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Coastal and marine studies in Australia: a workshop manual for teachers

Griffith University and the Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories, 1997
ISBN 0 868 57872 X

Module 3

Cross-Curriculum Planning for K-7 Coastal and Marine Studies

INTRODUCTION

This module provides a series of activities which emphasises that the context for good teaching and learning cannot be compartmentalised into discrete 'boxes of knowledge'. It encourages teachers to be flexible and skilled in accessing and integrating knowledge and ideas from different disciplines, cultures and sources. This module shows how teachers can do this by working co-operatively with other teachers and community members.

Note to Facilitators: This module is written primarily for K-7 teachers. However, the activities in this module can be used with secondary school teachers to identify the possibilities for integrating coastal and marine studies into all Key Learning Areas

OBJECTIVES

The objectives of this workshop are:

WORKSHOP OUTLINE

There are six activities in this workshop:

  1. Introduction
    This activity is an icebreaker called 'Wally the Whale'. It provides an enjoyable way for participants to get to know one another. Participants are then introduced to the workshop themes and objectives.
  2. Coastal and Marine Themes Across the Curriculum
    A mini-lecture introduces participants to the cross-curriculum nature of coastal and marine studies.
  3. Integrating through the Content of Subject Areas
    This group work activity provides an example of how content integration can be applied to a particular syllabus theme and allows participants to explore ways in which coastal and marine themes can be integrated into the content of different subject areas.
  4. Integrating through Learning Skills and Processes
    A mini-lecture and group discussion encourages participants to examine the use of coastal and marine themes to address generic, cross-curriculum process and attitudinal objectives.
  5. Integrating into Key Learning Areas
    This group activity provides an opportunity for participants to identify ways in which they can infuse coastal and marine themes into a variety of Key Learning Areas.
  6. Conclusion
    The final activity provides an opportunity for participants to work in groups to review the major concepts and skills developed in the workshop and to plan key actions that they would like to take in their teaching situation to adopt a cross-curricular approach to coastal and marine studies.

MATERIALS REQUIRED

A. Provided

Overhead Transparencies
OHT 1: Workshop Outline
OHT 2: Objectives of the Workshop
OHT 3: A Multidisciplinary Approach
OHT 4: Two Approaches to Integrating Coastal and Marine Studies Across the Curriculum
OHT 5: Integrating through the Content of Subject Areas
OHT 6: Examples of Process Integration
OHT 7: Key Learning Areas of the Nationally-Developed Curriculum


 

Resources
Resource 1: 'Wally the Whale'
Resource 2: Integrating the Study of Coastal and Marine Reserves Across the Curriculum
Resource 3: Integrating Across the Curriculum
Resource 4: Integrating Coastal and Marine Studies through Process Objectives
Resource 5A: Science: Opportunities for Coastal and Marine Studies
Resource 5B: SOSE: Opportunities for Coastal and Marine Studies
Resource 5C: English: Opportunities for Coastal and Marine Studies
Resource 5D: The Arts: Opportunities for Coastal and Marine Studies
Resource 5E: Health and Physical Education: Opportunities for Coastal and Marine Studies
Resource 5F: Technology: Opportunities for Coastal and Marine Studies
Resource 6A: Science: Sample Pointers for Coastal and Marine Studies
Resource 6B: SOSE: Sample Pointers for Coastal and Marine Studies
Resource 6C: English: Sample Pointers for Coastal and Marine Studies
Resource 6D: The Arts: Sample Pointers for Coastal and Marine Studies
Resource 6E: Health and Physical Education: Sample Pointers for Coastal and Marine Studies
Resource 6F: Technology: Sample Pointers for Coastal and Marine Studies
Resource 7: Action Planning for Across-the-Curriculum Integration


 

B. To be obtained

Activity 3: An OHT copy of OHTs for each group of 3-4 participants
One copy of Resource 3 enlarged to A3 size for each group of 3-4 participants
Activity 5: A copy of one of Resource 5A-5F enlarged to A3 size for each group of 3-4 participants
(Extracts from relevant State/Territory Curriculum documents could be used instead of Resources 5A-5F)

FURTHER READING

Gough, N. (1992) Blueprints for Greening Schools, Gould League, Prahan.

Monroe, M. and Cappaert, D. (1994) Integrating Environmental Education into the School Curriculum. National Consortium for Environmental Education and Training, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

- The Warrandyte Model School Programme, Gould League, Prahan.

Note: The tables in Resources 5A-F and 6A-F were developed in Stage I of the Coastal and Marine Project. Consult Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories (1996) Coastal and Marine Schools Project. Stage 1 - Part 4: Links with Curriculum. Final Report. Also consult the full curriculum profiles and statements from the nationally-developed curriculum for the eight Key Learning Areas - available from Curriculum Corporation, Carlton, Victoria

ACTIVITIES

1. Introduction

This icebreaker, called 'Wally the Whale', provides an enjoyable way for participants to get to know one another and starts them thinking about the coastal and marine environment. The module has been designed for primary school teachers and illustrates an icebreaker they could use with their own students.

2. Coastal and Marine Themes Across the Curriculum

This mini-lecture introduces participants to the cross-curricular nature of coastal and marine studies. The mini-lecture should be developed from OHT 3 and OHT 4 and the notes below. The mini-lecture should give an overview of the cross-curricular nature of coastal and marine studies. Follow the mini-lecture with the two groupwork activities that develop a more detailed understanding of 'content integration' and 'process integration'.

