Australian Biological Resources Study

Australian Faunal Directory

<I>Eupoecila australasiae</I> (Donovan, 1805)

Eupoecila australasiae (Donovan, 1805)

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Subfamily Cetoniinae


Compiler and date details

1 December 2002 - Gerasimos Cassis & Tom A. Weir; updated by Andrew A. Calder, CSIRO Entomology, Canberra, Australia

Introduction

The Cetoniinae (commonly known as flower beetles) are a large, cosmopolitan subfamily consisting of about 510 genera and 3,600 species. As in the previous catalogue (Houston 1992), the tribal classification derived from Krikken (1984) who radically revised the world classification, is also followed in this Catalogue. He gave a key to all the suprageneric groups but his family ranking for the cetoniines is not accepted here and the group is retained within the Scarabaeidae. Krikken's tribal classification is accepted here although his subfamily Valginae is relegated to tribal status. He also listed the included genera in each tribe and subtribe and gave the number of species in each genus. Krikken (1986) gave a provisional checklist, as well as distribution information, of all species of the Valgini (as Valginae). Prior to Krikken's efforts, modern workers had to rely on the classification found in the world catalogues of Schenkling (1921, 1922) which is based on the unnatural Schoch classification (Schoch 1894, 1895a, 1895b, 1895c, 1896a, 1896b, 1896c, 1898a, 1898b, 1898c) and has considerable errors.

Burmeister (1842) gave the first world treatment for the group. The generic arrangement of Krikken (1984) is followed where possible. Where the species composition of genera is not known, however, we have referred to Schenkling (1921). Krikken (1984) removed some of Kraatz's genera (Kraatz 1880) from synonymy, but some of these arrangements were not followed if it was considered premature or if there was not enough information.

The Australian fauna consists of 29 genera and 146 species. The majority of the Australian fauna have been assigned to the tribe Schizorhinini which is endemic to the Australasian Region. The Cetoniini is a large, somewhat homogeneous group represented in Australia by the mainly Oriental genus Glycyphana Burmeister, and the mainly Oriental and Palaearctic genus Protaetia Burmeister. The Valgini is a small tribe with the Australian members belonging to the genus Microvalgus Kraatz, which is also found in the Oriental and Afrotropical Regions. In Australia, most species are found in the wet forests of tropical Queensland (Moore 1986).

The first Australian species described were Cetonia stolata Fabricius, 1775 and Cetonia fasciata Fabricius, 1775. Macleay (1863, 1871, 1888) described 16 species and Thomson (1857, 1877, 1878a, 1878b, 1878c, 1878d, 1878e, 1880a, 1880b) described 11 species and a number of new genera of which only one is valid. Janson (1873a, 1873b, 1874, 1876, 1877, 1887, 1889) described 20 new species in a number of small papers.

Kraatz (1880) monographed the Australian fauna describing 12 new genera, seven of which he retained in synonymy. Lea (1914) monographed the Australian fauna; listed all the known taxa and described 32 new species. He also excluded the following species from the Australian fauna: Panglaphyra duboulayi Thomson, 1879, Schizorhina ebenina Butler, 1865, Diceros plagiatus Gory & Percheron, 1833, Cetonia felina Gory & Percheron, 1833, Gnathocera dorsalis Gory and Percheron, 1833 and Lompatera aurata Gestro, 1879. Bacchus (1974) revised the Australian members of Glycyphana. Allard (1995a, 1995b) and Rigout & Allard (1997) monographed the tribe Schizorhinini, describing several new Australian species, reorganising the generic classification and providing illustrations of nearly every known Australian species. The latter is the most recent work on this group.

BIOLOGY
The biology of the Cetoniinae, especially the larval stages, is largely unknown. The adults appear to be nectar and pollen feeders and are attracted to plant exudates. They are very strong flyers and spend a lot of time on the wing in search of flowers and oviposition sites (Moore 1986). The adult flight behaviour is unusual in that they can spread their wings without raising the elytra (Lawrence & Britton 1991). The larvae are known to live in decaying vegetable matter, rotten wood or soil and, in captivity, feed on soft fruit (Krikken 1984; Lawrence & Britton 1991). The larvae are able to move on their backs by using tergal folds densely clothed with strong bristles. Partial life histories are known for a few of the Australian species, including the common Eupoecila australasiae (Donovan) and Chlorobapta frontalis (Donovan), Diaphonia dorsalis Donovan, Micropoecila cincta (Gory & Percheron), Schizorrhina atropunctata (Kirby) and Trichaulax philipsii (Schreibers) (Moore 1986). The larvae of the scale-covered Microvalgussa species live in termite nests. The group is undoubtedly most diverse in the tropical regions of the world. Some species are economic pests.

