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Pink-lipped Spider Orchid (Caladenia behrii) Recovery Plan

Doug Bickerton
Threatened Species Network
Threatened Plant Action Group, November 1999

Note: This publication has been superseded by the Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia 2010

Contents


Summary

Current Species Status

Caladenia behrii (pink-lipped spider orchid) is listed as nationally Endangered on Schedule 1 of the Commonwealth Endangered Species Protection Act 1992, and as Endangered 2ECi by Briggs & Leigh (1996). It is endemic to South Australia, where it is confined to the Mount Lofty Ranges (Figure 1). Fewer than 2000 mature plants are known from than 20 populations (Figure 1). The species' distribution is limited to two small areas of approximately 60 km2 and 35 km2, whereas records in the Threatened Plant Species Population Database (Department for Environment, Heritage and Aboriginal Affairs (DEHAA)) indicate that the range 20-30 years ago was at least twice that (Figure 1). According to the IUCN criterion EN C1 (IUCN, 1994) the species is Endangered because of its limited population size and decline over past generations.

Habitat Requirements and Limiting Factors

Caladenia behrii occurs on loamy soils (Bates, 1994) in Eucalyptus goniocalyx/E. obliqua/E. fasciculosa or E. obliqua/E. microcarpa/E. fasciculosa woodland, usually on moderate slopes. The species is very sensitive to grazing by native and introduced vertebrates, and does not persist in weed infested areas. Clearance of land for housing and agriculture has led to habitat fragmentation, and as a consequence some populations have become extinct whilst others are in decline. Other threats include road works, vehicular activity, illegal collection, and trampling by mountain bike riders, horses and bushwalkers.

Overall Recovery Objective

  1. Long Term: To increase the probability of survival of C. behrii.
  2. Medium Term: To improve the conservation status of C. behrii from Endangered to Vulnerable within five years.

Specific Objectives

  1. Maintain the extent of occurrence of the species.
  2. Minimize the loss of genetic variability across the species' range.
  3. Increase the abundance of the species.
  4. Increase the area of occupancy of the species.

Recovery Criteria

  1. The majority of populations that currently have less than 20 mature plants (Figure 1) are protected from extrinsic threats within one year, and increased in size by at least 50% within five years.
  2. Seed from all known populations is collected and stored within one year.
  3. The total number of mature plants has increased from 1980 to at least 2500 within five years, consisting of:
    • At least five populations with more than 250 mature plants and
    • At least seven other populations with more than 50 mature plants.

4. The total area of occupancy for the species is increased by at least 5%, from 148 ha to at least 155 ha within five years, with an increase in area occupied for at least 6 populations.

Actions Needed

  1. Threat abatement for very small populations:
    1. Herbivory control:
      1. Individual netting or tree guards for the Belair property, Scott Creek CP, Ironbank property, Bassnet Road and Warren reservoir populations (Figure 1).
      2. Caterpillar and/or snail control for the Belair property, Scott Creek CP, Ironbank property and two Belair NP populations.
    2. Weed control:
      1. Control blackberry at the Ironbank property.
      2. Control boneseed near the Belair NP western population.
  2. Collect and store seed from all known populations to minimize loss of genetic variability.
  3. Increase abundance:
    1. Hand pollination at sites deemed necessary.
    2. Recruitment enhancement at all sites:
      1. Raking around the base of parent plants.
      2. Seed distribution.
      3. Ex situ cultivation.
      4. Translocation.
    3. Herbivory control:
      1. Fencing at Roachdale Reserve.
      2. Kangaroo control in Warren CP (Watts Gully Road), Kersbrook Forest and in sections of Mount Gawler Forest.
    4. Control site-specific threats:
      1. Place roadside barriers adjacent to Para Wirra Recreation Park.
      2. Manage horse access adjacent to Para Wirra Recreation Park.
      3. Halt mountain bike riding at Mount Gawler.
  4. Increase the area of occupancy:
    1. Search for additional populations.
    2. Weed control:
      1. Control Pinus radiata in sections of Mount Gawler Forest.
      2. Control boneseed and bridal creeper at Wongalere.
  5. Monitor all known sites.
  6. Maintain management of the project through the Recovery Team.

