Australian Biological Resources Study

Australian Faunal Directory

Malacostraca

Malacostraca

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Class MALACOSTRACA Latreille, 1802


Compiler and date details

2001, 2002, 2003 - Peter Davie, Queensland Museum, Brisbane (Decapoda, etc); James K. Lowry, Australian Museum, Sydney (Syncarida, Amphipoda) & Gary C.B. Poore, Museum Victoria (Isopoda, etc)

Introduction

After Davie (2002a, 2002b), Poore (2002) and Lowry & Stoddart (2003), with very minor modification to introductory texts, and addition of newly described and recorded taxa in some Decapoda groups.

The Malacostraca is the largest class of the phylum Crustacea, comprising more than 21,000 species worldwide, around 5000 of which are recorded for Australia and its external territories. This volume of the Zoological Catalogue includes all Australian malacostracans other than members of the superorders Peracarida and Syncarida and the decapod infraorders Anomura and Brachyura. These groups are the subject of separate volumes in this series.

The great majority of malacostracan Crustacea are marine, but most other environments have been invaded, such as inland freshwaters, estuaries, intertidal mangrove swamps and sandy beaches. In marine waters they are found in both pelagic and benthic environments from shallow coastal waters to hadal depths. The majority of species in Australian seas are tropical, their closest affinities being with the fauna of the Indo-Malaysian Archipelago directly to the north, and then more broadly with faunas of the rest of the Indo-west Pacific region. There is, however, a marked overlap zone on both the eastern and western coasts marking the transition to a relatively strongly indigenous temperate fauna, including a significant proportion of endemic genera. Perhaps not surprisingly, the freshwater decapod fauna is also largely indigenous, with parastacid crayfish having undergone a particularly extensive radiation.

In the only previous 'Catalogue of Australian Crustacea', published in 1882, William Haswell recorded 390 species of non-Peracarida or Syncarida Malacostraca. In the subsequent 120 years this number had grown to 2,445 species, more than a six-fold increase. In 1968, Des Griffin and John Yaldwyn prepared an unpublished 'Checklist of Australian Decapoda'. From this they developed a review paper on the 'constitution, distribution and relationships of the Australian decapod Crustacea' for the 1967 Australia/New Zealand Meeting on Decapod Crustacea, in Sydney (Griffin & Yaldwyn 1968). In this paper they estimated a fauna of approximately 1,200 decapods in Australian waters, representing 361 genera and 57 families. At the count in 2001, some 2,228 decapod species in 695 genera and 105 families were recorded, approaching double the estimates of 1968. While the Decapoda are often dismissed as being 'well known', even this figure significantly underestimates the true number of species present in Australian waters. At current rate of discovery, a total approaching some 3,000 species within the next 20-30 years seems quite realistic. As an indication of the relative diversity of decapods in Australian seas, it is calculated that of around 6,500 valid crab species known worldwide, over 950, or around 15% are recorded officially for Australia.

The golden age of decapod taxonomy started in the 1830s, but, as apparent from the figures below, there have been two periods of particularly strong taxonomic effort during which the number of new species described consistently exceeded 100 species a year (of those now found in Australia). The first was the 50 year period from 1870 to 1920, and the second, the period 1960s to 2000.

1750-1830 158 species
1830-1870 467 species
1870-1920 588 species
1920-1960 276 species
1960-2000 670 species

While the Australian fauna has a comparatively large endemic component, it is dominated by widespread Indo-west Pacific forms, and therefore the yearly statistics for when Australian species were described, are probably a reasonable surrogate for the greater Indo-west Pacific taxonomic effort.

Historical Overview
The following account, by no means exhaustive, highlights many of the most important contributions made by a large group of carcinologists over the last 200 years.

Despite the English conquest and occupancy of Australia, the French undertook the most important and significant scientific expedition of the early years of the new colony. Le Géographe and Le Naturaliste under the command of Nicolas Baudin spent three years in Australian waters from 1801-1804, returning to the Paris Museum with an astonishing 100,000 specimens of 2,500 species. The vessels arrived at Cape Leeuwin, in May 1801, thence sailing northwards along the Western Australian coast to Timor, across northern Australia to the north-eastern tip of Arnhem Land, and returning via the westerly route across southern Australia to Sydney Harbour where they spent several months, before slowly returning to France. Amongst the scientific complement of Le Géographe was the naturalist François Péron, and at his service, the painter Charles Alexandre Lesueur. Between them, Péron and Lesueur amassed and illustrated the first significant collection of Australian Crustacea. Many of the decapod species they found were later documented and described by the great French carcinologist Henri Milne Edwards. An account of this great expedition of discovery was published in the Voyage de découvertes aux Terres Australes 1800-4, which included an Atlas with Lesueur's beautiful paintings of the Australian fauna. Many of Lesueur's drawings and sketches were never published, and these were catalogued and reproduced recently by Bonnemains & Jones (1990). Two other French expeditions also returned smaller but equally valuable collections to Paris. The corvettes L'Uranie and La Physicienne under the command of Louis de Freycinet spent time in Shark Bay, WA, and in New South Wales during 1818 and 1819. The surgeon naturalists Jean René Quoy and Joseph Gaimard made good collections and described the new species of ghost crab, Ocypode convexa, from Shark Bay. Finally, L'Astrolabe (1826-1829), Dumont d'Urville commanding, also returned collections of Australian Crustacea to Paris (see Clark & Crosnier (2000) for a history of publication).

