Our Sea, Our Future
Major findings of the State of the Marine Environment Report for Australia
Compiled by Leon P. Zann
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Townsville Queensland
Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories, Canberra (1995)
ISBN 0 642 17391 5
The close connections between ecosystems , processes, resources, uses and issues in the coastal zone require that coastal zone management occur at an appropriate time and spacial scale and is closely integrated at all geographic and geopolitical levels.
The goals of marine environmental management are to maintain biodiversity and ecologically sustainable development. The alternatives are continuing environmental degradation and ecological collapse.
Description of Australia's marine environment
1. The coastal zone (Dr L.P. Zann, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority)
2. The ocean (Prof J. Middleton, Uni. NSW)
3. The seafloor (Dr P. Harris, Uni. of Sydney)
4. The land/sea interface (Dr M. Furnas, Australian Institute of Marine Science)
5. Biogeography of Australia's marine biota (Dr G.C.P. Poore, Museum of Victoria)
6. Estuaries and enclosed waters (Prof. P. Saenger, Southern Cross Uni.)
7. Coastal saltmarsh (Assoc. Prof P. Adam, Uni. NSW)
8. Mangrove systems (Dr. A. Robertson & Dr D. Alongi, Australian Institute of Marine Science)
9. Seagrasses (Dr I. Poiner & C. Peterkin, CSIRO, Cleveland)
10. Hard and soft shores (Dr P.G. Fairweather, Macquarie Uni. & Dr G.P. Quinn, Monash Uni.)
11. Temperate reefs (Dr M.J. Keough, Uni. Melbourne & Dr A. Butler, Uni. Adelaide)
12. Coral reefs (Dr J.E.N. Veron, Australian Institute of Marine Science)
13. Deep water communities (Dr G.C.P. Poore, Museum of Victoria)
14. Phytoplankton (Dr G. Hallegraeff, Uni. Tasmania)
Status of marine biodiversity
15. Issues in the conservation of rare, threatened and endemic marine species (Dr G.P. Jones & Dr U.L. Kaly, James Cook Uni.)
16. The status of lower vertebrates (Dr F. Michaelis, Marine and Coastal Section, Dept. Environment, Sport and Territories)
17. Status of Australia's seabirds (Dr G.J.B. Ross, Australian Nature Conservation Agency, and 14 co-authors)
18. The status of marine reptiles and mammals (Prof. H. Marsh, James Cook Uni., Dr P.J. Corkeron, Uni. Sydney, Dr. C.J. Limpus, Queensland Dept. Environment and Heritage, Dr P.D. Shaughnessy, CSIRO, Canberra & T.M. Ward, James Cook Uni.)
Australians and the marine environment
Importance to indigenous communities
19. Pre-European use of the sea by Aboriginal people: an archaeological perspective (A. Nicholson & S. Cane, Narooma)
20. Aboriginal maritime culture (Dr D. Smyth, James Cook Uni.)
21. Use of the coastal and marine environment by Aboriginal communities: case study from northern New South Wales (S. Schnierer, S. Robinson, R. Heron & J. Nayutah, Southern Cross Uni.)
22. Torres Strait Islander maritime culture (Dr. D. Lawrence, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority)
Importance to general community
23. Social values and perceptions of the marine environment (Dr L.P. Zann, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority & I. Dutton, Southern Cross Uni.)
24. Maritime cultural heritage (M. Staniforth and K. Jones, Australian National Maritime Museum)
25. Coastal cultural heritage (M.L. Walkington and A. Marsden, Australian Heritage Commission)
26. Community involvement in marine conservation (Dr L.P. Zann & D. Alcock, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority)
