Brittle Stars, Echinoderms, Feather Stars, Sand Dollars, Sea Cucumbers, Sea Lilies, Sea Urchins, Starfish, Trepang
Compiler and date details
2001 - Updated by Tim O'Hara, Museum Victoria, Carlton, Victoria, Australia
1995 - F.W.E. Rowe & J. Gates, Australian Museum, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, data ex Rowe & Gates (1995)
The Echinodermata is an ancient group of exclusively marine invertebrates. The phylum, erected by Hérouard in 1899, includes animals commonly known as feather stars and sea lilies (crinoids), starfish or sea stars (asteroids), sea urchins, heart urchins and sand dollars (echinoids), brittle and basket stars (ophiuroids), and sea cucumbers, trepang or bêche de mer (holothuroids). Echinoderms are found from the littoral zone to deep oceanic waters; most species are free-living and benthic. The phylum is well represented in Australian waters.
The Echinodermata is among the most clearly defined of animal phyla. Members are characterised by the combination of basic adult pentamery, a calcite skeleton and hydraulic tube feet or water-vascular system.
At least 20 classes of echinoderm have been recognised, the majority of which are fossil groups. The oldest known echinoderm, Arkarua adami Gehling (possibly an edrioasteroid) from Pre-Cambrian deposits, is from South Australia (Gehling 1987). At the time that H.L. Clark's monograph was published (1946), the Australian fossil fauna was, relative to other fossil faunas, poorly known. However, subsequent interest, particularly over the past 30 years, by a number of palaeontologists (e.g. see Philip 1961–1981; Jell 1985–1988; McNamara 1980–1993), has revealed a relatively rich Australian fossil fauna which is now reasonably well known. The fossil fauna is not included in this work.
Five of the six extant classes of echinoderm, Asteroidea, Crinoidea, Ophiuroidea, Echinoidea and Holothuroidea, arose during the Palaeozoic, subsequently diversifying widely during the Mesozoic. The newly discovered sixth class, the Concentricycloidea, is considered to have arisen either during the Mesozoic (Jurassic) or perhaps more recently (Baker et al. 1986; Rowe 1988; Rowe et al. 1988; Healy et al. 1988). Controversy over the status of the concentricycloids still continues. However, some authors (e.g. Smith 1988; Belyaev 1990) consider that the Concentricycloidea represent a new group of asteroids rather than a separate class of echinoderms.
The world fauna includes about 600 species of crinoids, 1800 asteroids, 2000 ophiuroids, 800 echinoids and 1400 holothuroids. Species in each of these five classes are recorded in Australian waters, but as yet no representative of the Concentricycloidea has been found. The Concentricycloidea, colloquially called sea daisies, comprise only two species, from the Caribbean and the Tasman Sea off New Zealand. On the basis of its disjunct distribution, Richardson (1987) suggested that the class is likely to occur in Australian waters.
The Australian fauna represents about 17.5% of the world fauna, and as such is relatively rich and diverse. The vast majority of the 1165 species recorded are known from shallow coastal or reefal waters (<30 m). We predict that significantly more species, perhaps over 2000, will eventually be identified from Australian seas following more intensive surveys of surrounding deeper waters of the continental shelf, slope and beyond, extending to the 320 km (200 mile) boundary of the Exclusive Economic Zone.
The first comprehensive list of echinoderms from Australian waters was compiled by Whitelegge (1889), who recorded 114 species from '… Port Jackson and neighbourhood'. The majority of early taxonomic work, however, centred around the efforts of one person, an American, Hubert Lyman Clark. Clark worked in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, at Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts and between the years 1896–1948, published 128 taxonomic articles on echinoderms. Only 13 of these (H.L. Clark 1909–1946) dealt specifically with the Australian fauna, but they were highly significant and comprehensive accounts.
In 1909, H.L. Clark reported on collections made by HMCS Thetis in southeastern Australian waters (H.L. Clark 1909b). In 1913, as a member of the Expedition from Carnegie Institution (Washington), he visited the Torres Strait islands and the islands of the Murray Group at the northern end of the Great Barrier Reef. This led to his report (H.L. Clark 1915) on the comatulids of the area and to a comprehensive account (H.L. Clark 1921) of the taxonomy, zoogeography and origin of the tropical Australian echinoderms.
