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Publications archive - Waste and recycling

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Key departmental publications, e.g. annual reports, budget papers and program guidelines are available in our online archive.

Much of the material listed on these archived web pages has been superseded, or served a particular purpose at a particular time. It may contain references to activities or policies that have no current application. Many archived documents may link to web pages that have moved or no longer exist, or may refer to other documents that are no longer available.

End-of-life Environmental Issues with PVC in Australia

Prepared by Dr. John Scheirs,
ExcelPlas Polymer Technology (EPT) for
Environment Australia, June 2003

8. References

Allen, P., personal communication, Peter Allan, Nolan ITU Environmental Consultants, Level 1, 625 High Street, East Kew, VIC (2002).

Altwicker, E.R. and Milligan, M.S., 'Formation of Dioxins: Competing Rates Between Chemically Similar Precursors and de Novo Reactions', Chemosphere, #1-3, 301-307 (1993).

Angelidaki, I., Mogensen, A. S. and Ahring B. K., 'Degradation of organic contaminants found in organic waste', Biodegradation, 11, 377 (2000).

Anon, 'Solid Residues from PVC in Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (2001), Background document for preparing industry response to the PVC Green Paper, obtained from the ECVM.

Asanuma, M., Ariyama, T., Lemoto, M., Wakamatsu, S., Masuko, S. and Suyama, K., 'Verification of a PVC dechlorination process based on 1,000 t/y semi-commercial plant operation', Kagaku Kogaku Ronbunshu, 27, 326 (2001).

Argus, 'The Behaviour of PVC in Landfill', Study for DG ENV, Argus in association with University Rostock, 1999.

Argus Study for European Commission DGXI.E.3, 'The behavior of PVC in Landfills, Final Report, February 2000, prepared by ARGUS in association with University Rostock-Prof. J. Spillmann, Carl Bro a|s and Sigma Plan S.A., p. 33 (2000).

Australian Vinyls website: www.av.com.au/envroper/prodstew.htm

Atkins, W. S., 'Assessment of the risks to health and the environment of cadmium contained in certain products', Nov. (1997).

Bacalogulu, R. 'PVC Stabilizers' in 'Plastics Additives Handbook', (Ed. H. Zweifel), Chap. 3, p. 427, Hanser Publishers, 2000.

Balg, J., 'Recycling fly ash from incinerators', Proc. Recycle'96, Davos, Switzerland, May 15-19 (1995).

Bernard, J., Ole, H. and Jürgen, V.,'The Influence of PVC on the Quantity and Hazardousness of Flue Gas Residues from Incineration', Released by Bertin Technologies Tarnos (F), Contract Number : B4-3040/98/000101/MAR/E3, April, 2000.

Bertin Technologies, The influence of PVC on quantity and hazardousness of flue gas residues from incineration, Study for DG XI, April 2000.

Blair, R. M. et al., 'The estrogen receptor relative binding affinities of 188 natural and xenochemicals: structural diversity of ligands', Toxicol. Sci., 54, 138 (2000).

Blomqvist, P., Rosell, L. and Simonson, M., 'Quantification of PAH, dioxins and other chemical species in fire gases' in Interflam 2001
Proceedings of the 9th international conference was held in Edinburgh, Scotland 17th -19th September, 2001.

Blount, B., Silva, M., Caudill, S., Needham, L., Pirkle, J., Sampson, E., Lucier, G., Jackson, R. and Brock, J., 'Levels of Seven Urinary Phthalate Metabolites in a Human Reference Population', Environ. Health Perspect., 108, 979 (2000).

Bockhorn, H., Hentschel, J., Hornung, A., Hornung, U. 'Environmental engineering: stepwise pyrolysis of plastics waste', Chem. Eng. Sci., 54, 3043 (1999).

Bockhorn, H., Hornung, A., Hornung, U., Jakobstroer, P. and Kraus M., 'Dehydrochlorination of Plastic Mixtures', Journal of Analytical & Applied Pyrolysis, 49, 97 (1999).

Boerjan ML., Freijnagel S., Rhind SM. and Meijer GAL., 'The potential reproductive effects of exposure of domestic ruminants to endocrine disrupting compounds', Animal Science, 74, 3, (2002).

Brown, K. A., Holland, M. R., Thresh, S., Jones, H., Ogilvie, S. M., 'Economic Evaluation of PVC Waste Management', A report produced for European Commission Environment Directorate, AEA Technology, 2000.