3. Integrating through the Content of Subject Areas

Debriefing

Note to facilitators: Remind participants to try to write their examples as active learning experiences (as in Resource 2) not just as content topics.

4. Integrating Through Learning Skills and Processes

In this activity participants are introduced to a second strategy for infusing coastal and marine studies across the curriculum. This activity shows participants that coastal and marine themes can be used to develop attitudes and skills that meet the generic process objectives of the curriculum.

5. Integrating into Key Learning Areas

This group activity provides participants with an opportunity to apply ideas from Activities 3 and 4 in order to identify ways in which they can infuse marine and coastal themes into Key Learning Areas (KLAs). This activity also helps participants to develop skills that they can use to integrate coastal and marine themes into their particular State or Territory syllabi.

Note to facilitators: If participants are all K-7 teachers they probably only need to look at the first five levels. If they are secondary teachers they should look at levels 5-8. To provide more relevant examples, facilitators could provide photocopies of their own State/Territory curriculum documents instead of the national KLA examples provided in this module.

6. Conclusion

The purpose of this activity is to give participants an opportunity to review the major concepts and skills developed in the workshop and to identify key actions that they would like to take in their teaching situation, now or in the future, to help them adopt a cross-curricular approach to coastal and marine studies.

OHT 1

Workshop Outline

  1. Introduction
  2. Coastal and Marine Themes Across the Curriculum
  3. Integrating through the Content of Subject Areas
  4. Integrating through Leaning Skills and Processes
  5. Integrating into Key Learning Areas
  6. Conclusion

OHT 2

Objectives of the Workshop

OHT 3

A Multidisciplinary Approach

Source: Adapted from UNESCO (1992) The Earth Summit, Connect, 17 (2); and UNESCO-UNEP (1978) The Tblisi Declaration, Connect, 3 (1).


Agenda 21 calls on governments to prepare national strategies for environmental education and to undertake a thorough review of curricula to ensure a multidisciplinary approach with environmental and development issues and their socio-cultural aspects and linkages, integrated in all subjects and presented from a scientifically sound perspective.

Environmental education is not to be added to educational programmes as a separate discipline or a subject for study, but as a dimension to be integrated into them. Environmental education is the result of a reorientation of the various disciplines and of various educational experiences to provide an integrated appreciation of, and commitment to, the environment.

OHT 4

Two Approaches to Integrating Coastal and Marine Studies Across the Curriculum

Source: Adapted from Monroe, M and Cappaert, D (1993) Integrating Environmental Education into the School Curriculum, National Consortium for Environmental Education and Training, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, pp. 3-5. Reproduced with permission from Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company.


Content Integration can meet the content objectives of a curriculum through coastal and marine activities, examples, units, or courses. The subject may be English or LOTE, where students could learn new vocabulary; or mathematics where students use algebra or arithmetic to solve marine and coastal data problems. The content connection, of course, may also be through a more explicit coastal or marine topic, where students learn about coral reefs, marine pollution or endangered marine species.

Process Integration meets the process objectives of the curriculum through the utilisation of coastal and marine activities, units, projects, or courses. It emphasises critical and creative thinking, problem solving, decision making, analysis, co-operative learning, leadership, communication skills and attitudes conducive to Ecologically Sustainable Development. Process objectives are relevant to all subject areas.

OHT 5

Integrating Through the Content of Subject Areas

Subject/KLA

Sample Learning Experiences

1.  
2.  
3.  
4.  
5.  
6.  
7.  
8.  

OHT 6

Examples of Process Integration

Source: Adapted from Monroe, M and Cappaert, D (1993) Integrating Environmental Education into the School Curriculum, National Consortium for Environmental Education and Training, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, pp.8-9. Reproduced with permission from Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company.

OHT 7

Key Learning Areas in the Nationally-Developed Curriculum

Key Learning Areas

Strands

English
  • Speaking and Listening
  • Reading and Viewing
  • Writing
Mathematics
  • Working Mathematically
  • Space
  • Number
  • Measurement
  • Chance and Data
  • Algebra
Science
  • Earth and Beyond
  • Energy and Change
  • Life and Living
  • Natural and Processed Materials
  • Working Scientifically
The Arts
  • Art and Design
  • Dance
  • Drama
  • Media
  • Music
Technology
  • Designing, Making and Appraising
  • Information
  • Materials
  • Systems
Studies of Society and Environment
  • Time, Continuity and Change
  • Place and Space
  • Culture Resources
  • Natural and Social Systems
  • Investigation, Communication and Participation
Languages Other Than English
  • Oral Interaction
  • Reading and Responding
  • Writing
Health and Physical Education
  • Human Movement
  • Physical Activity and the Community
  • People and Food
  • Safety

Resource 1

'Wally the Whale

  1. anemone, aurelia, abalone
  2. beach, barnacle, bivalve, bryozoan
  3. coral, coast, crab, cowrie
  4. dolphin, dune, dugong
  5. eel, estuary, echinoderm
  6. fish, feather star
  7. groper, gastropod, goby
  8. hammerhead, hermit crabs, holothurian
  9. isopod
  10. jellyfish
  11. knightfish, kelp, krill
  12. limpet, lobster
  13. mangrove, mollusc, mussel, manta ray
  14. nudibranch, nautilus, nereid
  15. octopus, ocean, oyster
  16. periwinkle, prawn, pearl
  17. queenfish
  18. reef, radiolarian
  19. seaweed, seal, seahorse, squid
  20. turtle, trochus
  21. urchin, ulva (green algae)
  22. velella, venus (bivalve)
  23. whale, wobbegong
  24. xenostrobus (mussel), xenia (soft coral)
  25. yellowfin, yabbie
  26. zostera (eelgrass), zeus (fish)

