Citharids, Largescale Flounders
Compiler and date details
Douglass F. Hoese & Dianne J. Bray
The Citharidae are a small family of flatfishes currently comprising five genera and six species (Hoshino 2001; Nelson 2006). In Australia, three genera and five species have been recorded.
Citharids occur in the Indo-west Pacific and the Mediterranean. They live over soft bottoms on the continental shelf and slope, in depths of 20–50 m in Australia. Maximum size reached is 40 cm.
Hubbs (1945) revised the family and discussed relationships. More recently, Hensley & Ahlstrom (1984) and Chapleau (1993) questioned monophyly of the family. However, Hoshino (2001) established its monophyly and also described relationships among the genera.
Some Australian species are treated in Hensley (2001). Material collected in recent years indicates that a revision of the family is needed and that it is likely that new species will be discovered.
Chapleau, F. 1993. Pleuronectiform relationships: a cladistic reassessment. Bulletin of Marine Science 52(1): 516-540 figs 1-7
Hensley, D.A. 2001. Psettodidae, Citharidae. pp. 3792-3798 in Carpenter, K.E. & Niem, T.H. (eds). The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fisheries Purposes. Rome : FAO Vol. 6 pp. 3381-4218.
Hensley, D.A. & Ahlstrom, E.H. 1984. Pleuronectiformes: relationships. 670-687 in Moser, H.G. et al. (eds). Ontogeny and Systematics of Fishes. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists. Special Publication 1: 1-760
Hoshino, K. 2001. Monophyly of the Citharidae (Pleuronectoidei: Pleuronectiformes: Teleostei) with considerations of pleuronectoid phylogeny. Ichthyological Research 48: 391-404
Hubbs, C.L. 1945. Phylogenetic position of the Citharidae, a family of flatfishes. Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 63: 1-38
Nelson, J.S. 2006. Fishes of the World. Hoboken, New Jersey : John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 601 pp.
Common Name References
Hensley, D.A. 2001. Psettodidae, Citharidae. pp. 3792-3798 in Carpenter, K.E. & Niem, T.H. (eds). The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fisheries Purposes. Rome : FAO Vol. 6 pp. 3381-4218.  (Largescale Flounders)
Sainsbury, K.J., Kailola, P.J. & Leyland, G.G. 1985. Continental Shelf Fishes of Northern and North-Western Australia. Canberra : Fisheries Information Service 375 pp. figs & pls.  (Citharids)
History of changes
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