Biodiversity benefits

The management of threatening factors will reduce threats to other threatened flora, including the endangered Caladenia rigida,which is often sympatric with C. behrii. Appropriate management of C. behrii sites will also improve the viability and quality of the native vegetation in general. C. behrii is also an indicator of a healthy woodland community. Research on the pollination requirements of C. behrii will assist in the understanding of pollination mechanisms of other Caladenia species, including the nationally endangered C. argocalla, C. gladiolata, C. rigida and C. xantholeuca.

ESTIMATED COST OF RECOVERY

ACTION

YEAR

1.1

1.2

2

3.1

3.2

3.3

3.4

4.1

4.2

5

6

TOTAL

1999

1

1

0.5

3

3

5

6

1

2

3

3

28.5

2000

1

1

0.2

3

3

2

4

1

2

3

3

23.2

2001

1

1

0.2

3

3

1

2.5

1

2

3

3

20.7

2002

1

1

0.2

3

3

1

2

1

2

3

3

20.2

2003

1

1

0.2

3

3

1

2

1

2

3

3

20.2

TOTAL

5

5

1.3

15

15

10

16.5

5

10

15

15

112.8


1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Description

Caladenia behrii is a terrestrial herbaceous orchid that remains dormant underground in tuber form in summer and autumn. In winter it develops a single hairy leaf up to 10 cm long. During spring, mature plants develop a hairy scape up to 60 cm high, usually with one flower, sometimes with two. The flower has five sepals/petals up to 8 cm long, creamy white with red glandular tips that produce a subtle spicy aroma. At the centre of the flower are found a rose coloured curved labellum (lip) and an upright column with pollen and stigma. If the flower is pollinated, an oblong fruit is formed, which dehisces in late October/November, releasing hundreds of minute seeds (Bates & Weber, 1990).

1.2 Distribution

It is believed that prior to European settlement, C. behrii was widespread and relatively common throughout the Mount Lofty Ranges (Bates, 1994). At present the distribution is limited to two small disjunct areas at least 25 km apart: approximately 60 km2 in the Kersbrook/Williamstown region, and approximately 35 km2 in the Belair/Clarendon region (Figure 1), giving a total estimated extent of occurrence of 95 km2. Using records on the Threatened Plant Species Population Database (DEHAA) from between 1968 and 1982, the extent of occurrence in 1968 is estimated to have been 202 km2 (Figure 1), indicating a decline of at least 50% in 30 years. The total area of occupancy in 1998, calculated using 100 m x 100 m grid cells, is approximately 1.5 km2.

1.3 Population Size

An extensive survey conducted in 1998 (Bickerton, 1999) found 1,980 mature plants in 19 populations of C. behrii, 13 in the Kersbrook/Williamstown region, and six in the Belair/Clarendon region (Figure 1). Four of the outlying populations are close to extinction, with irregular sightings of mature plants over the last five years. Ten populations were found to have less than 20 mature plants, and another five had less than 70. Only four populations are thought to be viable at present: Para Wirra Recreation Park (estimated 580 mature plants), Mt. Gawler Forest (461 located at nine separate sites), Warren CP (427) and Kersbrook Forest (142). It is a matter of some concern that more than 70% of all known C. behrii plants are found in only three populations.

1.4 Habitat

C. behrii occurs in shallow loams, amongst Eucalyptus goniocalyx/E. obliqua/E. fasciculosa woodland in the Kersbrook/Williamstown region, and amongst E. obliqua/E. microcarpa/E. leucoxylon woodland in the Belair/Clarendon region. The understorey is usually open and shrubby, with typical plants including Pultenaea daphnoides, P. largiflorens, Spyridium parvifolium, Acacia pycnantha, Hakea rostrata and H. carinata. Caladenia behrii is generally found on moderate slopes, but also on ridge tops, and occasionally near creek beds. It is often found growing alongside bushwalking paths, vehicle tracks or roads, because of the openness of these locations.