Other publications followed (H.L. Clark 1923, 1926, 1928) in which Clark wrote on some echinoderms from Western Australia and from the collections of the Australian and South Australian Museums respectively. His report on the echinoderms (other than asteroids) collected during the Great Barrier Reef Expedition of 1928–1929 was published in 1932 (H.L. Clark 1932).
Supported by the Carnegie Institution, the Museum of Comparative Zoology and the Australian National Research Council, Clark spent six months in 1929 (June-December) visiting various institutions and local shores in Australia. He returned in 1932, on that occasion supported by the Milton Fund of Harvard University. The results of these visits of 1929–1932 were published in 1938 when Clark (1938) reported a total of 11 484 specimens collected, representing 422 species and 184 genera. In 1939 he described a new basket star from South Australia (H.L. Clark 1939).
The culmination of all this work was the publication of a monographic work (H.L. Clark 1946) documenting the composition (including fossil species records), zoogeographic affinities and origins of the Australian echinoderm fauna as he knew it. Clark recorded some 788 extant and over 100 fossil species. He described some 200 new extant taxa from Australian waters, of which probably 30% or more have since been recognised as being conspecific with established species.
A gap of at least 20 years in significant taxonomic studies followed the publication of H.L. Clark's monograph. From the early 1960s, major contributors in the taxonomic field of Australian echinoderms have included Hickman (1962); A.M. Clark (1966); Shepherd (1967–1968); Gibbs et al. (1976); Dartnall (1967–1980); Marsh (1976–1993); Baker (1979–1990); Rowe (1967–1993, including papers with Albertson, Baker, Hoggett, Marsh, Pawson & Vail); and Hoggett & Rowe (1986–1988).
The Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Volume 33: Echinodermata compiled by F.W.E. Rowe and J. Gates was published in 1995.
The Acanthaster phenomenon
Acanthaster planci (Linnaeus, 1758), commonly known as the Crown-of-Thorns starfish, was first collected in Australian waters during the 1913 American expedition to Torres Strait, and was reported by H.L. Clark in 1921. Local excitement about this starfish was galvanised only in the mid-sixties when concerns were raised about its explosive increase in numbers and destructive effects on the Great Barrier Reef. Since then, more has been spoken and written about this asteroid than any other echinoderm species. A number of important reviews have been published: Frankel (1978, for bibliography to 1978); Vine (1972); Sale et al. (1976); Kenchington (1978); Potts (1981); Rowe & Vail (1984); Moran (1986); Birkland & Lucas (1990); and Johnson (1992).
H.L. Clark (1946) recorded 788 extant and over 100 fossil echinoderm species occurring in Australia according to his records and awareness. We record 1154 extant species in this work. We are aware, too, of nearly 300 fossil species now published from Australian localities, however they are not recorded here. Records of Australian fossil echinoderms are available in the following pertinent, but not exhaustive, list of references: Mortensen (1928–1951); H.L. Clark (1946); Teichert (1949–1954); Spencer (1950); Philip (1961–1981); Gill & Caster (1960); Brunnschweiler (1962); Brown (1963–1967); Crespin (1964); McKellar (1964–1969); Talent (1965–1967); Webby (1968); Kesling (1969); Fletcher (1971); Philip & Foster (1971); Foster & Philip (1976–1980); Willink (1978–1980); McNamara & Philip (1980–1986); Jell (1985); Jell et al. (1985); Jell et al. (1988); McNamara (1982–1993); McNamara & Henderson (1984); McNamara et al. (1986); McNamara & Ah Yee (1989); Smith & Jell (1990); Holmes (1993); and McNamara & Barrie (1993).
The expansion of knowledge of both the extant and fossil faunas over the last 20 years is a reflection of greater research activity by a number of international and local echinoderm workers. Opportunities for collecting have increased since Clark's day, including the use of SCUBA and the more recent availability of Australian oceanographic and fisheries research vessels. Generous support given by Australian Federal and State Governments, in the form of access to and time on oceanographic and fisheries research vessels, has enabled collection of previously inaccessible faunal elements.
