Compiler and date details
Douglass F. Hoese & Dianne J. Bray
Members of the Cynoglossidae occur in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Currently, three genera and around 127 species are recognised (Nelson 2006); all these genera and 16 species are known from Australia.
Tongue soles live over soft bottoms from coastal regions to offshore environments to 2000 m. The maximum size is 45 cm in length.
Chapleau (1988) established monophyly of the family and discussed relationships and Chapleau (1993) presented a phylogeny of all flatfishes. Menon (1977) studied species of Cynoglossus, but additional species have been recognised in recent years. Menon (1980) revised Paraplagusia and additional species of Paraplagusia were described by Chapleau & Renaud (1993) and Chapleau et al. (1991). Munroe (1992) and Munroe & Marsh (1997) discussed Symphurus and Munroe (2001) treated some species known from tropical Australia.
Tom Munroe kindly provided advice regarding this family.
Chapleau, F. 1988. Comparative osteology and intergeneric relationships of the tongue soles (Pisces; Pleuronectiformes; Cynoglossidae). Canadian Journal of Zoology 66: 1214-1232
Chapleau, F. 1993. Pleuronectiform relationships: a cladistic reassessment. Bulletin of Marine Science 52(1): 516-540 figs 1-7
Chapleau, F., Renaud, C.B. & Kailola, P.J. 1991. Paraplagusia longirostris, a new flatfish (Cynoglossidae) from Australia and Papua New Guinea. Japanese Journal of Ichthyology 38(3): 239-244 figs 1-3
Chapleau, F. & Renaud, C.B. 1993. Paraplagusia sinerama (Pleuronectiformes: Cynoglossidae), a new Indo-Pacific tongue sole with a revised key to species of the genus. Copeia 1993(3): 798-807 figs 1-4
Menon, A.G.K. 1977. A systematic monograph of the tongue soles of the genus Cynoglossus Hamilton-Buchanan (Pisces : Cynoglossidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 238: 1-129 figs 1-48 pls 1-28
Menon, A.G.K. 1980. A revision of the fringed-lip tongue soles of the genus Paraplagusia Bleeker, 1865 (Family Cynoglossidae). Matsya 5: 11-22 figs 1-2 [dated 1979]
Munroe, T.A. 1992. Interdigitation pattern of dorsal-fin pterygiophores and neural spines, an important diagnostic character for symphurine tonguefishes (Symphurus: Cynoglossidae: Pleuronectiformes). Bulletin of Marine Science 50(3): 357-403
Munroe, T.A. 2001. Soleidae, Cynoglossidae. pp. 3878-3901 in Carpenter, K.E. & Niem, T.H. (eds). The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fisheries Purposes. Rome : FAO Vol. 6 pp. 3381-4218.
Munroe, T.A. & Marsh, B.N. 1997. Taxonomic status of three nominal species of Indo-Pacific symphurine tonguefishes (Symphurus: Cynoglossidae: Perciformes). Ichthyological Research 44(2): 189-200 figs 1-3
Nelson, J.S. 2006. Fishes of the World. Hoboken, New Jersey : John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 601 pp.
Common Name References
Allen, G.R., Midgley, S.H. & Allen, M. 2002. Field Guide to the Freshwater Fishes of Australia. Perth : Western Australian Museum 394 pp.  (Tongue Soles)