Šípek & Král (2012) provide "historical overview on the study of immature Cetoniinae and provides an up-to-date list of 194 so far described taxa at the species level".

 

Diagnosis

The adults are small to large sized (3 mm for some Microvalgus species to 40 mm for some species of Dilochrosis, Diaphonia and Trichaulax), and are usually brightly coloured, often metallic. In the adult stage, they can be distinguished from other scarabaeid subfamilies by a combination of the following characters: equal tarsal claws; elytra without narrow membranous margin, somewhat truncate, leaving the pygidium exposed; abdominal spiracles diverging so that several lie on the abdominal sternites with at least one exposed; mid coxae transverse or only slightly oblique; fore coxae conical, produced ventrally; mesothoracic epimera visible from above; and dorsum somewhat flattened (Lawrence & Britton 1991). The larvae are characterised by and can be distinguished from other scarabaeid subfamilies by: body stout and very hairy; apical antennal segment as wide as penultimate segment; galea and lacinia fused to form a mala; anal cleft transverse; sternum 9 without a raster of longitudinal rows of spines; mandible with ventral stridulating area; labrum symmetrical with deeply pigmented notch on each side of midline; head partly covered by prothorax; and legs short.

 

Diagnosis References

Lawrence, J.F. & Britton, E.B. 1991. Coleoptera (Beetles). pp. 543-683 in CSIRO (ed.). The Insects of Australia. A textbook for students and research workers. Melbourne : Melbourne University Press Vol. 2 pp. 543-1137.

 

General References

Allard, V. 1995a. Les Coléoptères du Monde [The Beetles of the World]. Schizorhinini 1. English text by Brian Morris. Venette, France : Sciences Nat Vol. 23 152 pp. [Date published May-95]

Allard, V. 1995b. Les Coléoptères du Monde [The Beetles of the World]. Schizorhinini 2. English text by Brian Morris. Venette, France : Sciences Nat Vol. 24 136 pp.

Bacchus, M.E. 1974. A catalogue of the type-specimens of the Cetoniinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) described by G.J. Arrow with a complete bibliography of his entomological works. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Entomol. 31: 25-44

Burmeister, H.C.C. 1842. Handbuch der Entomologie. Coleoptera Lamellicornia Melitophila. Berlin : T.C.F. Enslin Vol. 3 xxii 827 pp.

Houston, W.W.K. (ed.) 1992. Zoological Catalogue of Australia. Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea. Canberra : AGPS Vol. 9 544 pp.

Janson, O.E. 1873a. Descriptions of new species of Australian Cetoniidae. Cistula Entomologica 1: 133-140

Janson, O.E. 1873b. Descriptions of two new species of Australian Cetoniidae. Cistula Entomologica 1: 179-181

Janson, O.E. 1874. Descriptions of new species of Australian Cetoniidae. Cistula Entomologica 1: 237-241

Janson, O.E. 1876. Notices of new or little known Cetoniidae. Cistula Entomologica 2: 133-140

Janson, O.E. 1877. Notices of new or little known Cetoniidae. Cistula Entomologica 2: 247-264

Janson, O.E. 1887. Notices of new or little known Cetoniidae. Cistula Entomologica 2: 603-611

Janson, O.E. 1889. Descriptions of two new species of Australian Cetoniidae. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 2 4: 127-130

Kraatz, G. 1880. Genera Cetonidarum Australiae. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 24: 177-214

Krikken, J. 1984. A new key to the suprageneric taxa in the beetle family Cetoniidae, with annotated lists of the known genera. Zoologische Verhandelingen (Leiden) 1984(210): 1-75

Krikken, J. 1986. Provisional checklist of the Valginae (Coleoptera: Cetoniidae). Haroldius 1986: 1-17

Lawrence, J.F. & Britton, E.B. 1991. Coleoptera (Beetles). pp. 543-683 in CSIRO (ed.). The Insects of Australia. A textbook for students and research workers. Melbourne : Melbourne University Press Vol. 2 pp. 543-1137.

Lea, A.M. 1914. Notes on Australian Cetoniides; with a list of species and descriptions of some new ones. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 38: 132-218

Macleay, W.J. 1863. Descriptions of twenty new species of Australian Coleoptera, belonging to the families Cicindelidae and Cetoniidae. Transactions of the Entomological Society of New South Wales 1: 9-21

Macleay, W.J. 1871. Notes on a collection of insects from Gayndah. Transactions of the Entomological Society of New South Wales 2: 79-205

Macleay, W.J. 1888. The insects of King's Sound and its vicinity. Part II. The Lamellicornes. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 2 3: 897-924

McQuillan, P.B. 1985. The identification of root-feeding cockchafer larvae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) found in pastures in Tasmania. Australian Journal of Zoology 33: 509-546

Moore, B.P. 1986. A Guide to the Beetles of South-Eastern Australia. Greenwich : Australian Entomological Press Vol. Fasc. 7 pp. 101-116.