In the mid-1980s, three Australian museums employed echinoderm systematists dealing with extant faunas: F.W.E. Rowe was at the AM; L.M. Marsh at the WAM; and L.L. Vail at the NTM. Museum research associates presently actively engaged in echinoderm taxonomic studies are T. O'Hara and Br. P.M. O'Loughlin, NMV. Palaeontologists dealing with echinoderms are K.J. McNamara at the WAM and P. Jell at the QM. Several overseas specialists who have been actively engaged in taxonomic studies which include the Australian echinoderm fauna are D.L. Pawson at the USNM; A.N. Baker and H.E.S. Rotman (née Clark) both formerly at the NMNZ. It is regrettable that the number of echinoderm specialists has recently been so drastically reduced through retirement, or for other reasons. In fact in 1995, at the time of publication of the Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Volume 33: Echinodermata, other than palaeontologists, no echinoderm specialist was on staff of any Australian museum.
Rowe & Gates (1995) predicted, nonetheless, that with sustained efforts in research and in collecting from the continental shelf, slope and deeper waters, our knowledge of the echinoderm fauna of Australia will increase numbers by a further 50% over the next 20 years to about 2000 species, or to within 30–33% of the world fauna.
The database from which this Australian Faunal Directory checklist is derived, lists 1165 species, i.e. 11 more species than listed by Rowe & Gates (1995).
A.H. Clark (1911) was the first echinoderm systematist to comment on zoogeographic regions in relation to echinoderms on the Australian coast. On the basis of his study of 46 species of recent crinoids, he identified two sub-regions: a 'North Australian sub-region' (from Shark Bay, WA to Sydney, NSW) of the '… general Indo-Pacific-Japanese Region' and a '… southern Australian sub-region'. He considered the latter to be characteristically Australian, but probably derived from elements from the East Indian Region. H.L. Clark (1946), on the basis of a much broader study, disagreed. He supported the conchologist Hedley's (1904, 1926) division of the Australian coast into four provinces: the tropical Damperian (NW Australia), the Solanderian (NE Australia), the temperate Flindersian (SW & S Australia) and the Peronian (SE Australia) provinces.
Various interpretations of zoogeographic provinces, based on echinoderm distributions around coastal Australia, followed H.L. Clark's (1946) analysis; they are summarised in works by Rowe & Vail (1982) and Rowe (1985b). Wilson & Allen (1987) analysed distribution patterns of shallow-water benthic animals on the Australian coast, taking into account information on Australian fishes, molluscs, corals, echinoderms, geological history and ocean currents.
In general, echinoderm distributions conform with the patterns perceived by Wilson & Allen (1987) for fishes, molluscs and corals. Some differences mentioned by Rowe & Vail (1982) and Rowe (1985b), however, are worth consideration.
An 'endemic south coast' element, distinct from the southwestern Australian (=Flindersian Province) element appears to be lacking. In addition, according to Marsh & Marshall (1983) and Rowe (1985b), the validity of provinces on the NW and NE coasts of Australia is doubtful, despite 13% endemism in each case, due to uncertainties concerning the status of the endemic taxa. Rowe (1985b) also supports the recognition of a distinct ‘mainland’ element (Endean 1957) in the tropical Australian fauna. This element has strong ‘East Indies’ relationships and comprises taxa quite different from the more widespread, Indo-west Pacific Ocean reefal component.
Since Wilson & Allen (1987) noted the lack of any analyses of east coast echinoderms, Hoggett & Rowe (1988) have analysed the echinoderm fauna from Lord Howe Island and Elizabeth and Middleton reefs which lie about 600 km off the coast of New South Wales. Their work, based on 132 species, clearly demonstrates an overlap of tropical and temperate species. They identify an apparently significant element of 29 endemic species either distributed from the coast of NSW, eastward to Norfolk Island, northern New Zealand and Kermadec Islands or found at various but not all of these localities.
A tropical origin for a major component of the Australian modern echinoderm fauna is generally accepted. H.L. Clark (1946), Ekman (1967) and Briggs (1974) were convinced of the importance of the ‘East Indies’, not only as a source, but also as a ‘centre of origin’ of species within the Indo-west Pacific region. Endean (1957) suggested that ‘mainland’ species in Queensland originate from the ‘East Indies’, whereas the ‘reef’ species are of west Pacific origin. Rowe & Vail (1982) and Rowe (1985b) considered that the fauna is mainly of tropical origin with a small cold-water element in Tasmania. Wilson & Allen (1987) differed only in considering that a small ‘palaeoaustral’ element occurs in SE Australia.