Brown, K. A., Holland, M. R., Boyd, R. A., Thresh, S., Jones, H. and Ogilvie, S. M., 'Economic Evaluation of PVC Waste Management', final report project number EPCS/20725 issue 1.1 produced for European Commission Environment Directorate, June 2000

Bühl, R., 'Properties and Applications of Recycled Polyvinyl Chloride' in Recycling and Recovery of Plastics, Eds.: J. Brandup, M. Bittner, W. Michaeli, G. Menges, Hanser Verlag, München, 1996, Chap. 7, p. 650.

Bühl, R., private communication, Rolf Bühl, Environmental Affairs Manager, European Vinyls Corporation. Excelsiorlann 3, 1930 Zaventem, Belgium (2002).

Burn, L. S. and Schafer, B. L., 'The environmental impact of lead leaching from UPVC sewerage waste and vent pipes', CSIRO Nuilding, Construction & Engineering (1997).

Cadmium Organization Data, website: www.cadmium.org/applications.html (2001).

Call DJ., Markee TP., Geiger DL., Brooke LT., VandeVenter FA., Cox DA., Genisot KI., Robillard KA., Gorsuch JW., Parkerton TF., Reiley MC., Ankley GT. and Mount DR., 'An assessment of the toxicity of phthalate esters to freshwater benthos. 1. Aqueous exposures, Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry', 20, 1798 (2001).

Carroll, W. F., 'The relative contribution of wood and poly(vinyl chloride) to emissions of PCDD and PCDF from house fires', Chemosphere, 45, 1173 (2001).

Chapman, P., private communication, Peter Chapman, Technical Manager, Vinidex Pipes (2002).

Chen, J. C. Wey, M. Y. Yan, M. H., 'The effects of chloride additives on adsorption of heavy metals during incineration', Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 49, 1116 (1999).

Chiang, K. Y., Wang, K. S., Tsai, C. C. and Sun, C. J.,'Formation of heavy metal species during PVC-containing simulated MSW incineration', J. Environ. Sci., Health Part A-Toxic/Hazard. Subst. Environ. Eng., 36, 833 (2001).

Colon, I., Caro, D., Bourdony, C. J. and Rosario, O., 'Identification of phthalate esters in the serum of young Puerto Rican girls with premature breast development', Environmental Health Perspectives, 108, 895 (2000).

Cordell, H. L. and Galer, D. G., 'Method of gasifying solid organic materials', US Patent #6,120,567 (2000).

Craighill, A. L. and Powell, J. C., 'Lifecycle Assessment and Economic Evaluation of Recycling - A Case Study', Resources Conservation & Recycling, 17, 75 (1996).

de Marco, I., Caballero, B., Torres, A., Laresgoiti, M. F., Chomon, M. J., and Cabrero, M. A., 'Recycling polymeric wastes by means of pyrolysis', Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology, 77, 817 (2002).

Donelly, P.J., Cadmium compounds as stabilizers for PVC, in Sources of cadmium in the environment, OECD Cadmium Workshop, Saltsjöbaden, Sweden, October 16-20, 1995, Proceedings: Paris, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, p. 276-280 (1996).

Drew, R. and Frangos, J., 'Data Collation and Review of Ecological Effects of Phthalates' - Toxicos Document TR280801-RJ2F (2001).

Eckstein Model (Source: J. Eckstein, EuPC (European Plastics Converters) (www.eupc.org), Sept., 1999).

ECVM data (2000), The European Council of Vinyl Manufacturers, representing the European PVC Industry (www.ecvm.org/hp.cfm).

ECVM data (2002), The European Council of Vinyl Manufacturers, representing the European PVC Industry (www.ecvm.org/hp.cfm).

Ede, M., private communication, Michael Ede, APS Chemicals (2002).

Eggels, P. G., Ansems, A. M. M. and van der Ven, B. L., 'Eco-efficiency of recovery scenarios of plastics packaging'- 15% optimum for mechanical recycling, TNO-report, R2001/119, July, 2001.

El-Hamouz, A. M., Arabian Journal for Science & Engineering, 27, 29 (2002).

Engelbeen, F., Chairman Chlorophiles, Oude Ertbrandstraat 12, B-2940 Stabroek, Belgium (1998).