Henri Milne Edwards (1800-1885) was a professor of Entomology and later Mammalogy at the Paris Museum. He was the pre-eminent French carcinologist of the nineteenth century, only approached in the second half of that century by his son Alphonse. His Histoire naturelle des Crustacés published from 1834 to 1840 is one of the classic works of carcinological literature, and still deserves attention. H. Milne Edwards was responsible for describing many forms from the early French Expeditions to the Australian and Indo-west Pacific regions.

Alphonse Milne Edwards (1835-1900) also had a distinguished career in the scientific life of France, and became the Director of the Paris Museum in 1891. Amongst his prodigious output, his 1873 paper on New Caledonia described many species later found to be in common with tropical northern Australia. For short biographical notes on these two scientists see Fransen et al. (1997: 262-263). Note that Forest (1996) pointed out that, to be strictly correct, the name A. Milne-Edwards should be hyphenated, as it was habitually spelt this way by the scientist himself; the name of his father, Henri, however, should be unhyphenated. Nevertheless, in the present work, for simplicity, I have chosen to standardise both mens' names without the hyphen.

As in Europe, the United States was also showing an increasing enthusiasm and thirst for scientific knowledge, and in November 1839 the United States Exploring Expedition under Lieutenant Charles Wilkes reached Sydney. Aboard ship was a mineralogist-geologist, James Dwight Dana, who was to become a professor of natural history at Yale College, and a major figure of American science. His 1852 account of the Crustacea of the U.S. Exploring Expedition would cement his place as one of his countries most famous and important carcinologists. The several months that he stayed in New South Wales were mainly occupied with geological pursuits, but there is little doubt that he would have collected a variety of crustaceans. Unfortunately, the greater part of his collections were tragically destroyed during the 1871 great fire of Chicago, while on loan to an equally important American carcinologist, William Stimpson (1832-1872) (see Evans (1967) for biographical sketch). Stimpson also had, on loan from the Smithsonian Institution, the large collections of Crustacea made during the North Pacific Exploring Expedition (1853-1856). His manuscript on the Anomura and Brachyura of this expedition was published many years after his death (Stimpson 1907). In this paper, he described a number of species, and many that were later to be recorded in Australia. The loss of both Dana's and Stimpson's type material has greatly complicated Indo-west Pacific crustacean taxonomy. A small amount of material was exchanged with European Museums and still survives (see Evans 1967; Diess & Manning 1981).

The Australian connections of one eminent British scientist and carcinologist, William Sharp Macleay (1792-1864), are perhaps not well known. Macleay's father Alexander, also an eminent scientist, was offered the position of Colonial Secretary in New South Wales, and was later joined by his son William. Both men were influential in the scientific life of Sydney, with Alexander helping to instigate the building of the Australian Museum; both men gave long and valuable service as Trustees, with periods as the Chairman. W.S. Macleay was instrumental in preparing the Museum Act of 1853. William Macleay spent some of his formative scientific years in Paris and was greatly influenced by some of the leading French scientists of the time including Latreille and Cuvier. Macleay did not publish on Crustacea after moving to Sydney, but his classic work of 1838, Illustrations of the Annulosa of South Africa, was an insightful attempt to establish a natural classification system for the Brachyura based on an analytical study of 'affinities and analogies', and indeed we owe a huge number of family and subfamily names to this crucial work. In 1888 the Macleay Museum was opened at the Sydney University and this became the home of the large personal collections of both Alexander and William Macleay (see Griffin & Stanbury (1970) for a list of decapod type specimens held in this collection). Only very recently were the Crustacea from this collection transferred to the Australian Museum. A biography of the Macleays was published by Stanbury & Holland (1988).

Wilhelm Hess of the Museum Göttingen published an important paper in 1865 on the decapods of eastern Australia, describing many new species and providing a list of 98 species known from Australia. Some syntypes from Hess's collection were exchanged with de Man in Leiden around 1880, and what was left of the remaining collection was transferred to the Senckenberg Museum in Frankfurt, in 1985. Many of the specimens sent to Hess were recorded as coming from 'Sydney', but it is now evident that a number of species either came from other Australian localities, or were collected from elsewhere in parts of the south-west Pacific that were visited by trading ships of the time.