1.5 Life History/Ecology

Like other Caladenia species, C. behrii is believed to live in symbiosis with an underground mycorrhizal fungus, from which it derives phosphorus. Although seeds can be germinated ex situ without the presence of the fungus (Paget, pers. comm.), mycorrhizae generally invade the embryo or root system of Caladenia juveniles in the very early stages of development and remain there for the duration of the plant's life. A plant may remain a juvenile for two to five years, producing only a single leaf each spring. During the dormant season (summer to autumn) its nutrient reserves are stored in two small tubers. A mature plant is believed to have reproductive potential for about 10 years (Bates & Weber, 1990).

1.6 Pollination

Caladenia behrii is one of many Caladenia species that are pollinated by male wasps of the Thynninaefamily. The flower exudes a kairomone (a pheromone simulant) from the tips of their sepals. This kairomone imitates the pheromone produced by a female Thynnid wasp, and may even be specific to one species of wasp. Any male wasps of the species that are foraging nearby will fly to the flower and attempt to copulate with the labellum, inadvertently removing pollinia in the process. Thynnid wasps neither search for, nor receive food from the orchid (Stoutamire, 1975), instead they forage from nectar-producing flowers such as Hakea spp., Leptospermum spp. and Eucalyptus spp. (Armstrong, 1979). Therefore the survival of the orchid depends on healthy remnant vegetation which contains a diversity of these food sources for the pollinator.

1.7 Reasons for Conservation Status

Currently there are fewer than 2000 mature C. behrii plants known (Bickerton, 1999) and the extent of occurrence is estimated to have decreased from 202 km2 to 95 km2 (more than 50%) over the last 20 to 30 years (two generations). Therefore the species is considered Endangered according to IUCN criterion C1 (IUCN, 1994).

1.8 Cause of Decline

The main reason for the decline of the species is the loss of habitat due to land clearance. This has resulted in small, fragmented populations. Ten populations are so small (less than 20 mature plants) that they are likely to become extinct unless immediate and appropriate action is taken. In many cases the fragmentation of suitable remnant vegetation has led to a diminution of habitat quality and it is thought that pollinator numbers have been reduced as a result.

1.9 Current Threats

The major threat to the species is herbivory by kangaroos, hares and/or rabbits in four of the northern populations, and 'woolly bear' caterpillars in the southern populations. Also, weed invasion by boneseed, bridal creeper and/or blackberry poses a threat to four of the populations. Other threats are site-specific, and include the soil erosion and vandalism caused by mountain bike riders, road work practices, vehicular activity, horses and their riders, and collectors.

1.10 Existing Conservation Measures

An extensive survey was conducted in 1998 to monitor known populations and ascertain their size, and to assess the extent of pollination, successful pod development, herbivory, weed invasion and any other threats. The management requirements of each population are now known, and recovery actions have commenced.

Members from six different community groups volunteered time and effort for the 1998 survey, and all are keen to continue their involvement in the project. It is anticipated that they will participate in future monitoring exercises, and also in threat abatement in subsequent years.

A Recovery Team has been operational since April 1998. The team contains representatives of all land managers that have C. behrii populations on their land. All have been alerted to the status of the C. behrii populations for which they are responsible and the issues specific to these populations, and for each population a management strategy is currently being formulated.

1.11 Strategy for Recovery

Over the next five years the site-specific management strategies will be fine-tuned in collaboration with land managers and community groups where applicable. Seed from all populations will be collected and stored in order to secure genetic variability. Mature plants in the smallest populations will be individually protected in the short term. The Recovery Team will investigate and implement methods to reduce threats, and enhance pollination and recruitment over the next ten years. Land managers and community groups will be trained in monitoring to ensure that this is ongoing.