Rowe (1985b) disagreed, however, with the contention of Ekman (1967), Briggs (1974) and others that the ‘East Indies’ region is a ‘centre of origin for the Indo-West Pacific region’. He suggested that the history and structural complexity of the East Indian/northern Australian region and its present latitudinal position have allowed enhanced speciation, particularly of ‘mainland’ species. In fact, the formation of that region 15–10 million years ago had a disruptive effect on the oceanic current systems as well as on the distributions of faunas in the Indo-west Pacific region.
During the course of his research F.W.E. Rowe (FWER) was assisted generously by the cooperation of many colleagues. Therefore, with great pleasure he records his thanks to the following: Dr L. Cannon, QM; Ms E. Turner and Ms A. Green (now retired), TMH; Ms S. Boyd, NMV; Mr T. O'Hara and Br P. O'Loughin, Research Associates, NMV; Mr W. Zeidler, SAM; Ms L. Marsh (now retired), WAM; Dr L. Vail and Ms A. Hoggett (formerly at NTM, presently co-directors at Lizard Island Research Station, QLD); Dr R.A. Birtles, Townsville; Ms M. Downey (now retired) and Dr D. Pawson, USNM; Ms A. Clark (formerly at BMNH, now retired); Dr A. Guille, (formerly at MNHP); Dr G. Hartmann, ZMH; Dr M. Jangoux, Université Libre Brussels; Dr G. Bakus, Allan Hancock Museum, University of California, Los Angeles, USAN; Dr A. Baker and Dr H. Clark, (both formerly at NMNZ); Mr D. McKnight and Mr W. Main, NZOI, and others who provided type lists.
The Australian Biological Resources Study funded the compilation of data for this Catalogue and the update. The Australian Museum Trust (NSW Government) and Marine Sciences and Technologies Grants supported visits by the senior author to Europe, United Kingdom, North America and New Zealand. Taxonomic studies by F.W.E. Rowe were also assisted by funding from the Australian Museum Trust, Australian Research Grants Scheme, Marine Sciences and Technologies Grants, and the Linnean Society of NSW. Special thanks are due to the AM Information Services Division, especially the Interlibrary Loan Officer, Ms C. Cantrell, for her thorough work in obtaining over 80% of requested interlibrary loans. Many of these requests were for extremely obscure material and necessitated a great deal of research on her behalf. Not only did her work mean a more complete literature summary for the Catalogue, but added to the library many references previously unavailable in Australia.
Dr H. Cogger (Deputy Director, AM), was especially helpful with advice during preparation of this Catalogue. Ms J. Saunders and Ms M. McEvoy are thanked for their friendship and help in preparing sections of this Catalogue.
Special thanks are due to the editor, Dr Alice Wells, former editors and all other Catalogue staff involved, for their advice, help, and above all, patience during the preparation of this volume.
Finally, we wish to extend heartfelt thanks to the several referees whose careful and valuable comments and advice were taken into account in the final copy and to Ms Catherine Eadie, formerly of ABRS, for preparation of the illustrations. The senior author accepts responsibility for any residual errors.
In 1974, with the aim of revising and updating H.L. Clark's (1946) monographic work, F.W.E. Rowe began compiling a list of Australian species, with their Australian and extra-Australian distributions. That list was based on literature surveys, collection of specimens and personal examination of collections held in all Australian and a number of overseas museums. The opportunity to publish the information in the form of a catalogue was taken up in 1986 following provision of funds from the Australian Biological Resources Study (ABRS). The list therefore formed the basis of the published Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Volume 33: Echinodermata which provided a summary of the taxonomy and distribution of the currently known extant echinoderm fauna of Australia. Class and brief family diagnoses were prepared by the senior author from relevant literature, and from his own research.
J. Gates compiled the database for this work and checked all references and other citations. She examined over 90% of all references in this work. Secondary sources were given for references not seen by either author. Where errors in the literature were discovered, they were corrected.
A decision was made early in the compilation of this work that incorrect subsequent spellings of generic or specific names, i.e. unavailable names, would not be included in synonymies unless major confusion has resulted from these spellings.
Apart from the recognition of the classes herein, the classification followed is basically that expressed in the Treatise of Invertebrate Palaeontology (Moore 1966; Moore & Teichert 1978). The following monographic or revisionary taxonomic works have also been consulted: Crinoidea: A.H. Clark (1931–1950), A.H. & A.M. Clark (1967), Rowe et al. (1986), Hoggett & Rowe (1986); Asteroidea: Blake (1987–90), A.M. Clark (1989, 1993), A.M. Clark & Downey (1992)); Ophiuroidea: Fell (1960), A.M. Clark (1953, 1967, 1970), Baker (1979, 1980); Echinoidea: Mortensen (1928–1951), Jensen (1981), Smith (1984); Holothuroidea: Pawson & Fell (1965), Rowe (1969), Hansen (1975), Thandar (1989–90), Thandar & Rowe (1989) and Gilliland (1993).
