely to be seen. Volunteer botanists with helicopter access to targeted areas, owing to steep terrain and the likelihood of hot weather, will be the most efficient approach.

Searching will be carried out by Parks Victoria Rangers, RBG, Universities and DNRE Botanists. Parks Victoria Rangers will plan and manage the search and co-ordinate logistical support. Funds are sought to contribute to helicopter hire for 6 hours and to cover transport and accommodation costs of 10 specialist volunteers.

Year

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

TC

$0

$21,300

$0

$0

$0

3.4 Establish an ex-situ collection

3.4.1 Collect representative samples

A representative ex-situ collection should be established using material collected in late autumn or winter from all plants in the population. Where possible, three cuttings should be taken from each of five plants in each colony, spread over two years to account for losses and to minimise the impact on the population. Use of healthy shoots is likely to yield the best results. Cuttings will be propagated at the Royal Botanic Gardens.

The Royal Botanic Gardens, Melbourne will be responsible for collection. Parks Victoria will liaise with horticulturalists where necessary.

Year

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

TC

$1,500

$1,500

$0

$0

$0

3.4.2 Develop propagating techniques

There is a need to establish ex-situ populations, for use in genetic work, translocation and inclusion into living collections in State and National Botanic Gardens in Melbourne, Perth and Canberra, to safeguard the species in the event of any unforeseen destruction of the wild population.

Borya species have been successfully cultivated in the past but collections have diminished and horticultural expertise lost. Preliminary trials suggest that cuttings may be difficult to strike. Development and documentation of methods and cultivating techniques are needed, including tissue culture. Watering should be carried out to determine a method of maintaining a suitable physical environment so that plants retain their ability to resurrect.

Funds are sought to contract the Royal Botanic Gardens, Melbourne to cultivate an ex-situ population. Parks Victoria will prepare the project brief and manage the work.

Year

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

TC

$11,000

$11,000

$0

$0

$0

3.4.3 Investigate breeding system

There is a need to determine the population's genetic structure and breeding system, and to test for self-incompatibility to produce a representative collection in cultivation.

The degree of genetic diversity within the existing populations is not clear, although it has been suggested that there are only two genotypes present (Cropper 1993). However, no viable seed has been collected from plants. B. mirabilis plants held in cultivation in close proximity to other Borya species have set seed, probably as a result of hybridisation (D. Gaff, Monash University, pers. comm.).

Necessary work includes allozyme analysis using a representative number of samples across the population and screening a range of enzymes, followed by confirmation using a DNA based technique such as Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP), if necessary. Interpretation of results will indicate the current state of the breeding system, which should be confirmed by examination of floral development, stigma function and ovule formation in both wild and cultivated populations, and tests for pollen viability using the fluorochromatic reaction. Manual cross pollination trials between and within genotypes will determine whether self incompatibility is preventing seed set. This will determine whether hand pollination of wild plants is worthwhile in the future.

Funds are sought to contract a conservation geneticist to undertake the work. The Royal Botanic Gardens will provide laboratory facilities. Funding in 2002 will only be necessary if AFLP is used.

Year

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

TC

$5,150

$5,750

$0

$0

$0

3.5 Translocation

3.5.1 Augment the existing population

Site environmental and floristic survey results (in progress) will be analysed to determine suitable sites for translocating plants. Numbers of plants to be translocated will depend on the extent of available habitat, and cultivation success.

Funds are required to contract the Royal Botanic Gardens to prepare the site, transport and establish plants. Parks Victoria will manage the work and assist where required.

Year

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

TC

$0

$0

$0

$7,800

$7,800

3.5.2 Translocate cultivated plants to a new site

If a suitable site is found, plants should be translocated on a trial basis, using suitable site preparation and translocation methods.

Funds are required to contract the Royal Botanic Gardens, Melbourne to carry out the work, managed by Parks Victoria.

Year

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

TC

$0

$0

$0

$7,800

$7,800

3.5.3 After care and monitoring.

Survivorship and life history stages of translocated plants will be recorded at critical stages following translocation, with the aim of modifying management if necessary.

Funds are required to contract the Royal Botanic Gardens, Melbourne to carry out the work. Parks Victoria will manage the work and assist where required.

Year

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

TC

$0

$0

$0

$2,800

$2,800

3.6 Revise FFG Action Statement and prepare Critical Habitat Determination

An Action Statement and Critical Habitat Determination should be prepared under the Victorian Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 to maximise the species' protection.

The Department of Natural Resources and Environment will be responsible for the carrying out and publishing the work, in consultation with Parks Victoria.

Year

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

TC

$2,000

$0

$0

$0

$0

3.7 Manage Recovery Plan Implementation

Consultation in the form of Recovery Team meetings should take place twice a year, to evaluate recovery progress, and review and amend the Recovery Plan where necessary. The Recovery Team will include Rangers, NRE staff, RBG staff and local naturalists.

Parks Victoria will manage Recovery and facilitate Recovery Team meetings.

Year

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

TC

$5,250

$5,250

$5,250

$5,250

$5,250


4 BIBLIOGRAPHY

Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (1999) Threatened Australian Flora. Report prepared by the ANZECC Endangered Flora Network, Canberra.

Briggs, J. D. & Leigh, J. H. (1996) Rare or Threatened Australian Plants. CSIRO Australia.

Cameron, D., Cross, F., Leech, S. and Wierzbowski, P. (1999) Victorian Flora Species List, Spring 1998. Parks, Flora and Fauna Division, Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Heidelberg, Australia.