2 RECOVERY OBJECTIVES

There is an immediate aim to continue risk management and minimize the likelihood of losing smaller populations, and an ongoing objective to stabilize or increase all populations. The overall objectives are:

  1. Long Term: To increase the probability of survival of C. behrii across its range.
  2. Medium Term: To improve the conservation status of C. behrii from Endangered to Vulnerable within five years.

2.1 Specific Objectives

The first two specific objectives are necessary for the species to survive, and the last two are directly related to improving the conservation status of C. behrii:

  1. Maintain the extent of occurrence of the species.
  2. Minimize the loss genetic variability across the species' range.
  3. Increase the abundance of the species.
  4. Increase the area of occupancy of the species.

3 RECOVERY CRITERIA

For the Recovery Plan and its desired objective to be assessed as successful, the total population of C. behrii should increase by 25% (from 1,980 to 2,500 mature plants) within five years, and by 100% (to 4,000 mature plants) within ten years. NB. Since a plant takes two to five years to reach maturity, it is unrealistic to predict major increases in only five years.

3.1 Progress Criteria

  1. The following measures will be used to gauge whether the specific objectives have been achieved:
  2. The majority of populations that currently have less than 20 mature plants (Figure 1) are protected from extrinsic threats within one year, and increased in size by at least 50% within five years.
  3. Seed from all known populations is collected and stored within one year to minimize the loss of genetic variability.
  4. The total number of mature plants has increased from 1,980 to at least 2,500 within five years, consisting of:
    • At least five populations with more than 250 mature plants and
    • At least seven other populations with more than 50 mature plants.
  5. The total area of occupancy for the species is increased by at least 5%, from 148 ha to at least 155 ha within five years, with an appreciable increase in range for at least 6 populations.

4 RECOVERY ACTIONS

Recovery of C. behrii will require immediate action to secure the smallest populations, thereby maintaining the current extent of occurrence. Concurrently (and subsequently), it is intended to stabilize or increase populations and their area of occupancy by controlling extrinsic threats (weeds, herbivores etc), hand pollinating and enhancing recruitment. This work will be done in association with land managers and according to recommendations from the Recovery Team.

A very high level of participation by community groups and land managers is currently driving the recovery of C. behrii. The Recovery Team is fostering this involvement by encouraging groups and individuals to take an active role in both threat abatement and monitoring. During the 1998 season, volunteers from Threatened Plant Action Group (TPAG), Friends of Para Wirra Recreation Park, Native Orchid Society of SA (NOSSA), Girl Guides and Scouts of SA, Roachdale Reserve management committee and Friends of Scott Creek CP took part in the survey and data collection. These groups contributed more than 450 hours of time and over 1650 km of vehicle travel to the project, and all groups have expressed their willingness to continue this involvement. National Parks and Wildlife SA Rangers are involved in management actions, and links are also being developed with Friends of Belair NP and the Friends of the Forest (associated with Forestry SA).

Actions Needed

4.1 Threat abatement for very small populations

The aim is to remove or reduce the factors that threaten the extinction of the smallest populations of C. behrii. The 1998 survey found that ten populations had less than 20 mature plants, and herbivores and/or weeds threaten the survival of these populations.

4.1.1 Herbivory control

Because the populations most threatened by extinction are very small, individual plants can be protected from herbivores with a minimum of effort and cost. Protection will be in the form of:

Netting or tree guards

Kangaroos, rabbits and goats potentially threaten all C. behrii populations, particularly the smallest ones. The Recovery Team will consider, and implement if suitable, the strategy of placing netting or tree guards over individual plants at the following sites:

The other small populations are located close to bushwalking tracks, and tree guards at these sites could be vandalized.