Keys to Australian tropical species are available in works by Clark & Rowe (1971) for shallow-water species and to Australian temperate species in chapters in Shepherd & Thomas (1982): by Shepherd et al. (crinoids), Zeidler & Shepherd (asteroids), Baker (echinoids and ophiuroids) and Rowe (holothuroids).
The location of some type material was established from the literature or in those national or international institutions visited by F.W.E. Rowe. If the provenance of type-material was uncertain, J. Gates sought information in the form of type lists from probable institutions holding relevant collections. If the location of type-material was still unconfirmed, or the status and whereabouts of the material unknown, the qualification 'undetermined' was given.
In the published work and in this database, generic synonymies generally follow those listed in the Treatise of Invertebrate Palaeontology (Moore 1966; Moore & Teichert 1978). Most species synonymies are taken from H.L. Clark (1946) (irrespective of whether he was the originator) or follow other current research works but new synonymies or new combinations were introduced by Rowe (1995).
Ecological and biological descriptors
In general, echinoderms are benthic with the crinoids categorised as rheophilic suspension feeders; asteroids as polytrophic; ophiuroids as either carnivorous or microphagous; echinoids as generally opportunistic or deposit feeders and holothuroids as suspension or deposit feeders (see Jangoux & Lawrence 1982). Few data are available on the general biology or ecology of individual species. If ecological information about a species is uncertain, an asterisk is placed after the descriptor. Descriptors were selected from the standard lists compiled by the ABRS; three additional terms employed in this volume are inshore, suspension feeder and deposit feeder.
The designation of the type species of a genus was clear in most cases either from the original publication or from subsequent publication. However, where it has not been possible to trace the original source of the designation the most reliable subsequent source is cited.
The distributions of echinoderms around Australia are based on information taken from H.L. Clark (1946), subsequent literature and research by the senior author. The marine zones around Australia are shown on this web site. The zones, and the political boundaries within which they fall, are listed in clockwise order around the continent from Queensland to the Northern Territory. Records of echinoderms from Australian territorial islands, Lord Howe, Norfolk (to the adjacent Wanganella Bank), and Christmas islands are included. Limits of distributions along the Australian coast were determined from the literature and/or by examination of Australian and overseas museum collections by F.W.E. Rowe and T. O'Hara.
World distributions are taken from literature sources and from records compiled by F.W.E. Rowe and T. O'Hara. Data on depth ranges are also provided.
Extralimital distributions of genera are not included in this volume.
The information on the Australian Faunal Directory site for the Echinodermata is derived from the Zoological Catalogue of Australia database compiled on the Platypus software program. The original work was published on 30 May 1995 as (Rowe, F.W.E. & Gates, J., 1995)
The database was updated by Tim O'Hara, Museum Victoria, in 1999-2001 to include additional species known from Australian waters, new taxonomic combinations, type specimen details and distributional records from published literature. In addition, the distribution of existing species was amended from unpublished museum records collected by Tim O'Hara (TOH) or Loisette Marsh (LM).
Distribution data in the Directory is by political and geographic region descriptors and serves as a guide to the distribution of a taxon. For details of a taxon's distribution, the reader should consult the cited references (if any) at genus and species levels.
Australia is defined as including Lord Howe Is., Norfolk Is., Cocos (Keeling) Ils, Christmas Is., Ashmore and Cartier Ils, Macquarie Is., Australian Antarctic Territory, Heard and McDonald Ils, and the waters associated with these land areas of Australian political responsibility. Political areas include the adjacent waters.
Terrestrial geographical terms are based on the drainage systems of continental Australia, while marine terms are self explanatory except as follows: the boundary between the coastal and oceanic zones is the 200 m contour; the Arafura Sea extends from Cape York to 124 DEG E; and the boundary between the Tasman and Coral Seas is considered to be the latitude of Fraser Island, also regarded as the southern terminus of the Great Barrier Reef.
Distribution records, if any, outside of these areas are listed as extralimital. The distribution descriptors for each species are collated to genus level. Users are advised that extralimital distribution for some taxa may not be complete.