Resource 2

Integrating the Study of Coastal And Marine Reserves Across the Curriculum

Image of Integrating the Study of Coastal And Marine Reserves Across the Curriculum

Resource 3

Integrating Across the Curriculum

Image of Integrating Across the Curriculum

Resource 4

Integrating Coastal and Marine Studies Through Process Objectives

Skills

Communication skills

Numeracy skills

Study skills

Problem-solving skills

Personal and social skills

Information technology skills

Creative skills

Attitudes

Resource 5A

Science: Opportunities for Coastal And Marine Studies

Strand: Life and Living

Level

Living together

Structure and function

Biodiversity, change and continuity

1
1.7
Identifies personal needs and the needs of other familiar living things.
Study the needs of marine living things.
1.8
Identifies observable personal features and those of other familiar living things.
Study features of marine organisms
1.9
Identifies personal features and those of animals and plants that change over time.
Study the diversity of plants and animals in the marine environment.
2
2.7
Describes the types of relationships between living things.
Study relationships between marine organisms.
2.8
Links observable features to their functions in familiar living things.
Compare living things' features to the functions.
2.9
Compares and contracts similarities and differences within and between groups of familiar living things.
Compare similarities and differences within and between marine living organisms.
3
3.7
Maps relationships between living things in a habitat.
3.8
Identifies external and internal features of living things that work together to form systems with particular functions.
3.9
Explains why some living things have become extinct and identifies current endangered species.
4
4.7
Identifies events that affect balance in an ecosystem.
4.8
Explains the functioning of systems within living things.
4.9
Explains how living things have changed over geological time, using evidence from various sources.
5
5.7
Describes the role of living things in cycling energy and matter.
5.8
Presents evidence that plants and animals are made up of functional units called cells.
5.9
Identifies features of groups of living things that enable them to compete successfully in their environments.
6
6.7
Analyses the effects of environmental change on living things and ecosystems.
6.8
Explains how living things obtain, store and transport nutrients, transform energy and manage wastes.
6.9
Describes how genetic continuity is maintained from generation to generation.
7
7.7
Evaluates scientific evidence about the long-term impact on ecosystems of human intervention.
7.8
Identifies milestones in the development of our understanding of cell structure and comments on their significance.
7.9
Outlines evidence for a scientific theory of evolution.
8
8.7
Identifies the role of scientific disciplines in an interdisciplinary approach to understanding and managing ecosystems.
8.8
Describes scientific interventions into life processes and assesses their impact.
8.9
Examines the importance of biodiversity to the survival of life on the planet.

Resource 5B

Sose: Opportunities for Coastal and Marine Studies

Strand: Place and Space

Level

Features of places

People and places

Care of places

1
1.4
Identifies natural and built features of places using direct observation.
Identify natural and built features of places as stated.
1.5
Identifies places that are important to self and others.
1.6
Takes part in routines and projects to care for a significant place.
Participate in routines and marine projects as stated.
2
2.4
Uses symbols to describe the location of places relative to each other.
Employ symbols to describe locations as stated.
2.5
Describes choices people make in their use of places.
2.6
Identifies how people can cooperate to care for places in a community.
Identify people's care and in a marine environment.
3
3.4
Describes places according to their location and natural and built features.
3.5
Describes how natural features affect the ways people live in particular places.
3.6
Identifies issues about care of places arising from the different ways in which they are valued.
4
4.4
Describes the association of features that give rise to similarities between places.
4.5
Describes how people's beliefs and practices influence the ways they interact with places.
4.6
Describes different views of individuals and groups about issues related to the care of places.
5
5.4
Accounts for similarities and differences between places by identifying factors that may shape their features.
4.5
Describes how people's beliefs and practices influence the ways they interact with places.
5.6
Explains why various individuals and groups have differing views on issues related to caring for places.
6
6.4
Explains and predicts variations in places over time by referring to processes that may affect natural and built features.
6.5
Explains consequences of human modifications of natural and built features of places.
6.6
Predicts consequences of implementing particular viewpoints on an issue concerning the use of a place.
7
7.4
Analyses patterns and processes to describe spatial variations of features on the earth's surface.
7.5
Explains how interactions of various features contribute to the ways people identify with and value places.
7.6
Analyses the views of others on issues related to the careful use of a place or space on the earth's surface to develop and justify own stance.
8
8.4
Analyses changing spatial interactions to explain their relationship with the patterns of features on the earth's surface.
8.5
Evaluates the role of planning and management in balancing or deciding among competing demands for the use of places.
8.6
Evaluates ways in which individuals and groups are involved in public decision-making on ecologically sustainable uses of place and space.

Resource 5C

English: Opportunities For Coastal And Marine Studies

Strand: Reading and Viewing

Level

Texts

Contextual Understanding

1
1.5a
Roleplays being a competent reader and consistently interprets some familiar written symbols.
1.5b
Constructs meanings from visual texts with familiar content, particularly texts designed to be viewed in segments.
Make meaningful visual texts.
1.6
Makes connections between own knowledge and experience and the ideas, events and information in texts viewed and heard read aloud.
Compare own knowledge and experience of marine topics with text read aloud or viewed
2
2.5
Constructs and retells meanings from:

- short written texts with familiar topics and vocabulary, predictable text structures and frequent illustrations, and

- visual texts with predictable narrative structures
Construct and retell meanings from short written texts and visual texts.

