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9 June 2012 - Dianne J. Bray
The relationships of the boarfish family Caproidae has long been a source of debate and still remains unresolved. Although Tyler et al. (2003) and Tyler & Santini (2005) excluded the caproids from the Zeiformes, and Nelson (2006) placed the family in its own perciform suborder the Caproidei, Hoese (2006) tentatively included the group in the Zeiformes until family relationships were further resolved. Here we tentatively place the family in the perciform suborder Caproidei. Nolf & Tyler (2006), in a study based on otolith morphology, concluded that caproids were the plesiomorphic sister group of zeiforms and tetraodontiforms. Wiley & Johnson (2010) placed the family in the Order "Caproiformes" sensu Rosen, 1984, incertae sedis in Percomorphacea. Previously, Rosen (1984) suggested that caproids are the sister group to Zeiformes and Tetraodontiformes. The molecular analysis of Chen et al. (2003) suggested that caproids are closely related to Tetraodontiformes, and the genetic studies of Miya et al. (2003, 2005), Dettai & Lecointre (2005), Yamanoue et al. (2007) and Holcroft & Wiley (2008) suggest that Lophiiformes, Tetraodontiformes and Caproidae are related.
Chen, W.-J., Bonillo, C. & Lecointre, G. 2003. Repeatability of clades as a criterion of reliability: a case study for molecular phylogeny of Acanthomorpha (Teleostei) with larger number of taxa. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 26: 262–288
Miya, M., Satoh, T.P. & Nishida, M. 2005. The phylogenetic position of toadfishes (order Batrachoidiformes) in the higher ray-finned fish as inferred from partitioned Bayesian analysis of 102 whole mitochondrial genome sequences. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society of London 85(3): 289-306
Miya, M., Takeshima, H., Endo, H., Ishiguro, N.B., Inoue, J.G., Mukai, T., Satoh, T.P., Yamaguchi, M., Kawaguchi, A., Mabuchi, K., Shirai, S.M. & Nishida, M. 2003. Major patterns of higher teleostean phylogenies: a new perspective based on 100 complete mitochondrial DNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 26: 121-138
Nolf, D. & Tyler, J.C. 2006. Otolith evidence concerning interrelationships of caproid, zeiform and tetraodontiform fishes. Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Biologie 76: 1471-1480
Rosen, D.E. 1984. Zeiforms as primitive plectognath fishes. American Museum Novitates 2782: 1-45 figs 1-38
Tyler, J.C., O'Toole, B. & Winterbottom, R.W. 2003. Phylogeny of the genera and families of zeiform fishes, with comments on their relationships with tetraodontiforms and caproids. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 618: 1-110
Tyler, J.C & Santini, F. 2005. A phylogeny of the fossil and extant zeiform-like fishes, Upper Cretaceous to Recent, with comments on the putative zeomorph clade (Acanthomorpha). Zoologica Scripta 34(2): 157-175
Wiley, E.O. & Johnson, G.D. 2010. A teleost classification based on monophyletic groups. pp. 123-182 in Nelson, J.S., Schultze, H.-P. & Wilson, M.V.H. Origin and Phylogenetic Interrelationships of Teleosts. München, Germany : Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil 480 pp.
Yamanoue, Y., Miya, M., Matsuura, K., Yagishita, N., Mabuchi, K., Sakai, H., Katoh, M. & Nishida, M. 2007. Phylogenetic position of tetraodontiform fishes within the higher teleosts: Bayesian inferences based on 44 whole mitochondrial genome sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 45: 89–101
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