Engelbeen, F., www.ping.be/chlorophiles/en/answ/en_pvc_dioxin.html, Chlorophiles, Stabroek, Belgium, 2002.

EU Green Paper, 'Environmental issues of PVC', COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES, Brussels, 26.7.2000, COM(2000) 469 final.

EuPC Data Base compiled by EuPC, 66, avenue de Cortenbergh, B-1040, Bruxelles, Belgium, Sept., 1999. Document obtained from Helmuth Leitner, Solvay, Belgium.

European Council of Vinyl Manufacturers (ECVM) Data, website: www.ecvm.org (2002).

Faqi, A. S., Schweinfurth, H. and Chahoud, I., 'Developmental toxicity of an octyltin stabilizer in NMRI mice', Reproductive Toxicology, 15, 117 (2001).

Fatoki, O. S, Noma A., 'Determination of phthalate esters in the aquatic environment, South African Journal of Chemistry-Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Chemie', 54, 1 (2001).

Faulkner (2002), Private communication, Rob Faulkner, formally of the Vinyl Council (2002).

Fromme H., Kuchler T., Otto T., Pilz K., Muller J. and Wenzel A., 'Occurrence of phthalates and bisphenol A and F in the environment', Water Research, 36, 1429 (2002).

Gaunt, R., private communication, Rodney Gaunt, Johnson Matthey (2002).

George C. and Prest H., 'Determination of phthalate esters by positive chemical ionization MS with retention-time locked GC', LC GC North America, 20, 142 (2002).

Gotlib, E. M., Grinberg, L. P. and Chakirov R. R.,'Composition of incineration products of plasticized PVC materials', Reactive & Functional Polymers, 48(1-3 Special Issue SI), 209 (2001).

Griebenow, W.; Werthmann, B.; Schwarz, B., 'Bleeding of PVC stabilizers containing heavy metals', Kunststoffe, 82, (1992).

Gullet, B. K., Lemieux, P. M., Winterrowd, C. K. and Winters, D. L., 'PCDD/F emissions from uncontrolled, domestic waste burning', Organohalogen Compounds 46, 193 (2000).

Hann, R., Rod Hann, Manager, Australian Synthetic Fibres (SA) (2002).

Harris, C. A., Henttu, P., Parker, M and Sumpter, J. P., 'The estrogenic activity of phthalate esters in vitro', Environmental Health Perspectives, 105, No. 8, August (1997).

Hashizume K., Nanya J., Toda C., Yasui T., Nagano H. and Kojima N., 'Phthalate esters detected in various water samples and biodegradation of the phthalates by microbes isolated from river water', Biol. Pharmacol. Bull., 25, 209 (2002).

Hatanaka T. Imagawa T. Takeuchi M.,'Effects of copper chloride on formation of polychlorinated dibenzofurans in model waste incineration in a laboratory-scale fluidized-bed reactor', Chemosphere, 46, 393 (2002).

Heavey, R., private communication, Ron Heavey, Key Plastics (2002).

Henandez, R. J., Selke, S. and Culter, J., 'Plastics Packaging', Hanser, (2000).

Hjertberg, T., 'Degradation of PVC in Landfills - a theoretical evaluation', Report R23981.000, Norsk Hydro Research Centre, Porsgrunn (1995).

Hoenich, N. A, and Pearce, C.,'Medical waste production and disposal arising from renal replacement therapy', Advances in Renal Replacement Therapy, 9, 57 (2002).

Howdshell, K.L., Hotchkiss, A.K., Tahyer, K.A., Vandenbergh, J.G., and vom Saal, 'Exposure to bisphenol A advances puberty', Nature, 401, 763 (1999).

Hruza, A., private communication, Alex Hruza, Chemson Pacific (2002).

Huang, H., and Beukens, A. 'On the mechanisms of dioxin formation in combustion processes', Chemosphere, 31, 4099 (1995).

Hyzik J., 'Problems of PVC combustion in energetic utilization of wastes', Chem. Listy. 95, 411 (2001).

Ikhuoria, E. U., Okiemien, F. E. and Aigbodion, A. I., 'Studies in the thermal stability of metal dicarboxylates', Indian Journal of Chemical Technology, 9, 16 (2002).

