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Douglass F. Hoese & Dianne J. Bray
Members of the Cynoglossidae occur in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Currently, three genera and around 127 species are recognised (Nelson 2006); all these genera and 16 species are known from Australia.
Tongue soles live over soft bottoms from coastal regions to offshore environments to 2000 m. The maximum size is 45 cm in length.
Chapleau (1988) established monophyly of the family and discussed relationships and Chapleau (1993) presented a phylogeny of all flatfishes. Menon (1977) studied species of Cynoglossus, but additional species have been recognised in recent years. Menon (1980) revised Paraplagusia and additional species of Paraplagusia were described by Chapleau & Renaud (1993) and Chapleau et al. (1991). Munroe (1992) and Munroe & Marsh (1997) discussed Symphurus and Munroe (2001) treated some species known from tropical Australia.
Tom Munroe kindly provided advice regarding this family.
Gomon, M.F. 1994. Family Cynoglossidae. pp. 865-866, fig. 766 in Gomon, M.F., Glover, C.J.M. & Kuiter, R.H. (eds). The Fishes of Australia's South Coast. Adelaide : State Printer 992 pp. 810 figs. 
Hoese, D.F. & Bray, D.J. 2006. Cynoglossidae. pp. 1853-1858 in Beesley, P.L. & Wells, A. (eds). Zoological Catalogue of Australia. Volume 35 Australia : ABRS & CSIRO Publishing Parts 1-3, 2178 pp. 
Munroe, T.A. 1992. Interdigitation pattern of dorsal-fin pterygiophores and neural spines, an important diagnostic character for symphurine tonguefishes (Symphurus: Cynoglossidae: Pleuronectiformes). Bulletin of Marine Science 50(3): 357-403
Munroe, T.A. 2001. Soleidae, Cynoglossidae. pp. 3878-3901 in Carpenter, K.E. & Niem, T.H. (eds). The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fisheries Purposes. Rome : FAO Vol. 6 pp. 3381-4218.
Munroe, T.A. & Marsh, B.N. 1997. Taxonomic status of three nominal species of Indo-Pacific symphurine tonguefishes (Symphurus: Cynoglossidae: Perciformes). Ichthyological Research 44(2): 189-200 figs 1-3
Common Name References