Chemical control

Caterpillars have been seen eating C. behrii flowers in the small populations in the Belair/Ironbank region. Snails are also considered to be a threat in this region (Bates, pers. comm.). If considered suitable by the Recovery Team, Dipel (biological control for caterpillars) and snail pellets will be used to control these two pests at the following sites:

ACTION 1.1 - Cost Estimate ($'000s)

Year 1

Year 2

Year 3

Year 4

Year 5

TOTAL

1

1

1

1

1

5

4.1.2 Weed control

Weeds are found in the immediate vicinity of two of the smallest C. behrii populations.

Blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius) is currently growing on the Ironbank private property, adjacent to where the orchid is found. The owners will be encouraged to remove the blackberry using the cut and swab method.

A dense population of boneseed (Chrysanthemoides monilifera) occurs near to the western population of C. behrii at Belair NP and threatens to overtake the population. The Friends of Belair NP will be encouraged to control the spread of boneseed using the cut and swab method and by hand weeding.

ACTION 1.2 - Cost Estimate ($'000s)

Year 1

Year 2

Year 3

Year 4

Year 5

TOTAL

1

1

1

1

1

5

4.2 Collect and store seed

The aim of this action is to secure the genetic variability of the species. Orchid seed is known to remain viable for twenty years (Bates, pers. comm.), therefore seed collected can be used for re-establishment should any of these populations become extinct in the near future. Following Recovery Team approval, seed will be collected from a small number of pods in each population in 1999, immediately prior to dehiscence, and stored at an approved seed storage site such as Black Hill Nursery. In subsequent years, seed will be collected from any newly discovered populations.

ACTION 2 - Cost Estimate ($'000s)

Year 1

Year 2

Year 3

Year 4

Year 5

TOTAL

0.5

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

1.3

4.3 Increase abundance

One of the objectives of the Recovery Plan is to increase the size of C. behrii populations where possible. Ten populations of C. behrii contain less than 20 mature plants and are threatened with imminent extinction. Another five populations were found to have 40 - 70 mature plants, and numbers could easily decrease in the advent of adverse disturbance. Where appropriate it is intended to use hand pollination and recruitment enhancement to stabilize and increase these populations, since such methods are effective and inexpensive. These actions will be continued by Recovery team members and trained volunteers from relevant community groups.

4.3.1 Hand pollination

If population sizes are to be increased, then pollination and seed set must occur. Fragmentation and degradation of suitable habitat for C. behrii are believed to have caused a decline in pollinator numbers. The long-term solution to this problem is to improve habitat quality and thus provide more food sources for the pollinator, and to increase habitat connectivity and thus improve the viability of pollinator populations. However, a more direct and efficient answer for C. behrii is to hand-pollinate a proportion of the flowers. Hand pollination trials were conducted in 1998 (Bickerton, 1999), and the results were positive. Flowers will be hand pollinated by experienced persons and trained volunteers according to guidelines devised by the Recovery Team.

ACTION 3.1 - Cost Estimate ($'000s)

Year 1

Year 2

Year 3

Year 4

Year 5

TOTAL

3

3

3

3

3

15

4.3.2 Recruitment enhancement

The Recovery Team will consider a range of options for improving the likelihood of recruitment. These possible strategies will be investigated, and if found suitable, protocols will be produced and the strategies will be included in management plans. Although a C. behrii pod contains many hundreds of seeds, few of them germinate and establish as mature plants. Seeds are released in November, but do not germinate until the following autumn, and they face the risk of being eaten or being dispersed by water or wind to unsuitable sites in the meantime. Additionally, a plant will not become established unless it has taken root in soil that contains the correct mycorrhizae.

The options to be considered by the Recovery Team are:

There is anecdotal evidence (Bates, pers. comm.) that recruitment of C. behrii improves when the surface of the soil is cleared of leaf litter. The strategy of clearing around the base of the C. behrii that have developing seedpods will be investigated and implemented if appropriate. It is also thought that germination is enhanced if the soil surface has been scarified. A quadrat was set up in the 1998 season to determine the importance of scarifying, and if it proves positive then it will be used to enhance recruitment.