Jacquinot, B., Hjelmar, O., Vehlow, J., 'The influence of PVC on the quantity and hazardousness of flue gas residues from incineration', EU Commission B4-3040/98/000101/MAR/E3, 2000.

Jaksland, C., Rasmussen, E. and Rohde, T., 'A new technology for treatment of PVC waste', Waste Management. 20, 463 (2000).

Johnstone, G., private communication, Graham Johnstone, Production Manager, Nylex SRM PVC Recyclers, 19-21 Lanyon St., Dandenong, VIC 3175 (2002).

Kasai, E., Hosotani, Y., Kawaguchi, T., Nushiro K. and Aono T., 'Effect of additives on the dioxins emissions in the iron ore sintering process', ISIJ International, 41, 93 (2001).

Katami T. Yasuhara A. Okuda T. and Shibamoto T., 'Formation of PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs from polyvinyl chloride during combustion in an incinerator, Environ. Sci. Technol., 36, 1320 (2002).

Kawaguchi, T., Matsumura, M., Hosotani, Y. and Kasai E., 'Behaviour of trace chlorine in sintering bed and its effect on dioxins concentration in exhaust gas of iron ore sintering', Tetsu To Hagane-J. Iron Steel Inst. Jpn. 88, 59 (2002).

Kirrmann, C., 'Incineration of PVC and other products in MSW: Assessment of additional costs for various wastes with comparison to PVC in domestic waste incineration', Bertin Technologies DT00B078, 2000.

Koo JW., Parham F., Kohn MC., Masten SA., Brock JW., Needham LL. and Portier CJ., 'The association between biomarker-based exposure estimates for phthalates and demographic factors in a human reference population', Environmental Health Perspectives, 110, 405 (2002).

Langusch, G., private communication, Greg Langusch, Manager, Goodman Fielder, Footscray VIC (2002).

Latini G., 'Potential hazards of exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate in babies', Biology of the Neonate, 78, 269, (2000).

Lee, H. Wang, L. Shih, J. F., 'Mutagenicity of Particulates from the Laboratory Combustion of Plastics', Mutation Research Letters, 346, 135 (1995).

Lee, J. K. and Shin, J. K., 'Triboelectrostatic separation of PVC materials from mixed plastics for waste plastic recycling', Korean J. Chem. Eng., 19, 267 (2002).

Legler J., Dennekamp M., Vethaak AD., Brouwer A. Koeman JH., van der Burg B. and Murk AJ., Sci. Total Environ., 293, 69 (2002).

Leitner (2002), Private communication, Helmuth Leitner, Solvay, Belgium.

Lemarchand, D., International Cement Review, February, 2000, p. 65.

Lemieux, P., Lutes, C., Abbott, J., Aldous, K., 2000. 'Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans from the open burning of household waste in barrels', Environ. Sci. Technol., 34, 377 (2000).

Li, CT. Zhuang, HK. Hsieh, LT. Lee, WJ. And Tsao, MC., 'PAH emission from the incineration of three plastic wastes', Environment International, 27, 61 (2001).

Liu, Z. S. Wey, M. Y. and Lin CL.,'Simultaneous control of acid gases and PAHs using a spray dryer combined with a fabric filter using different additives', Journal of Hazardous Materials, 91, 129 (2002).

Lodge, P., private communication, Peter Lodge, Pacific Chemicals, Campbelltown, NSW (2002).

Lopes T. J. and Furlong ET., 'Occurrence and potential adverse effects of semivolatile organic compounds in streambed sediment, United States, 1992-1995', Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry, 20, 727, (2001).

Luks-Betlej, K., Popp, P., Janoszka, B. and Paschke H., 'Solid-phase microextraction of phthalates from water', Journal of Chromatography A., 938, 93 (2001).

Mark, F.E., 'Energy Recovery Through Co-Combustion of Mixed Plastics Waste and Municipal Solid Waste', Polymer Recycling, Vol. 1, No. 2, (1995).

McDowell, D. C. and Metcalfe, C. D., 'Phthalate esters in sediments near a sewage treatment plant outflow in Hamilton Harbour, Ontario: SFE extraction and environmental distribution', Journal of Great Lakes Research, 27, 3 (2001).

McKee, RH., 'The role of inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication in rodent liver tumour induction by phthalates: Review of data on selected phthalates and the potential relevance to man', Regulatory Toxicology & Pharmacology, 32, 51 (2000).