Uses of the coastal and marine environments and their impacts
27. The economic value of the marine environment (S. Driml, Australian National Uni.)
Tourism and recreation
28. Coastal and marine tourism and recreation (S. Driml, Australian National Uni.)
29. Impacts of tourism on marine and coastal systems (I. Dutton & K. Luckie, Southern Cross Uni.)
30. Status of commercial fisheries (K. McLoughlin, Bureau of Resource Science)
31. Coastal fisheries: a critical review (Dr. R. Kearney, NSW Fisheries).
32. The by-catch issue and effects of trawling (Dr S.J. Kennelly, NSW Fisheries)
33. Recreational fisheries and the catch-sharing issue (G. Coleman, Sports and Recreational Fishing Federation, Canberra, & B. Shorthouse, Consultant, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority)
34. Shoreline harvesting (Dr G.P. Quinn, Monash Uni., Dr P.G. Fairweather, Macquarie Uni. & Dr M.J. Keough, Uni. Melbourne)
35. Aquaculture and potential environmental impacts (Dr P. Rothlisberg, CSIRO, Cleveland & C. Barlow, Queensland Dept. Primary Industries)
Transport and energy
36. Shipping and ports (S. Raaymakers, Australian Maritime Safety Authority/Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority)
37. Offshore petroleum exploration and production (J. Beck, K. Pendoley & I. Stejskal, Australian Petroleum Exploration Association)
38. Offshore petroleum and marine conservation (Dr L.P. Zann, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority)
39. Oil spills, prevention and control (S. Raaymakers, Australian Maritime Safety Authority/Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority)
General issues in the coastal and marine environments
Coastal development and climate change
40. Coastal modifications and their effects (Dr E. Bird, Geostudies, Melbourne)
41. Climate change, sea level rise and potential effects on Australia's coastal and marine environments (Dr C. Mitchell, CSIRO, Mordialloc & I. Carruthers, Climate Change and Environmental Liaison Branch, Dept. Environment, Sport and Territories)
Water quality and marine pollution
42. Nutrients and eutrophication in coastal waters (J. Brodie, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority)
43. Hydrocarbon levels in the marine environment (Prof. D.W. Connell, Griffith Uni.)
44. Heavy metals and organometals in the marine environment (Dr G.E. Batley, CSIRO Centre for Advanced Analytical Chemistry, Menai)
45. Organochlorines in the marine environment (Dr. B. Richardson, Deakin Uni.)
46. Ocean and beach litter (Dr. N. Wace, Australian National Uni., A. Reynolds, Greenpeace Australia & Dr L.P. Zann, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority)
47. Microorganisms in the marine environment and human health (Dr N.J. Ashbolt, AWT Science and Environment, Sydney)
Introduced and native pests
48. Exotic marine species and the ballast water problem (Dr L. Lehane, Science Communications Services, Canberra; L. Arundell, Bureau of Resource Sciences, Canberra & Dr L.P. Zann, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority)
49. Crown-of-thorns starfish outbreaks on Australian coral reefs (Dr P.J. Moran, Australian Institute of Marine Science; Dr B. Lassig & Dr L.P. Zann, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority)
50. Outbreaks of coral-eating snails on Australian coral reefs (Dr A. Ayling, Sea Research, Daintree)
Issues in the marine environment around Australia
51. Issues in Queensland's marine environment (D. Tarte, M. Hall & K. Stocks, Australian Littoral Society)
52. Issues in New South Wales' marine environment (Dr R. Macdonald (issues) & N. Philip (sewage), Environment Protection Authority of New South Wales)
53. Issues in Victoria's marine environment (R. Winstanley, Victorian Fisheries Research Institute)
54. Issues in Tasmania's marine environment (C. Rees, for Parks and Wildlife Service, Department of Environment and Land Management)
55. Issues in South Australia's marine environment (Dr K. Edyvane, South Australian Research and Development Institute (Aquatic Sciences)
56. Issues in Western Australia's marine environment (Dr J.A. Stoddart, Kinhill Engineers & Dr C. J. Simpson, Environmental Protection Authority)
57. Issues in the Northern Territory's marine environment (Dr R. Hanley, Northern Territory Museum)
Marine environmental management and conservation
Administrative and legal aspects
58. Australia's maritime zones, international borders and intergovernmental arrangements on the marine environment (Dr V. Prescott, Uni. Melbourne; Dr. A. Bergin, Australian Defence Force Academy, Canberra; & Dr M. Howard, Uni. Tasmania)
59. Environmental impact assessment (Dr A. Martyn & Prof. B. Boer, Faculty of Law, Uni. Sydney)
60. Protection of marine species: national and international responsibilities (Dr I. Ivanovici, G. Anderson, F. Antram, B. Male, R. Moore & K. Weaver, Australian Nature Conservation Agency)
61. Ecologically sustainable development: the National Strategy and implications for marine environmental management (S. Driml, Australian National Uni., Canberra & Dr L.P. Zann, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority)
62. Integrated coastal planning: findings and recommendations of the Resource Assessment Commission's Coastal Zone Inquiry (R.A. Kenchington, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority)
Marine science and education
63. The status of marine science and its contribution to marine environmental management (Dr L.P. Zann, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority)
64. Information management (Drs D. Brunkhorst, J. Busby & W. Slater, Environmental Resources Information Network)
65. The status of formal marine education (M. Turner, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority)
66. The status of community marine education (D. Alcock, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority)
Marine protected areas
67. Assessment of marine protected areas in Australia (C. Bleakley, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Dr I. Ivanovici, Commonwealth Environmental Protection Agency & P. Ottesen, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority)
68. The Ocean Rescue 2000 Marine Protected Area Program (J.W. Muldoon, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority).