Further to a), the Recovery Team will investigate (and implement if suitable) the option of collecting seed from developed pods and spreading it in the immediate vicinity of other C. behrii individuals in autumn. By waiting until autumn to distribute the seed, much less is taken as a food source, or blown or washed away. Additionally, in distributing the seed in the vicinity of mature C. behrii, the likelihood of it coming into contact with suitable mycorrhizae is optimized.

In the past there has been difficulty with many Caladenia species (including C. behrii) in cultivating them to a mature stage. However there have recently been encouraging developments in research in this field. The suggestion of propagating C. behrii in a nursery will be investigated, and if the procedure were deemed appropriate, seedlings would be re-introduced into populations that are nearing extinction.

The feasibility of removing plants from stable populations and introducing them into endangered populations to increase numbers will be assessed, and the practice will be implemented if appropriate. The potential problem of hygiene must first be overcome, and the policy of using local provenance propagules must also be practised. A translocation proposal that addresses these and other relevant issues will be prepared and submitted to DEHAA before any translocation occurs.

ACTION 3.2 - Cost Estimate ($'000s)

Year 1

Year 2

Year 3

Year 4

Year 5

TOTAL

3

3

3

3

3

15

4.3.3 Herbivory control

The aim is to minimize the incidence of herbivory on C. behrii plants, thereby allowing more C. behrii flowers to be pollinated naturally. Most mature C. behrii develop only one flower each year, and as many as 36% of the 1,228 flowers surveyed in 1998 were eaten by herbivores (Bickerton, 1999). Such an impact greatly reduces the opportunities for natural pollination to occur. As a result of the 1998 survey, it is now known which sites are most threatened by herbivory.

The 1998 survey showed that herbivory was also a serious threat to populations at:

The Recovery team will continue discussions with Park Rangers, Forestry SA staff and DEHAA (Biodiversity Branch), as part of the process of formulating strategies to control kangaroos in these areas.

ACTION 3.3 - Cost Estimate ($'000s)

Year 1

Year 2

Year 3

Year 4

Year 5

TOTAL

5

2

1

1

1

10

4.3.4 Control site-specific threats

The Recovery Team intends to continue working with the relevant organizations and individuals to develop and implement strategies for particular threats to specific sites:

Vehicles parking on Bassnet Road adjacent to Para Wirra Recreation Park are damaging the flowers and the habitat of the C. behrii population. The adjacent land managers and Playford Council have been alerted to this problem, and roadside barriers will be erected to prevent vehicles from running onto the roadside verge.

Currently horse riders have access to Para Wirra Recreation Park, and one of their entry stiles is in the midst of the C. behrii population. In order to prevent trampling and grazing of the orchid by horses, the NPWSA will be encouraged to close off this stile and provide access for the horses elsewhere.

Mountain bike enthusiasts are damaging the habitat of three subpopulations of C. behrii in Mount Gawler Forest. Soil has become compacted and eroded, illegal tracks have been forged through the vegetation and orchid flowers have also been damaged. The Recovery Team will continue working with Forestry SA to ensure that the Mountain Bike Riders Association is re-located to a less sensitive site.

ACTION 3.4 - Cost Estimate ($'000s)

Year 1

Year 2

Year 3

Year 4

Year 5

TOTAL

6

4

2.5

2

2

10

4.4 Increase the area of occupancy

By increasing the area of occupancy of a species, the potential to survive disturbance, maintain genetic diversity and increase in abundance is improved. Hence the conservation status is also improved directly and indirectly. The area of occupancy will be increased by searching for new populations and by removing or reducing the threat of weeds that pose a problem.

4.4.1 Search for additional populations

The Project Officer will continue to consult with members of the Native Orchid Society of SA and expert botanists in order to ascertain the possible location of unknown populations of C. behrii. The Officer will also use incidental data recorded in association with C. behrii records at the State Herbarium and on DEHAA databases, and will consult vegetation association maps produced from the Environmental Database of South Australia. Searches for additional populations will continue as additional information comes to hand.