McNeill, I. C., Memetea, L., Mohammed, M. H., Fernandes, A. R. and Ambidge P., 'Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins and Dibenzofurans in PVC Pyrolysis', Polymer Degradation & Stability, 62, 145 (1998).

Mersiowski et al., Behaviour of PVC in landfills, ECVM, Technical University Hamburg-Harburg (1999).

Mersiowsky, I., 'Long-term behaviour of PVC products and their additives under landfill conditions - Integrative review and evaluation of the research programme' (2001c), TUHH Technologie GmbH (TuTech) Integrated Management.

Mersiowsky I., 'Fate of PVC polymer, plasticizers, and stabilizers in landfilled waste', Journal of Vinyl Technology, 8, 36 (2002).

Mersiowsky, I. Brandsch, R. and Ejlertsson, J.,'Screening for organotin compounds in European landfill leachates', Journal of Environmental Quality, 30, 1604 (2001a).

Mersiowsky, I., Stegmann, R. and Ejlertsson J., 'Long term behaviour of poly(vinyl chloride) products under soil buried and landfill conditions', Plastics Rubber & Composites., 28, 321 (1999).

Mersiowsky I. Weller M. Ejlertsson J., 'Fate of plasticised PVC products under landfill conditions: A laboratory-scale landfill simulation reactor study', Water Research, 35, 3063 (2001b).

Milligan, M. S. and Altwicker, E. R., Environ. Science & Tech., 27, 1595 (1993).

Monney L. Jamois-Tasserie M. Dubois C. Lallet P. Villa F. Renaud C., 'Plasticiser migration and structural changes in an aged poly(vinyl chloride) coating', Polym. Degrad. Stabil., 72, 459 (2001).

Moore, N. P., 'The estrogenic potential of the phthalate esters', Reprod. Toxicol., 14, 183 (2000).

Musdalslien, U. I. and Sandberg, P., 'Energy and HCl Recovery from PVC in Municipal Solid Waste Incineration', document produced by Norsk Hydro (2000).

Nakazawa, K. Katayama, K. Sakamura, H. Yasui, I., 'Control of HCl generated by the poly(vinyl chloride) combustion', Nippon Kagaku Kaishi, 1, 45 (2001).

Naruse, I., Higuchi, A. and Yanagino, H., Emission and de-chlorination characteristics in refuse-derived fuel combustion [English abstract only], Kagaku Kogaku Ronbunshu. 27, 604 (2001).

Nieuwenhuijsen H., 'The composition of PVC in municipal solid waste', Publication PVC, Informatiecentrum, Leidschendam, June (1996).

Nolan ITU, Vinyl Bottle Industry Action Plan, National Packaging Covenant October, 2000, prepared by Nolan ITU, p. 8.

Nolan ITU report entitled 'PVC Packaging Recycling Profile and Strategy, Sept. 2001 (prepared by Nolan ITU for Australian Vinyls).

NTP-CERHR Expert Panel Report on Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, October, 2000, Final, NTP-CERHR-DEHP-00, National Toxicology Program (NTP) Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR), (http://cerhr/niehs/nih/gov).

Paganetto, G. et al. 'Endocrine-disrupting agent on healthy human tissues', Pharmacol. Toxicol., 86, 24 (2000).

Park J. D., Habeebu S. S. M. and Klaassen C. D., 'Testicular toxicity of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in young Sprague-Dawley rats', Toxicology, 171, 105 (2002).

Petrovic, M., Eljarrat E., de Alda MJL. and Barcelo D., 'Analysis and environmental levels of endocrine-disrupting compounds in freshwater sediments', TRAC-Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 20, 637 (2001).

Plastics Additive Handbook, (Ed. Zweifel, H.), Hanser Publishers, Munich, p. 454, 2000.

Plastics News International Industry Statistics Database (2000), web address: www.plasticsnews.net/

Product Stewardship Commitment, Vinyl Council Australia, 2003, available from Vinyl Council Australia Level 2, 263 Mary Street, Richmond, Victoria 3121, P.O. Box 7444, Melbourne, Victoria 3004 (www.vinyl.org.au).

Prognos Consultants (Prognos AG, Basel) (www.prognos.de) and ECVM (The European Council of Vinyl Manufacturers) industry data.

Ralph (2002), Private communication, Rick Ralph, Brightstar Environmental, (2002).