2.6
Understand that texts are constructed by people and represent real and imaginary experience.
3
3.5
Interprets and discusses some relationships between ideas, information and events in:

- written texts with familiar content and a small range of unfamiliar words and linguistic structures and features

- visual texts designed for general viewing.

3.6
Identifies simple symbolic meanings and stereotypes in texts and discusses their purpose and meaning.
4
4.5
Justifies own interpretations of ideas, information and events in texts containing some unfamiliar concepts and topics and which introduce relatively complex linguistic structures and features.
4.6
Explains possible reason for people's varying interpretations of a text.
5
5.5
Discusses themes and issues in accessible texts with challenging structures and ideas, and constructs responses interpreting these.
5.6
Recognises that texts are constructed for particular purposes and to appeal to certain groups.
6
6.5
Explores different perspectives on complex issues through reading and viewing a range of texts, and constructs written and spoken responses relating these perspectives to personal understandings of the contemporary world.
6.6
Considers the contexts in which texts were or are created and how these are reflected in texts.
7
7.5
Constructs meanings from a range of texts, including those characterised by complexity of construction and subject matter, and justifies these with detailed an well-chosen evidence from the text.
7.6
Considers a variety of interrelationships between texts, contexts, readers or viewers and makers of texts.
8
8.5
Analyses and criticises in a lucid way texts produced for a range of purposes and audiences, including popular texts and linguistically demanding texts which may involve varied narrative perspectives and subtle subtexts.
8.6
Analyses texts in terms of the sociocultural values, attitudes and assumptions that they project and reflect.

Resource 5C continued

English: Opportunities For Coastal And Marine Studies

Strand: Reading and Viewing

Level

Linguistic structures and Features

Strategies

1
1.7
Demonstrates emerging awareness and use of symbols and conventions when making meaning from texts.
1.8
Recognises and uses cues to predict meaning in visual and printed texts.
2
2.7
Recognises and interprets basic linguistic structures and features and texts.
2.8a
Uses basic strategies for interpreting written and visual texts and maintains continuity in understanding when meaning is disrupted.
2.8b
With teacher guidance, selects own reading material, and gathers and sorts information on a topic from a variety of sources.
3
3.7
Identifies and uses the linguistic structures and features characteristic of a range of text types to construct meaning.
3.8a
Integrates a variety of strategies for interpreting printed and visual texts.
3.8b
With teacher guidance, uses several strategies for identifying resources and finding information in texts.
4
4.7
With teacher guidance, identifies and discusses how linguistic structures and features work to shape readers' and viewers' understanding of texts.
4.8a
Selects, uses and reflects on strategies appropriate for different texts and reading or viewing purposes.
4.8b
With peers, identifies information needs and finds resources for specific purposes.
5
5.7
Draws on knowledge of linguistic structures and features to explain how texts are constructed.
5.8a
uses knowledge of principal conventions of narrative texts to construct meaning from a range of text types.
5.8b
Systematically finds and records information.
6
6.7
Compares linguistic structures and features of texts to highlight their similarities and differences in forma and meaning.
6.8a
Draws on a repertoire of strategies to maintain understanding through dense or extended texts.
6.8b
Gathers, selects and organises information effectively for specific purposes.
7
7.7
Identifies and comments on the impact of techniques intended to shape readers' and viewers' interpretations of and reactions to texts.
7.8
Uses reading and viewing strategies that enable detailed critical evaluation of texts.
8
8.7
Analyses how linguistic structures and features influence interpretations of texts, especially in the construction of tone, style and point of view.
8.8
Uses reading and viewing strategies that enable detailed critical evaluation of texts which may have complex levels of meaning.

Resource 5D

The Arts: Opportunities For Coastal And Marine Studies

Strand: Art and Design

Level

Exploring and developing ideas

Using skills, techniques and processes

Presenting

1 Draws upon play and imagination in making art works. Develop media productions and artworks. Uses basic elements of the arts and explores them in making arts works. Generate media production and works using different elements Shares art works with others. Participate in media productions
2 Uses experiences and imagination to make arts works. Generate drama, media and art works from marine experience and imagination. Makes choices about arts elements and organises them in expressive ways. Make decisions about drama, media and visual arts elements and organise them in expressive way. Plans and presents arts works for a familiar audience. Plan and present drama, media productions.
3 Explores ideas and feelings through arts works. Explores and uses several arts elements and uses specific skills, techniques and processes appropriate to the arts form. Plans and presents arts works for a particular audience or purpose.
4 Experiments with ideas and explores feelings to find satisfactory solutions to tasks. Selects, combines and manipulates arts elements using a range of skills, techniques and processes. Draws upon a range of skills to present arts works for a variety of audiences and purposes.
5 Uses starting points such as observations, experiences and research to express ideas and feelings. Structures arts works by organising arts elements an applying appropriate skills, techniques and processes. Plans, selects and modifies presentations for particular occasions, taking into account factors such as purpose, space, materials and equipment.
6 Explores the arts of different cultures to generate and develop ideas for arts works. Uses arts elements, skills, techniques and processes to structure arts work appropriate to chosen styles and forms. Rehearses, presents and promotes arts works in ways appropriate for particular audiences.
7 a) Makes arts works using idea informed by an awareness of contemporary arts practice.
b) Reflects an awareness of aesthetic considerations in making arts works.
Structures arts works using selected elements, styles and forms, and demonstrates ability to control the medium using skills, techniques and processes. Rehearses, presents and promotes arts works using selected elements, styles and forms, and demonstrates ability to control the medium using skills, techniques and processes.
8 a) Initiates and makes arts works that explore issues, concepts and themes.
b) Makes arts works that reflect sensitivity, commitments and an under- standing of aesthetic considerations.
Integrates technical and structural elements in an imaginative, skilful and coherent way to make arts works. Uses imaginative approaches that reflect a wide knowledge of the conventions of rehearsing, presenting and promoting of arts works.