69. The Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area: the world's largest multiple-use managed area (Dr L.P. Zann, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority)
70. Ningaloo Marine Park (Dr S. Osborne, Western Australia Department of Conservation and Land Management)
71. Solitary Islands Marine Reserve (C. Ashdown, Coffs Harbour)
72. Jervis Bay Marine Park (M. Fortescue & F. Kristo, ANCA)
73. National Nature Reserves (M. Griffin, ANCA)
74. The Torres Strait Protected Zone (Dr D. Lawrence & Dr W. Gladstone, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority
75. Antarctic and Subantarctic Territories (Dr P. Quilty, Australian Antarctic Division)
Marine conservation and marine protected areas in Australian States and Territories
76. Marine conservation and marine protected areas in Queensland (E. Eager & J. Campbell, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority)
77. Marine conservation and marine protected areas in New South Wales (J. Burchmore, New South Wales Dept. of Agriculture and Fisheries)
78. Marine conservation and marine protected areas in Victoria (J. Phillips, Department of Conservation and Natural Resources)
79. Marine conservation and marine protected areas in Tasmania (P. Bosworth, Dept. of Parks, Wildlife and Heritage, Tasmania)
80. Marine conservation and marine protected areas in South Australia (Dr K. Edyvane, South Australian Research and Development Institute (Aquatic Sciences)
81. Marine conservation and marine protected areas in Western Australia (Dr B. Wilson, Murex, consultants for Western Australia Department of Conservation and Land Management)
82. Marine conservation and marine protected areas in Northern Territory (R. Billyard, Conservation Commission of Northern Territory & Dr R. Pyne, Northern Territory Department of Primary Industry and Fisheries)
83. Ocean Rescue 2000 Program (A. Haines, Department of Environment, Sport and Territories)
Other sources of information and illustrations used to compile this report are:
84. Additional information added during the Commonwealth and State review process. Commonwealth Departments and agencies who reviewed this document include the Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories (including Antarctic Division; Climate Change and Marine Branch; Bureau of Meteorology); Attorney-General's Department; CSIRO (including Division of Oceanography; Division of Wildlife and Ecology); Australian Institute of Marine Science; Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade; Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet; Department of Primary Industries and Energy; Hydrographic Office, Royal Australian Navy; Department of Tourism; Department of Transport (including Australian Maritime Safety Authority); Australian Fisheries Management Authority; Bureau of Resource Sciences; Australian Nature Conservation Agency; and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission.
The revised manuscript was reviewed by the Standing Committee of the Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council. This included members of each State and Territory environment and conservation department or agency.
85. DEST 1993, Biodiversity and its value, Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories.
86. ACIUCN 1986, Australia's marine and estuarine areas - A policy for protection, Australian Committee for the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Occasional Paper No. 1.
87. Kailola, P., Williams, M., Stewart, P.C., Reichelt, R.E., McNee, A. and Grieve, C. 1993, Australian fisheries resources, Bureau of Resource Sciences and Fisheries Research and Development Corporation.
88. Clayton, M.N. and King, R.L. 1990, Biology of marine plants , Longman Cheshire.
89. Bunt, J.S. 1987, The Australian marine environment, In, Fauna of Australia, Vol. 1A. General studies, G.W. Dyne (ed.), Australian Government Publishing Service, pp. 17-42.
90. Wilson, B.R. and Allen, G.R. 1987, Major components and distribution of marine fauna, In, Fauna of Australia, Vol. 1A. General studies, G.W. Dyne (ed.), Australian Government Publishing Service, pp. 43-68.
91. RAC 1993, Coastal zone inquiry, Resource Assessment Commission, Australian Government Publishing Service.
92. IOC 1993, Assessment and monitoring of large marine ecosystems, Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, UNESCO.
93. WRI 1990, World resources 1990-91, World Resources Institute, United Nations Environment Programme and United Nations Development Programme, Oxford University Press, New York.
94. DEST 1994, State of the environment reporting: framework for Australia, Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories.
95. GESAMP: (IMO/FAO/UNESCO/EMO/WHO/IAEA/ UN/UNEP) 1990, The state of the marine environment, UN Regional Seas Reports and Studies No. 115, UNEP.
96. Commonwealth of Australia 1992, The earth summit. The UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), Department of the Arts, Sport, the Environment and Territories, Australian Government Publishing Service.
97. WCED 1987, Our common future, World Commission on Environment and Development.
98. Commonwealth of Australia 1992, National strategy for ecologically sustainable development, Australian Government Publishing Service.
99. Commonwealth of Australia 1992, Ecologically sustainable development working groups. Final report - Fisheries, Australian Government Publishing Service.
100. BTCE 1991, Major marine oil spills risk and response, Report 70, Bureau of Transport and Communications Economics, Australian Government Publishing Service.
101. Surfrider Foundation of Australia 1993, State of our surf (SOS) survey, Surfrider Foundation of Australia.
102. Michaelis, F.B. 1994, Further comment on the Law of the Sea, the EEZ and the marine environment, Waves, Vol. 1 (5), p. 6.