Chase, M. W., Rudall, P. and Conran, J. G. (1996) New circumscriptions and a new family of asparagoid lilies: genera formerly included in Anthericaceae. Kew Bulletin, 51, 667-680.

Chase, M. W., Rudall, P. and Conran, J. G. (1997) Validation of the family name Boryaceae. Kew Bulletin, 52, 416.

Churchill, D. M. (1985) Three new species of Borya Labill. (Liliaceae). Muelleria 6(1), 1-8.

Churchill, D. M. (1987) Borya. Flora of Australia Volume 45, Hydatellaceae to Liliaceae, pp. 268-277. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

Conran, J. G. (1994). Liliaceae. In: Flora of Victoria. Volume 2, Ferns and Allied Plants, Conifers and Monocotyledons (Eds N. G. Walsh and T. J. Entwisle). Inkata Press.

Cropper, S. (1993) Management of Endangered Plants. CSIRO, Melbourne.

Department of Natural Resources and Environment (1997) Victoria's Biodiversity: Directions in Management. Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Melbourne.

Gaff, D. F., and Churchill, D. M. (1976) Borya nitida Labill. - an Australian Species in the Liliaceae with Desiccation-tolerant Leaves. Australian Journal of Botany 24, 209-224.

IUCN (1994) IUCN red list categories. IUCN Species Survival Commission, Kew.

Keighery, G. J. (1984) The Johnsonieae (Liliaceae); Biology and Classification. Flora 175, 103-108.

Walsh, N. G. and Entwisle, T. J.(1994) Flora of Victoria. Volume 2, Ferns and Allied Plants, Conifers and Monocotyledons. Inkata Press.

Walsh, N. G. and Entwisle, T. J.(1996) Flora of Victoria. Volume 3, Dicotyledons Winteraceae to Myrtaceae. Inkata Press.

Walsh, N. G. and Entwisle, T. J.(1999) Flora of Victoria. Volume 4, Dicotyledons Cornaceae to Asteraceae. Inkata Press.


5 APPENDICES

5.1 Appendix 1 Summary of Recovery Objectives and Actions

Action 1 Prevent further soil disturbance

1.1 Control pests

1.2 Habitat restoration

1.3 Prepare a fire response plan

Action 2 Measure plant health against habitat management

Action 3 Search for new sites

3.1 Survey design

3.2 Conduct searches

Action 4 Establish an ex-situ collection

4.1 Collect representative samples

4.2 Develop propagating techniques

4.3 Investigate breeding system

Action 5 Translocation

5.1 Augment the existing population

5.2 Translocate cultivated plants to a new site

5.3 After care and monitoring

Action 6 Revise FFG Action Statement and prepare Critical Habitat Determination

Action 7 Manage Recovery Plan implementation

5.2 Appendix 2 Implementation Schedule

Task

Description

Priority

Feasibility

Resp Party

Cost

         
         

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

Totals

1

Prevent further soil disturbance

                 

1.1

Control pests

1

100

PV/Contractor

3.05

1.35

1.35

1.35

1.35

8.45

1.2

Habitat restoration.

1

80

PV/Contractor

9.8

6.0

6.0

6.0

6.0

33.8

1.3

Prepare a fire plan

1

100

PV

2.0

0

0

0

0

2.0

2

Measure plant health

1

80

PV/Contractor

2.2

2.2

2.2

2.2

2.2

11.0

3

Search for new sites

1

10

             

3.1

Design survey

1

100

PV/Contractor

7.5

0

0

0

0

7.5

3.2

Conduct searches

1

100

PV/Volunteers

0

21.3

0

0

0

21.3

4

Ex-situ cultivation

                 

4.1

Collect representative samples

1

100

PV/RBG

1.5

1.5

0

0

0

3.0

4.2

Develop propagation techniques

2

70

PV/RBG

11.0

11.0

0

0

0

22.0

4.3

Investigate breeding system

2

70

PV/RBG

5.15

5.75

0

0

0

10.9

5

Translocation

                 

5.1

Augment the existing population

2

50

PV/RBG

0

0

0

7.8

7.8

15.6

5.2

Translocate to a new site

2

20

PV/RBG

0

0

0

7.8

7.8

15.6

5.3

After care and monitoring

2

100

PV/RBG

0

0

0

2.8

2.8

5.6

6

Revise FFG Action Statement

1

100

DNRE

2.0

0

0

0

0

2.0

7

Manage implementation

1

100

PV

5.25

5.25

5.25

5.25

5.25

26.25

 

Totals ($000s)

     

49.45

54.35

14.8

33.2

33.2

185


Copyright: The Director, Environment Australia, GPO Box 636, Canberra, ACT 2601.

This publication is copyright. Apart from fair dealing for the purposes of private study, research, criticism or review as permitted under the Copyright Act, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, photocopying or other, without permission of the Director, Environment Australia.

Disclaimer: The opinions expressed in this document are the author's views and do not necessarily reflect those of Environment Australia, La Trobe University, The Royal Botanic Gardens, Melbourne, Parks Victoria or the Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Victoria.

Citation: Coates, F. (2000) Recovery Plan 2001-2005 - Borya mirabilis Churchill (Grampians Pincushion Lily). School of Botany, La Trobe University, Victoria.

A Recovery Plan prepared under the Commonwealth Environment Protection and biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.