Resource 5E

Health And Physical Education: Opportunities For Coastal And Marine Studies

Strand: Safety

Level

Texts

Contextual understanding

1
1.11
Explores and describes different environments, explaining feelings about them. Explore and describes different marine environments, explaining feelings about them.
1.12
Identifies what makes a familiar environment safe. Identify what makes a marine environment safe.
2
2.11
Explains how people are part of the natural environment and why people should care for the environment and why people should care for the environment to promote and protect their health. Explain how people depend on the marine environment and why people should care for it.
2.12
Explains and demonstrates options to improve personal safety and the safety of others. Explain and demonstrate options to improve personal safety and the safety of others.
3
3.11
Explains how the places where people live, work and play can influence health.
3.12
Demonstrates strategies that deal with unsafe or emergency situations.
4
4.11
Describes how the global environment is being changed by human behaviour and development in ways that affect health.
4.12
Assesses options and consequences in responding to unsafe situations.
5
5.11
Identifies what environmental protection organisations and agencies do to promote a healthy environment.
5.12
Evaluates behaviours that influence personal safety and that of others.
6
6.11
Describes the impact of laws designed to promote healthy environments.
6.12 Evaluates community initiatives to promote safety.
7
7.11
Identifies the knowledge and skills required by communities and individuals to promote a healthier environment.
7.12
Plans strategies to manage identified hazards in the community.
8
8.11
Proposes and justifies actions by consumers, industry and government on an environmental health issue.
8.12
Evaluates the effectiveness of laws and policies that promote personal and community safety.

Resource 5F

Technology: Opportunities for Coastal and Marine Studies

Strand: Materials

Level

Nature

Techniques

1
1.7
Identifies common materials and some of their uses. Identify marine materials and their use.
1.8
Uses equipment to manipulate and process common materials. Arrange and process materials as stated.
2
2.7
Identifies some of the characteristics of common materials.
2.8
Selects and safely uses techniques and equipment for working materials to the requirements of own designs. Manipulate and process materials as stated.
3
3.7
Matches characteristics of materials to the requirements of own designs.
3.8
Selects and safely uses techniques and equipment for working materials to the requirements of own designs.
4
4.7
Identifies the characteristics of materials and relates them to the functional and aesthetic requirements of own designs.
4.8
Applies a range of techniques for safely working materials to the functional and aesthetic requirements of own designs.
5
5.7
Explains how the properties of the materials chosen meet functional, aesthetic and environmental requirements.
5.8
Selects and uses techniques and equipment to work materials with the precision and safety required to achieve detailed specifications.
6
6.7
Matches the physical, chemical and aesthetic properties of materials to design, production and service requirements.
6.8
Selects and uses techniques and equipment to suit particular work situations and to work materials to specified standards of safety, accuracy and presentation.
7
7.7
Researches and tests new and traditional materials to:
  • match their properties to design, production and service requirements
  • consider cultural, social and environmental requirements.
7.8
Evaluates and uses techniques and equipment when working with materials to improve standards of safety, accuracy and presentation.
8
8.7
Gives detailed explanations of how the structure and properties of new and traditional materials relate to functional, aesthetic, environmental and service requirements.
8.8
Uses and modifies specialised techniques and equipment for processing and working materials to achieve functional and aesthetic outcomes specified by clients or intended users.

Resource 6A

Science: Sample Pointers For Coastal And Marine Studies

Strand: Life and Living

Level

Living together

Structure and function

Biodiversity, change and continuity

1
1.7
Identifies personal needs and the needs of other familiar living things. Study the needs of marine living things.
1.8
Identifies observable personal features and those of other familiar living things. Study features of marine organisms.
1.9
Identifies personal features and those of animals and plants that change over time. Study the diversity of plants and animals in the marine environment.
2
2.7
Describes the types of relationships between living things. Study relationships between marine organisms.
2.8
Links observable features to their functions in familiar living things. Compare living things' features to the functions.
2.9
Compares and contracts similarities and differences within and between groups of familiar living things. Compare similarities and differences within and between marine living organisms.
3
3.7
Maps relationships between living things in a habitat. Map relationships between marine organisms and habitat.
3.8
Identifies external and internal features of living things that work together to form systems with particular functions. Investigate the parts of marine organisms and how they work together.
3.9
Explains why some living things have become extinct and identifies current endangered species. Identify marine extinct and endangered species. Also explain the causes of extinction.
4
4.7
Identifies events that affect balance in an ecosystem. Identify processes that affect balance in a marine ecosystem.
4.8
Explains the functioning of systems within living thins. Explain the functioning of systems within marine organisms.
4.9
Explains how living things have changed over geological time, using evidence from various sources.
5
5.7
Describes the role of living things in cycling energy and matter. Study the function of marine organisms in the energy cycles.
5.8
Presents evidence that plants and animals are made up of functional units called cells.
5.9
Identifies features of groups of living things that enable them to compete successfully in their environments. Compare marine organisms' features with their ability to compete in the marine environment.
6
6.7
Analyses the effects of environmental change on living things and ecosystems. Study the effect of environmental change on marine organisms.
6.8
Explains how living things obtain, store and transport nutrients, transform energy and manage wastes.
6.9
Describes how genetic continuity is maintained from generation to generation.
7
7.7
Evaluates scientific evidence about the long-term impact on ecosystems of human intervention. Examine the scientific evidence on the impact of man on marine environments.
7.8
Identifies milestones in the development of our understanding of cell structure and comments
7.9
Outlines evidence for a scientific theory of evolution.
8
8.7
Identifies the role of scientific disciplines in an interdisciplinary approach to understanding and managing ecosystems. Identify the role of scientific disciplines in an interdisciplinary approach to understanding and managing marine ecosystems.
8.8
Describes scientific interventions into life processes and assesses their impact on their significance.
8.9
Examines the importance of biodiversity to the survival of life on the planet.