ACTION 4.1 - Cost Estimate ($'000s)

Year 1

Year 2

Year 3

Year 4

Year 5

TOTAL

1

1

1

1

1

5

4.4.2 Weed control

It is intended to remove threatening weeds from the vicinity of two of the larger C. behrii populations. The orchid is known to thrive in open woodland and in other open situations such as along roadsides and the verge of bushwalking tracks. Certain invasive weeds tend to dominate such areas, to the detriment of the orchid. The intention is to work with land managers and community groups, using minimum disturbance methods.

ACTION 4.2 - Cost Estimate ($'000s)

Year 1

Year 2

Year 3

Year 4

Year 5

TOTAL

2

2

2

2

2

10

4.5 Monitor all Known Populations

In order to gauge the effectiveness of management actions, and also to assess the stability, increase or decline of populations, all populations will be systematically monitored. The search for new populations will also continue. Data from all surveys and monitoring will entered into the Threatened Plant Species Populations Database at DEHAA.The following factors will be monitored:

  1. Number of mature plants
  2. Number of pollinated flowers
  3. Number of flowers forming pods
  4. Extent of weed invasion
  5. Herbivory
  6. The results of any management activities undertaken.

ACTION 5 - Cost Estimate ($'000s)

Year 1

Year 2

Year 3

Year 4

Year 5

TOTAL

3

3

3

3

3

15

4.6 Maintain management of the project through the Recovery Team

The Recovery Team will continue to plan and implement all actions, and monitor the success of the project. In this way, scientific experts and community representatives can regularly review the progress of the project.

The Recovery Team will also have responsibility for ensuring that C. behrii recovery is integrated with broader biodiversity conservation strategies in the Mt Lofty Ranges. This will enable long term habitat reconstruction measures to target problems of habitat degradation, population isolation, and pollinator limitation. Members of the Recovery Team will promote integration of C. behrii conservation into revegetation programs, the Mt Lofty Ranges Catchment Program, reserve management planning and other major biodiversity initiatives that arise.

The Recovery Team includes representatives from the Department for Environment, Heritage and Aboriginal Affairs; Forestry SA; National Trust of SA; Threatened Plant Action Group and the Native Orchid Society of SA. There will be administrative costs involved in running a Recovery Team and preparing reports.

ACTION 6 - Cost Estimate ($'000s)

Year 1

Year 2

Year 3

Year 4

Year 5

TOTAL

3

3

3

3

3

15


5 IMPLEMENTATION SCHEDULE

Task

Task Description

Priority

Feasibility (%)

Responsibility

Cost Estimate ($'000s)

Year 1

Year 2

Year 3

Year 4

Year 5

TOTAL

1.1

Herbivory control - small populations

1

90

TPAG, community groups

1

1

1

1

1

5

1.2

Weed control- small populations

1

95

TPAG, community groups

1

1

1

1

1

5

2

Seed collection & storage

1

100

TPAG, community groups

0.5

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

1.3

3.1

Hand pollination

1

80

TPAG, community groups

3

3

3

3

3

15

3.2

Recruitment enhancement

1

80

TPAG, community groups

3

3

3

3

3

15

3.3

Herbivory control

1

90

TPAG, National Trust, Forestry SA, NPWSA

5

2

1

1

1

10

3.4

Other Threats

2

90

TPAG, land managers

6

4

2.5

2

2

16.5

4.1

Search for New Populations

3

80

TPAG, community groups

1

1

1

1

1

5

4.2

Weed control

2

95

TPAG, community groups

2

2

2

2

2

10

5

Monitoring

3

100

TPAG, community groups

3

3

3

3

3

15

6

Recovery Team

3

100

TPAG, DEHAA, land managers, NOSSA

3

3

3

3

3

15

TOTAL

28.5

23.2

20.7

20.2

20.2

112.8


6 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The assistance given by Peter Copley, Adrian Stokes and Karan Smith (DEHAA) in compiling this document is gratefully acknowledged. The support provided by the members of the C. behrii Recovery Team (Pat and Peter Clark, Dr Caroline Crawford, Erik Dahl, Brian Gepp, Janine Kraehenbuehl, Andrew Moylan, Alison Oppermann, David Pettifor, Meg Robertson, Yvonne Steed and Lynda Tout-Smith) is greatly appreciated.


