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John R. Paxton, Jennifer E. Gates, Dianne J. Bray & Douglass F. Hoese
Currently, six genera and eight species are recognised in the Anomalopidae (Paxton & Johnson 1999; Johnson et al. 2001). Two species in two genera are known from Australia.
Flashlight fishes occur in tropical waters of the Indian, Pacific and western Atlantic Oceans. Reef waters are the typical habitat, the fishes living in deeper waters in the daytime and coming near the surface on moonless nights. Small crustaceans are the primary food. The distinctive feature of flashlight fishes is a large light organ, containing luminous bacteria, under the eye. The functions of the light organ and ecology of the flashlight fishes were described by McCosker (1977). The largest specimen is 22.9 cm standard length.
The Anomalopidae were briefly reviewed by Rosenblatt & Montgomery (1976) and McCosker & Rosenblatt (1987), who recognised three genera and four species. Relationships are discussed by Johnson & Rosenblatt (1988).
Johnson, G.D., Seeto, J. & Rosenblatt, R.H. 2001. Parmops echinatus, a new species of flashlight fish (Beryciformes: Anomalopidae) from Fiji. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 114(2): 497-500
Johnson, G.D. & Rosenblatt, R.H. 1988. Mechanisms of light organ occlusion in flashlightfishes, family Anomalopidae (Teleostei: Beryciformes), and the evolution of the group. Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology 94: 65-96
McCosker, J.E. 1977. Flashlight fishes. Scientific American 263(3): 106-114 12 figs
McCosker, J.E. & Rosenblatt, R.H. 1987. Notes on the biology, taxonomy, and distribution of the flashlight fishes (Beryciformes: Anomalopidae). Japanese Journal of Ichthyology 34(2): 157-164
Paxton, J.R. & Johnson, G.D. 1999. Family Anomalopidae. pp. 2212-2213 in Carpenter, K.E. & Niem, T.H. (eds). The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fisheries Purposes. Rome : FAO Vol. 4 2069-2790 pp.
Rosenblatt, R.H. & Montgomery, W.L. 1976. Kryptophaneron harveyi, a new anomalopid fish from the eastern tropical Pacific and the evolution of the Anomalopidae. Copeia 1976(3): 510-515 figs 1-2
Common Name References
Paxton, J.R. & Johnson, G.D. 1999. Family Anomalopidae. pp. 2212-2213 in Carpenter, K.E. & Niem, T.H. (eds). The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fisheries Purposes. Rome : FAO Vol. 4 2069-2790 pp.  (FAO) (Flashlight Fishes)