Resource 6B

SOSE: Sample Pointers For Coastal And Marine Studies

Strand: Place and Space

Level

Features of places

People and places

Care of places

1
1.4
Identifies natural and built features of places using direct observation. Identify natural and built features of places as stated.
1.5
Identifies places that are important to self and others.
1.6
Takes part in routines and projects to care for a significant place. Participate in routines and marine projects as stated.
2
2.4
Uses symbols to describe the location of places relative to each other. Employ symbols to describe locations as stated.
2.5
Describes choices people make in their use of places.
2.6
Identifies how people can cooperate to care for places in a community. Identify people's care and in a marine environment.
3
3.4
Describes places according to their location and natural and built features. Describe places as stated.
3.5
Describes how natural features affect the ways people live in particular places. Describe the effect of natural features on people's habitat.
3.6
Identifies issues about care of places arising from the different ways in which they are valued. Identify the issues stated.
4
4.4
Describes the association of features that give rise to similarities between places. Describe the stated association.
4.5
Describes how people's beliefs and practices influence the ways they interact with places.
4.6
Describes different views of individuals and groups about issues related to the care of places. Describe the different views stated.
5
5.4
Accounts for similarities and differences between places by identifying factors that may shape their features. Account for similarities and differences as stated.
5.5
Explains how people's use of natural and built features of places changes over time. Explain how people's use of natural and built features of marine environments changes over time.
5.6
Explains why various individuals and groups have differing views on issues related to caring for places. Explain different views on issues as stated.
6
6.4
Explains and predicts variations in places over time by referring to processes that may affect natural and built features. Explain processes that affect natural and built features as stated.
6.5
Explains consequences of human modifications of natural and built features of places. Interpret the effect of humans on marine environments as stated.
6.6
Predicts consequences of implementing particular viewpoints on an issue concerning the use of a place. Anticipate results of implementing viewpoints on issues concerning the use of a marine environment.
7
7.4
Analyses patterns and processes to describe spatial variations of features on the earth's surface.
7.5
Explains how interactions of various features contribute to the ways people identify with and value places.
7.6
Analyses the views of others on issues related to the careful use of a place or space on the earth's surface to develop and justify own stance. Analyse the views of others on issues as stated.
8
8.4
Analyses changing spatial interactions to explain their relationship with the patterns of features on the earth's surface.
8.5
Evaluates the role of planning and management in balancing or deciding among competing demands for the use of places. Evaluate the role of planning and management as stated.
8.6
Evaluates ways in which individuals and groups are involved in public decision-making on ecologically sustainable uses of place and space. Evaluate public decision-making as stated.

Resource 6C

English: Sample Pointers For Coastal And Marine Studies

Strand: Reading and Viewing

Level

Texts

Contextual understanding

1
1.5a
Roleplays being a competent reader and consistently interprets some familiar written symbols.
1.5b
Constructs meanings from visual texts with familiar content, particularly texts designed to be viewed in segments. Make meaningful visual texts.
1.6
Makes connections between own knowledge and experience and the ideas, events and information in texts viewed and heard read aloud. Compare own knowledge and experience of marine topics with text read aloud or viewed.
2
2.5
Constructs and retells meanings from:
  • short written texts with familiar topics and vocabulary, predictable text structures and frequent illustrations, and
  • visual texts with predictable narrative structures Construct and retell meanings from short written texts and visual texts.
2.6
Understand that texts are constructed by people and represent real and imaginary experience.
3
3.5
Interprets and discusses some relationships between ideas, information and events in:
  • written texts with familiar content and a small range of unfamiliar words and linguistic structures and features
  • visual texts designed for general viewing. Explain own interpretations of ideas, information and events in written and visual text.
3.6
Identifies simple symbolic meanings and stereotypes in texts and discusses their purpose and meaning.
4
4.5
Justifies own interpretations of ideas, information and events in texts containing some unfamiliar concepts and topics and which introduce relatively complex linguistic structures and features. Explain own interpretations of ideas, information and events in text.
4.6
Explains possible reason for people's varying interpretations of a text. Explain different interpretations of a text.
5
5.5
Discusses themes and issues in accessible texts with challenging structures and ideas, and constructs responses interpreting these. Discuss and interpret marine themes and issues in texts.
5.6
Recognises that texts are constructed for particular purposes and to appeal to certain groups. Recognise different texts.
6
6.5
Explores different perspectives on complex issues through reading and viewing a range of texts, and constructs written and spoken responses relating these perspectives to personal understandings of the contemporary world. Investigate different relationships on complex marine issues
6.6
Considers the contexts in which texts were or are created and how these are reflected in texts.
7
7.5
Constructs meanings from a range of texts, including those characterised by complexity of construction and subject matter, and justifies these with detailed an well-chosen evidence from the text. Understand meanings from a range of texts
7.6
Considers a variety of interrelationships between texts, contexts, readers or viewers and makers of texts. Consider relationships between texts, contexts, readers or viewers and makers of texts.
8
8.5
Analyses and criticises in a lucid way texts produced for a range of purposes and audiences, including popular texts and linguistically demanding texts which may involve varied narrative perspectives and subtle subtexts. Analyse and criticise different texts.
8.6
Analyses texts in terms of the sociocultural values, attitudes and assumptions that they project and reflect.