Rasmussen H.V., Affaldsforbraeding i forbindelse med PVC-afalen, Arbejdsrapport fra Miljostyrelsen, N. 39, Miljostyrelsen, Copenhagen, (1995).

Rigo, H. G., Chandler A. J, and Lanier, W. S., 'The Relationship between Chlorine in Waste Streams and Dioxin Emissions from Waste Combustion Stacks', CRTD -Vol. 36 , ASME Research Committee on Industrial and Municipal Waste, ASME, 1995.

Rigo, H. D., Chandler, A. J. and Lanier, W. S., 'Relationship Between Chlorine in Waste Streams and Dioxin Emissions From Combustors of the ASME Research Committee on Industrial and Municipal Wastes' (1996).

Rigo, H. D. and Chandler, A. J., 'Is there a strong dioxin/chlorine link in commercial scale systems', Organohalogen Compounds, 27, 56 (1996).

Rijpkema, L.P., 'Survey of Municipal Solid Waste Combustion in Europe, TNO Institute of Environmental and Energy Technology', Report Nº92-304, August (1993).

Rijpkema, L. P., 'PVC and municipal solid waste combustion: Burden or benefit?', TNO report TNO-MEP-R 99/462 (1999).

Ruokojarvi, P., Aatamila, M. and Ruuskanen, J., Chemosphere, 41, 825 (2000).

Saeed, L. and Zevenhoven, R., 'Comparison between two-stage waste combustion with HCl recovery and conventional incineration plants', Energy Sources, 24, 41 (2002).

Saito Y., Nakao Y., Imaizumi M., Morishima Y., Kiso Y., and Jinno K., 'Miniaturized solid-phase extraction as a sample preparation technique for the determination of phthalates in water', Analytical & Bioanalytical Chemistry, 373, 81, (2002).

Sakai, S., Urano, S. and Takatsuki, H., 'Leaching Behaviour of Persistent Organic Pollutant in Shredder Residues', Chemosphere, 37, 2047 (1998).

Sarrine, B., private communication, Brian Sarrine, Australian Plastics Recycling (APR) (2002).

Scheirs, J., Polymer Recycling - Science, Technology and Applications, Wiley, UK, p. 305 (2001).

Sell, W. A. and Boo, H. K., Proc. Wire and Cable Focus, Wire Symposium, Cherry Hill, New Jersey, Sept. 20-23, 1993.

Sevenster, A., private communication, Arjen Sevenster, Manager Technical & Environmental Affairs, European Council of Vinyl Manufacturers, Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4/4, B-1160 Brussels, Belgium (2002).

Shaw, S., private communication, Steve Shaw, Silverfox Plastics (2002).

Siganakis, B., private communication, Basil Siganakis, Manager, Cryogrind P/L, 5-7 Rhur St., Dandenong, VIC 3175 (2002).

Slapak, M. J. P., van Kasteren, J. M. N. and Drinkenburg, A. H., 'Design of a process for steam gasification of PVC waste', Resources Conservation & Recycling, 30, 81 (2000).

'Solid Residues from PVC in Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (2001)', Background document for preparing industry response to the PVC Green Paper, obtained from the ECVM (2001).

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Staples, C.A., Parkerton, T.F. and Adams, W.J . The environmental fate of phthalate esters: A literature review. Chemosphere 35(4) 667 - 749, 1997a.

Staples C. A, Adams W, Parkerton T. F, Gorsuch J. W. Aquatic toxicity of eighteen phthalate esters, Environ. Toxicol. Chem 16(5), 875-891, 1997b.

Startech (2002), Startech Environmental Corp., 15 Old Danbury Road, Wilton, CT. USA (www.startech.net/plasma.html) (2002).

Stewart, N., private communication, Neil Stewart, SunAce Chemicals (2002).

Sullivan, J. L. et al., 'Lifecycle Inventory of a Generic US Family Sedan', USCAR AMP Project, Publicaton #982160, presented at the Total Lifecycle Conference, Graz, Austria, Dec. 1-3, 1998.

Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, 'Disposal of PVC Waste', Report # 4672 (1997).

Sweeny, R., private correspondence, Roger Sweeny, Manager, Australian Composite Technology (2002).

Thompson (2002), Private communication, Kevin Thompson, Nylex Frankston, (2002).