Baker, A.N. 1982. Brittle-stars (Class Ophiuroidea). 418-437-10 figs pl. 29(3-4) in Shepherd, S.A. & Thomas, I.M. (eds). Marine Invertebrates of Southern Australia. Part 1. Adelaide : South Australian Government.
Baker, A.N. 1982. Sea-urchins (Class Echinoidea). 437-454-6 figs pl. 29(5) in Shepherd, S.A. & Thomas, I.M. (eds). Marine Invertebrates of Southern Australia. Part 1. Adelaide : South Australian Government.
Baker, A.N., Rowe, F.W.E. & Clark, H.E.S. 1986. A new class of Echinodermata from New Zealand. Nature (London) 321(6073): 862-864 figs 1-4
Baker, A.N. & Rowe, F.W.E. 1990. Atelostomatid sea urchins from Australian and New Zealand waters (Echinoidea: Cassiduloida, Holasteroida, Spatangoida, Neolampadoida). Invertebrate Taxonomy 4: 282-316 figs 1-114
Belyaev, G.M. 1990. Is it valid to isolate the genus Xyloplax as an independent class of echinoderms? Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 69(11): 83-96 [in Russian, English Abstract]
Clark, A.H. 1941. A monograph of the existing crinoids. Vol. 1. The comatulids. Part 4a.— Superfamily Mariametrida (except the family Colobometridae). Bulletin of the United States National Museum 82: 1-603 pls 1-61
Clark, A.H. 1947. A monograph of the existing crinoids. Vol. 1. The comatulids. Part 4b.— Superfamily Mariametrida (concluded—the family Colobometridae) and superfamily Tropiometrida (except the families Thalassometridae and Charitometridae). Bulletin of the United States National Museum 82: 1-473 pls 1-43
Clark, A.H. 1950. A monograph of the existing crinoids. Vol. 1. The comatulids. Part 4c.— Superfamily Tropiometrida (the families Thalassometridae and Charitometridae). Bulletin of the United States National Museum 82: 1-383 pls 1-32
Clark, A.H. & Clark, A.M. 1967. A monograph of the existing crinoids. Vol. 1. The comatulids. Part 5. — Suborders Oligophreata (concluded) and Macrophreata. Bulletin of the United States National Museum 82: 1-860 figs 1-53
Clark, A.M. 1953. A revision of the genus Ophionereis (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea). Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 123(1): 65-94 figs 1-12 pls 1-3
Clark, A.M. 1966. Port Phillip Survey 1957–63. Echinodermata. Memoirs of the National Museum of Victoria 27: 289-384, figs 1-10, pls 1-4
Clark, A.M. 1967. Notes on the family Ophiotrichidae (Ophiuroidea). Annals and Magazine of Natural History 13 9(106–8): 637-656 fig. 1 pls 10-11
Clark, H.L. 1914. The echinoderms of the Western Australian Museum. Records of the Western Australian Museum 1(3): 132-173 fig. 1 pls 17-26
Clark, H.L. 1915. The comatulids of Torres Strait: with special reference to their habits and reactions. Papers from the Department of Marine Biology of the Carnegie Institution of Washington 8: 67-125
Clark, H.L. 1916. I. Report on the sea-lilies, starfishes, brittle-stars and sea-urchins obtained by the F.I.S. Endeavour on the coasts of Queensland, New South Wales, Tasmania, Victoria, South Australia, and Western Australia. Endeavour Research 4(1): 1-123 figs 1-11 pls 1-44
Clark, H.L. 1923. Some echinoderms from West Australia. Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology Zool. 35: 229-251 pl. 13
Endean, R. 1957. The biogeography of Queensland's shallow-water echinoderm fauna (excluding Crinoidea), with a re-arrangement of the faunistic provinces of tropical Australia. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 8: 233-273 5 figs
Foster, R.J. & Philip, G.M. 1976. Corystus dysasteroides, a Tertiary holasteroid echinoid formerly known as Duncaniaster australiae. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 100(3): 113-116 figs 1-2
Foster, R.J. & Philip, G.M. 1978. Tertiary holasteroid echinoids from Australia and New Zealand. Palaeontology 21(4): 791-822 figs 1-6 pls 85-93
Foster, R.J. & Philip, G.M. 1980. Some Australian late Cainozoic echinoids. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria 91(2): 155-160 fig. 1 pls 19-20
Hansen, B. 1975. Systematics and biology of the deep-sea holothurians. Part I. Elasipoda. Galathea Report 13: 1-262 figs 1-125 pls 1-14
Healy, J.M., Rowe, F.W.E. & Anderson, D.T. 1988. Spermatozoa and spermiogenesis in Xyloplax (Class Concentricycloidea): a new type of spermatozoon in the Echinodermata. Zoologica Scripta 17(3): 297-310 63 figs
Hickman, V.V. 1962. Tasmanian sea-cucumbers (Holothuroidea). Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania 96: 49-72 figs 1-186 pls 1-2
Hoggett, A.K. & Rowe, F.W.E. 1986. A reappraisal of the family Comasteridae A.H. Clark, 1908 (Echinodermata: Crinoidea), with the description of a new subfamily and a new genus. Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology Zool. 88: 103-142 figs 1-3
Hoggett, A.K. & Rowe, F.W.E. 1988. Zoogeography of echinoderms on the worlds most southern coral reefs. pp. 370-387 figs 1-4 in Burke, R.D., Mladenov, P.V., Lambert, P. & Parsley, R.L. (eds). Echinoderm Biology: Proceedings of the Sixth International Echinoderm Conference, Victoria, 23–28 August 1987. Rotterdam : A.A. Balkema.