Resource 6C continued

English: Sample Pointers For Coastal And Marine Studies

Strand: Reading and Viewing

Level

Linguistic structures and features

Strategies

1
1.7
Demonstrates emerging awareness and use of symbols and conventions when making meaning from texts.
1.8
Recognises and uses cues to predict meaning in visual and printed texts.
2
2.7
Recognises and interprets basic linguistic structures and features and texts.
2.8a
Uses basic strategies for interpreting written and visual texts and maintains continuity in understanding when meaning is disrupted.
2.8b
With teacher guidance, selects own reading material, and gathers and sorts information on a topic from a variety of sources.
3
3.7
Identifies and uses the linguistic structures and features characteristic of a range of text types to construct meaning.
3.8a
Integrates a variety of strategies for interpreting printed and visual texts.
3.8b
With teacher guidance, uses several strategies for identifying resources and finding information in texts. Combine different strategies for explaining written and visual texts. Also identify marine resources and acquire information from texts.
4
4.7
With teacher guidance, identifies and discusses how linguistic structures and features work to shape readers' and viewers' understanding of texts.
4.8a
Selects, uses and reflects on strategies appropriate for different texts and reading or viewing purposes.
4.8b
With peers, identifies information needs and finds resources for specific purposes. Find marine related resources.
5
5.7
Draws on knowledge of linguistic structures and features to explain how texts are constructed.
5.8a
uses knowledge of principal conventions of narrative texts to construct meaning from a range of text types.
5.8b
Systematically finds and records information. Find and record information.
6
6.7
Compares linguistic structures and features of texts to highlight their similarities and differences in forma and meaning.
6.8a
Draws on a repertoire of strategies to maintain understanding through dense or extended texts.
6.8b
Gathers, selects and organises information effectively for specific purposes. Gather, select and organise information.
7
7.7
Identifies and comments on the impact of techniques intended to shape readers' and viewers' interpretations of and reactions to texts. Identify the effects of different presentations on audiences.
7.8
Uses reading and viewing strategies that enable detailed critical evaluation of texts. Critically evaluate texts.
8
8.7
Analyses how linguistic structures and features influence interpretations of texts, especially in the construction of tone, style and point of view.
8.8
Uses reading and viewing strategies that enable detailed critical evaluation of texts which may have complex levels of meaning. Critically evaluate texts.

Resource 6D

The Arts: Sample Pointers For Coastal And Marine Studies

Strand: Art and Design

Level

Exploring and developing ideas

Using skills, techniques and processes

Presenting

1 Draws upon play and imagination in making art works. Develop media productions and artworks. Uses basic elements of the arts and explores them in making arts works. Generate media production and works using different elements. Shares arts works with others. Participate in media productions.
2 Uses experiences and imagination to make arts works. Generate drama, media and art works from marine experience and imagination. Makes choices about arts elements and organises them in expressive ways. Make decisions about drama, media and visual arts elements and organise them in expressive way. Plans and presents arts works for a familiar audience. Plan and present drama, media productions.
3 Explores ideas and feelings through arts works. Explore ideas and feeling through drama, media productions and art works. Explores and uses several arts elements and uses specific skills, techniques and processes appropriate to the arts form. Use drama for role playing. Explore media elements. Plans and presents arts works for a particular audience or purpose. Plan and present drama and media productions for audiences.
4 Experiments with ideas and explores feelings to find satisfactory solutions to tasks. Experiments with ideas and explore feelings with drama, media productions and visual arts. Selects, combines and manipulates arts elements using a range of skills, techniques and processes. Select combine and manipulate media elements. Draws upon a range of skills to present arts works for a variety of audiences and purposes. Present drama and media production to different audiences.
5 Uses starting points such as observations, experiences and research to express ideas and feelings. Express ideas and feeling in drama, media productions and art works. Structures arts works by organising arts elements an applying appropriate skills, techniques and processes. Compose media productions appropriately. Plans, selects and modifies presentations for particular occasions, taking into account factors such as purpose, space, materials and equipment. Rehearses, presents and promotes arts works in ways appropriate for particular audiences. Present media productions to different audiences.
6 Explores the arts of different cultures to generate and develop ideas for arts works. Uses arts elements, skills, techniques and processes to structure arts work appropriate to chosen styles and forms. Structure and media production and art works appropriately. Rehearses, presents and promotes arts works in ways appropriate for particular audiences.
Present media productions to different audiences.
7 a) Makes arts works using idea informed by an awareness of contemporary arts practice.
b) Reflects an awareness of aesthetic considerations in making arts works. Make art works using contemporary arts practice.
Structures arts works using selected elements, styles and forms, and demonstrates ability to control the medium using skills, techniques and processes. Compose media productions using selected elements, styles and forms. Rehearses, presents and promotes arts works using selected elements, styles and forms, and demonstrates ability to control the medium using skills, techniques and processes. Present media productions.
8 a) Initiates and makes arts works that explore issues, concepts and themes.
b) Makes arts works that reflect sensitivity, commitments and an understanding of aesthetic considerations. Make dance, drama, media productions and art works that explore marine issues, concepts and themes.
Integrates technical and structural elements in an imaginative, skilful and coherent way to make arts works. Uses imaginative approaches that reflect a wide knowledge of the conventions of rehearsing, presenting and promoting of arts works.