Thornton, J., McCally, M., Orris, P. and Weinberg J., 'Dioxin Prevention and Medical Waste Incinerators', Public Health Reports', 111, 298 (1996).

TNO report - by Sofres Conseil, 'Assessing the potential for post-use plastic waste recycling in 2001 and 2006' (summary report) commissioned by APME, Brussels (1998).

Trouve, G., Kauffmann, A. and Delfosse, L., 'Comparative thermodynamic and experimental study of some heavy metal behaviours during automotive shredder residues incineration', Waste Management, 18, 301 (1998).

Truman, T. (2002), Private correspondence, Tony Truman, consultant to Total Energy Services Tasmania (TEST), Tasmania.

Tsukada (2002), Private communication, Masataka Tsukada (Environment Systems Co. Ltd., Japan).

van Schijndel, P.P., van Kasteren, J.M.N. and Janssen, F.J., 'Exergy analysis - a tool for sustainable technology - in engineering education', Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Centre for Environmental Technology (CMT), Eindhoven University of Technology (TUE), The Netherlands (1998).

'Vinyl Bottle Industry Action Plan', National Packaging Covenant, October, 2000.

Vinyl 2010, The Voluntary Commitment of the PVC Industry Progress Report 2002, ECVM, Brussels.

Walton, T., private communication, Trevor Walton, Vision Plastics, Wanterna, VIC (2002).

Wang, D. L., Xu X. B., Zheng M. H. and Chung H. C., 'Catalytic effect of copper chloride on the toxic emissions from combustion of polyvinyl chloride', Acta Chimica Sinica, 58, 1681 (2000).

Wang, K. S. Chiang, K. Y. and Chu, W. T., 'Fate and partitioning of heavy metals affected by organic chloride content during a simulated municipal solid waste incineration process', Journal of Environmental Science & Health, Part A: Environmental Science & Engineering & Toxic & Hazardous Substance Control, 32, 1877 (1997).

Wang, K. S. Chiang, K. Y. Lin, S. M. Tsai, C. C. and Sun, C. J., 'Effects of chlorides on emissions of toxic compounds in waste incineration: Study on partitioning characteristics of heavy metal', Chemosphere, 38, 1833 (1999).

Wang, Z. Q. Huang, H. T. Li, H. B. Wu, C. Z. Chen, Y. and Li, B. Q.,'HCl formation from RDF pyrolysis and combustion in a spouting-moving bed reactor', Energy Fuels, 16, 608, (2002).

Watson, J., private communication, John Watson, Polychem, NSW (2002).

Wey, M. Y., Hwang, J. H. and Chen, J. C., 'Mass and Elemental Size Distribution of Chromium, Lead and Cadmium Under Various Incineration Conditions', Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan, 31, 506 (1998).

Wey, M. Y., Su, J. L. and Chen, J. C., 'Influence of operating conditions on the formation of heavy metal compounds during incineration', Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 49, 444 (1999).

Wikstrom, E. and Marklund, S., 'The influence of level and chlorine source on the formation of mono- to octa-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls during combustion of an artificial municipal waste', Chemosphere, 43, 227 (2001).

Wooten, P., private communication, Paul Wooten, Engineer, Brightstar Environmental (2002).

Yamamoto, T., Yasuhara, A., 'Quantities of bisphenol A leached from plastic waste samples', Chemosphere, 38, 2569 (1999).

Yarahmadi, N., Jakubowicz, I. and Gevert, T., 'Effects of repeated extrusion on the properties and durability of rigid PVC scrap', Polymer Degradation & Stability, 73, 93 (2001).

Yasuhara, A. Katami, T. Okuda, T. Ohno, N. and Shibamoto T., 'Formation of dioxins during the combustion of newspapers in the presence of sodium chloride and poly(vinyl chloride)', Environ. Sci. Technol. 35, 1373 (2001).

Yates, A., private communication, Alec Yates, Manager, Repeat Plastics, 157 Beresford Rd., Lilydale, VIC 3140 (2002).

Yernaux, J.-M., private communication, Jean-Marie Yernaux, Technical Manager, Solvay Research and Technology, rue de Ransbeek 310, B-1120, Bruxelles, Belgium (2002).

Zevenhoven, R., Axelsen, E. P. and Hupa M., 'Pyrolysis of waste-derived fuel mixtures containing PVC', Fuel, 81, 507 (2002).

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