7 REFERENCES

Armstrong, J.A. (1979). Biotic pollination mechanisms in the Australian flora - a review. New Zealand Journal of Botany 17, 467 - 508.

Bates, R. (1994). Recovery plan for Pink lip Spider Orchid Caladenia behrii Schldl. (unpublished, lodged with DEHAA).

Bates, R. & Weber, J.Z. (1990). 'Orchids of South Australia'. Government Printer, South Australia.

Bickerton, D.C. (1999). A report on the 1998 survey and monitoring of Caladenia behrii. (unpublished, lodged with DEHAA).

Briggs, J.D. & Leigh, J.H. (1995). 'Rare and Threatened Australian Plants.' CSIRO Centre for Plant Diversity Research.

I.U.C.N. (1994). 'IUCN Red List Categories.' IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Stoutamire, W. (1975). Australian terrestrial orchids, Thynnine wasps, and pseudo-copulation. Orchadian 6, 110 - 111.

Stoutamire, W. (1983). Wasp pollinated species of Caladenia (Orchidaceae) in South-western Australia. Australian Journal of Botany 31, 383 - 394.


8 APPENDIX

Interests affected by the Caladenia behrii Recovery Project and the Recovery Plan's recommended actions; also the manner in which these interests have been addressed. P.O.=Project Officer; R.T.=Recovery Team

Location

Hundred

Section

Land Holder / Manager

Manner of Address

Para Wirra Rd

BAROSSA

Adj. 331

Barossa Council

Liaison with P.O.

Wongalere

'

332

SA Water

R.T. member

     

Lessee: Girl Guides SA

R.T. member

Hale CP

'

315

NPWSA

R.T. member

Bassnet Rd

PARA WIRRA

423

NPWSA

R.T. member

'

'

Adj. 423

City of Playford

R.T. member

'

'

428

NPWSA

R.T. member

'

'

Adj. 428

City of Playford

R.T. member

'

'

Adj. 414

Adelaide Hills Council

R.T. member

'

'

414

Forestry SA

R.T. member

Frank Barker Rd

'

Opp. FP207

City of Playford

R.T. member

'

'

FP1848

Private property

Liaison with P.O.

Kestel Rd

'

81

Forestry SA

R.T. member

Kersbrook Forest

'

263

Forestry SA

R.T. member

'

'

266

Forestry SA

R.T. member

Warren Reservoir

'

458

SA Water

R.T. member

Tower Rd

'

698

Forestry SA

R.T. member

Warren CP

'

387

NPWSA

R.T. member

'

'

118

NPWSA

R.T. member

Stone Reserve

'

426

Transport SA

Liaison with P.O.

Roachdale

'

320

National Trust SA

R.T. member

Hope Hill

'

78

Forestry SA

R.T. member

'

'

79

Forestry SA

R.T. member

Mt Gawler

'

52

Forestry SA

R.T. member

'

'

59

Forestry SA

R.T. member

Devil's Gully

'

80

Forestry SA

R.T. member

'

'

81

Forestry SA

R.T. member

Belair

ADELAIDE

938

Private property

Liaison with P.O.

Belair NP

'

675

NPWSA

R.T. member

Ironbank

NOARLUNGA

410

W. Pole

Liaison with P.O.

'

'

283

Private property

Liaison with P.O.

Scott Ck. CP

'

1672

NPWSA

R.T. member