Resource 6E

Health And Physical Education: Sample Pointers For Coastal And Marine Studies

Strand: Safety

Level

Texts

Contextual understanding

1
1.11
Explores and describes different environments, explaining feelings about them. Explore and describes different marine environments, explaining feelings about them.
1.12
Identifies what makes a familiar environment safe. Identify what makes a marine environment safe.
2
2.11
Explains how people are part of the natural environment and why people should care for the environment and why people should care for the environment to promote and protect their health. Explain how people depend on the marine environment and why people should care for it
2.12
Explains and demonstrates options to improve personal safety and the safety of others. Explain and demonstrate options to improve personal safety and the safety of others.
3
3.11
Explains how the places where people live, work and play can influence health. Explain how the marine place where people live, work and play can influence health.
3.12
Demonstrates strategies that deal with unsafe or emergency situations. Demonstrate strategies that deal with unsafe or emergency situations.
4
4.11
Describes how the global environment is being changed by human behaviour and development in ways that affect health. Describe how the global marine environment is being changed by human behaviour and development in ways that affect health.
4.12
Assesses options and consequences in responding to unsafe situations. Assess options and consequences in responding to unsafe situations.
5
5.11
Identifies what environmental protection organisations and agencies do to promote a healthy environment. Identify what environmental protection organisations and agencies do to promote a healthy marine environment.
5.12
Evaluates behaviours that influence personal safety and that of others. Evaluate behaviours that influence personal safety and that of others.
6
6.11
Describes the impact of laws designed to promote healthy environments. Describe the impact of laws designed to promote healthy marine environments.
6.12
Evaluates community initiatives to promote safety. Evaluate community initiatives to promote safety.
7
7.11
Identifies the knowledge and skills required by communities and individuals to promote a healthier environment. Identify the knowledge and skills required by communities and individuals to promote a healthier marine environment.
7.12
Plans strategies to manage identified hazards in the community. Plan strategies to manage identified hazards in the marine community.
8
8.11
Proposes and justifies actions by consumers, industry and government on an environmental health issue. Propose and justify actions by consumers, industry and government on an environmental health issue.
8.12
Evaluates the effectiveness of laws and policies that promote personal and community safety. Evaluate the effectiveness of laws and policies that promote personal and community safety.

Resource 6F

Technology: Sample Pointers For Coastal And Marine Studies

Strand: Materials

Level

Nature

Technique

1
1.7
Identifies common materials and some of their uses. Identify marine materials and their use.
1.8
Uses equipment to manipulate and process common materials. Arrange and process materials as stated.
2
2.7
Identifies some of the characteristics of common materials.
2.8
Selects and safely uses techniques and equipment for working materials to the requirements of own designs. Manipulate and process materials as stated.
3
3.7
Matches characteristics of materials to the requirements of own designs. Match materials to own designs.
3.8
Selects and safely uses techniques and equipment for working materials to the requirements of own designs. Work materials to own designs as stated.
4
4.7
Identifies the characteristics of materials and relates them to the functional and aesthetic requirements of own designs. Compare materials to function of own design as stated.
4.8
Applies a range of techniques for safely working materials to the functional and aesthetic requirements of own designs. Safely use work materials as stated.
5
5.7
Explains how the properties of the materials chosen meet functional, aesthetic and environmental requirements. Explain the choice of materials as stated.
5.8
Selects and uses techniques and equipment to work materials with the precision and safety required to achieve detailed specifications. Achieve detailed specification from work material as stated.
6
6.7
Matches the physical, chemical and aesthetic properties of materials to design, production and service requirements. Match materials to design, production and service requirements as stated.
6.8
Selects and uses techniques and equipment to suit particular work situations and to work materials to specified standards of safety, accuracy and presentation. Choose and use techniques and equipment as stated.
7
7.7
Researches and tests new and traditional materials to: - match their properties to design, production and service requirements - consider cultural, social and environmental requirements. Investigate and assay new and traditional materials as stated.
7.8
Evaluates and uses techniques and equipment when working with materials to improve standards of safety, accuracy and presentation. Assess, use techniques and equipment to improve safety, accuracy and presentation as stated.
8
8.7
Gives detailed explanations of how the structure and properties of new and traditional materials relate to functional, aesthetic, environmental and service requirements. Explain the relationship between materials and requirements as stated.
8.8
Uses and modifies specialised techniques and equipment for processing and working materials to achieve functional and aesthetic outcomes specified by clients or intended users. Use and modify techniques to achieve the outcomes stated.

Resource 7

Action Planning For Across-The-Curriculum Integration

Questions

Possible Strategies

  1. Name three things you can do to implement across-the-curriculum integration as soon as you return to school.
 
  1. What resources would be useful to help you achieve these changes?
 
  1. Name some other teachers who would support you in this and who might like to learn more about it.
 
  1. What will be the likely attitude of the school administration? How could you influence this?
 
  1. How can you build support to generate a whole school approach to across-the-curriculum planning and teaching for coastal and marine studies?