Rigout, J. & Allard, V. 1997. Les Coléoptères du Monde [The Beetles of the World]. Schizorhinini 3. Vols 1 & 2 Supplement & Lomaptera. English text by Brian Morris. Canterbury : Hillside Books Vol. 25 128 pp.

Schenkling, S. 1921. Scarabaeidae: Cetoninae. pp. 1-431 in Schenkling, S. (ed.). Coleopterorum Catalogus. Scarabaeidae III. Berlin : W. Junk Vol. XXI Pt 72.

Schenkling, S. 1922. Scarabaeidae: Trichiinae, Valgina. pp. 1-58 in Schenkling, S. (ed.). Coleopterorum Catalogus. Scarabaeidae III. Berlin : W. Junk Vol. XXI Pt 75.

Schoch, G. 1894. Ueber die Systematik der Cetoniden. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft / Bulletin of the Société Entomologique Suisse 9: 164-225

Schoch, G. 1895a. Die Genera und Species meiner Cetonidensammlung. I. Teil: Trib. Goliathidae, Gymnetidae, Madagassae, Schizorrhinidae. Zürich : Zurcher & Furrer iii 64 pp.

Schoch, G. 1895b. Nachtrag zu den Gattungen und Arten meiner Cetonidensammlung. I. Teil. Zürich : E. Zwingli pp. 68-82.

Schoch, G. 1895c. Die Genera und Species meiner Cetonidensammlung. II. Teil: Tribus Cetoniadae, Diplognathidae und Cremastochilidae. Zürich : E. Zwingil pp. 86-148.

Schoch, G. 1896a. Einiges über Cetoniden. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft / Bulletin of the Société Entomologique Suisse 9: 356-370

Schoch, G. 1896b. Nachtrag II zu Schoch: Genera und Species meiner Cetoniden-Sammlung. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft / Bulletin of the Société Entomologique Suisse 9: 378-401

Schoch, G. 1896c. Einige neue Cetoniden. Entomologische Nachrichten. Berlin 22: 179-181

Schoch, G. 1898a. Nachtrag VI zu Schoch: Genera und Species meiner Cetoniden-Sammlung. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft / Bulletin of the Société Entomologique Suisse 10: 61-96

Schoch, G. 1898b. Nachtrag VII zu Schoch: Genera und Species meiner Cetoniden-Sammlung. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft / Bulletin of the Société Entomologique Suisse 10: 101-119

Schoch, G. 1898c. Nachtrag VIII zu Schoch: Genera und Species meiner Cetoniden-Sammlung. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft / Bulletin of the Société Entomologique Suisse 10: 141-184

Šípek, P. & Král, D. 2012. Immature stages of the rose chafers (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae): a historical overview. Zootaxa 1–26

Thomson, J. 1857. Archives Entomologiques ou Recueil Contenant des Illustrations Nouveaux ou Rares. Paris : Baillière Vol. 1 514 pp.

Thomson, J. 1877. Les deux descriptions suivantes de nouvelles espèces de Coléoptères. Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France 5 7: 88-89

Thomson, J. 1878a. Une note au sujet de diverses Cétonides. Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France 5 8: 10-11

Thomson, J. 1878b. Les descriptions de deux nouvelles espèces exotiques de Cétonides. Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France 5 8: 31-32

Thomson, J. 1878c. Les descriptions de deux nouvelles espèces de Cétonides d'Australie. Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France 5 8: 102-103

Thomson, J. 1878d. La description d'une nouvelle espèce de Cétonides. Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France 5 8: 138

Thomson, J. 1878e. Typi Cetonidarum suivus de typi Monommidarum et de typi Nilionidarum Musaei Thomsoniani. Paris : E. Deyrolle 44 pp.

Thomson, J. 1880a. La description d'une nouvelle espèce de Cétonide. Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France 5 10: 11

Thomson, J. 1880b. Diagnoses de genres nouveaux de la famille des Cétonides. Le Naturaliste 2: 293-294

 

History of changes

Note that this list may be incomplete for dates prior to September 2013.
Published As part of group Action Date Action Type Compiler(s)
08-Aug-2012 MODIFIED