Johnson, C. 1992. Reproduction, recruitment and hydrodynamics in the crown-of-thorns phenomenon on the Great Barrier Reef: introduction and synthesis. pp. 1-7 in Johnson, C. Crown-of-thorns starfish on the Great Barrier Reef: reproduction, recruitment and hydrodynamics. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 43
Kesling, R.V. 1969. Three Permian starfish from Western Australia and their bearing on revision of the Asteroidea. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology, University of Michigan 22(25): 361-376 figs 1-6 pls 1-3
Marsh, L.M. 1976. Western Australian Asteroidea since H.L. Clark. Thalassia Jugoslavica 12(1): 213-225 figs 1-2
Marsh, L.M. 1978. Part IV. Echinodermata, Crinoidea, Asteroidea, Echinoidea and Holothuroidea. In, W.A. Dept. Conservation & Environment (eds). The Benthic Fauna of Cockburn Sound, Western Australia. Perth : Unpublished report 23 pp. 20 maps.
Marsh, L.M. 1986. Echinoderms. pp. 63-74 in Berry, P.F. (ed.). Faunal Surveys of the Rowley Shoals, Scott Reef and Seringapatam Reef, northwestern Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum, Supplement 25: 1-106
Marsh, L.M. 1991. Shallow water echinoderms of the Albany region, south-western Australia. pp. 439-482 in Wells, F.E., Walker, D.I., Kirkman, H. & Lethbridge, R. (eds). Proceedings of the Third International Marine Biological Workshop: The Marine Flora and Fauna of Albany, Western Australia. Perth : Western Australian Museum Vol. 2 722 pp.
Marsh, L.M., Vail, L.L., Hoggett, A.K. & Rowe, F.W.E. 1993. Part 6. Echinoderms of Ashmore Reef and Cartier Island. pp. 53-65 2 tables in Berry, P.F. (ed.). Marine faunal surveys of Ashmore Reef and Cartier Island North-western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum, Supplement 44: 91 pp.
Marsh, L.M. & Pawson, D.L. 1993. Echinoderms of Rottnest Island. pp. 279-304 in Wells, F.E., Walker, D.I., Kirkman, H. & Lethbridge, R. (eds). Proceedings of the Fifth International Marine Biological Workshop: The Marine Flora and Fauna of Rottnest Island, Western Australia. Perth : Western Australian Museum 2 vols 634 pp.
Materia, C.J., Monagle, J.F. & O'Loughlin, P.M. 1991. Seasonal coelomic brooding in southern Australian cucumarids (Echinodermata: Holothurioidea). pp. 301-307 in Yanagisawa, T., Yasumasu, I., Oguro, C., Suzuki, N. & Motokawa, T. (eds). Biology of Echinodermata. Rotterdam : A.A. Balkema.
McKellar, R.G. 1966. A revision of the blastoids 'Mesoblastus ? australis', 'Granatocrinus ? wachsmuthii' and 'Tricoelocrinus ? carpenteri' described by Etheridge (1892) from the Carboniferous of Queensland. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 14(5): 191-198 pl. 24
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