William Aitcheson Haswell (1854-1925) holds a special place in the history of science in Australia. Haswell had impeccable credentials, having studied at the University of Edinburgh under, among others, Thomas Henry Huxley and Charles Wyville Thomson. Upon arrival in Sydney in 1878, Haswell was immediately welcomed and fostered by William Macleay, and he responded by throwing himself into research. In December 1879 he was appointed a curator in the Queensland Museum, in Brisbane, but this lasted only until November of 1880, when he returned to Sydney. In 1881, Haswell joined the cruise of H.M.S. Alert on a survey to the Great Barrier Reef. In 1882, he joined the staff of the University of Sydney rising quickly to become, in 1889, the first Challis Professor of Biology. Haswell always maintained a close relationship with the Australian Museum, where he was employed as a curator for a short time from March 1883 to February 1884; he served for many years as a member of the Board of Trustees until his resignation two years before his death in 1923. Between 1879 and 1882 Haswell published eight papers on decapod crustaceans, culminating in 1882 in his Catalogue of the Australian Stalk- and Sessile-eyed Crustacea. Apart from his crustacean and other research work, Haswell will long be remembered by several generations of zoologists throughout the English-speaking world for his collaboration with Professor T. Jeffrey Parker in writing the monumental Text book of Zoology in 1899. This was revised and reprinted many times and was a standard university text for at least 70 years. Carter (1928) wrote an interesting biography of Haswell, complete with a bibliography.

Most of the decapods from the cruise of H.M.S. Alert were returned to the British Museum of Natural History in London, and formed the basis of the important 1884 report on the expedition by the great taxonomist Edward J. Miers (Miers 1884). Two years later Miers (1886) produced a large paper on the Brachyura collected by the 1873-76 Challenger Expedition. These two works greatly added to Haswell's 1882 list of Australian decapods. Edward Miers (1851-1930) was a Curator at the Natural History Museum, London, between 1872 and 1885 and published extensively on Crustacea (for biographical details see Gordon (1971)).

Further expanding knowledge of the tropical fauna were the important papers on brachyurans from Torres Strait by A. Ortmann (1894) and Calman (1900). William T. Calman (1871-1952) was one of a long line of British Museum carcinologists who had a major impact on our understanding of the Indo-west Pacific crustacean fauna (for obituary see Gordon (1954), and for biographical notes on Calman and other early carcinologists of the Natural History Museum, London, see Ingle 1991).

Haswell's work at the Australian Museum was followed by that of Thomas Whitelegge (1850-1927) whose report on the Crustacea collected off eastern Australia by the Thetis (Whitelegge 1900) was particularly significant. Whitelegge arrived in Sydney in 1883 from England, after enduring a poverty stricken childhood. He had gained some recognition in his home country as an amateur naturalist, and within a year of his arrival had become a member of the Linnean Society of New South Wales under the sponsorship of Sir William Macleay, the founder of the society. Membership of the Royal Society of New South Wales quickly followed, and, after ever-growing recognition of his scientific abilities, he was appointed as a senior scientific assistant in charge of the Department of Lower Invertebrates at the Australian Museum. Arguably, Whitelegge's greatest scientific achievement was his 1889 'List of the Marine and Fresh-water Invertebrate fauna of Port Jackson and Neighbourhood' which was referred to as 'the marine zoologists' bible', and earned for its author a special gold medal and prize presented by the Royal Society of New South Wales. A fascinating biography of Whitelegge was published by McNeill (1929a), and a bibliography by Whitley (1929).

The first and second decades of the 1900s saw contributions from W.H. Baker dealing with South Australian Brachyura, and works by S.W. Fulton, F.E. Grant and Alan R. McCulloch on SE Australian species. Alan Riverstone McCulloch (1885-1925), the Australian Museum's ichthyologist, took over the crustacean collection responsibilities from 1905 to 1921. Despite his primary interest in fish, and the fact that he died tragically at the age of forty, McCulloch produced a number of significant papers on decapods. For his obituary and bibliography, see Anderson (1926). From 1914 McCulloch was assisted by Francis (Frank) Alexander McNeill (1896-1969) who was placed in charge of Crustacea from 1922 until 1961. Frank excelled at popularisation of science, writing numerous magazine articles, but also produced a number of important taxonomic papers between 1920 and 1930. Among others was his account with Stephenson of Australian stomatopods (Stephenson & McNeill 1955), and a large work in 1968 on the results of the British Great Barrier Reef Expedition of 1928, in which he had participated. For an obituary and bibliography, see Whitley (1969).

Herbert M. Hale (1895-1963) had a long and illustrious career in science in South Australia, particularly as Director of the South Australian Museum from 1928 until his retirement in 1960 (for obituary and bibliography, see Mitchell 1965). Hale's greatest taxonomic effort was on the taxonomy of Australian Cumacea, but nevertheless he produced some notable papers (Hale 1924, 1927, 1929, 1941), reporting on southern and western decapod species. His 1927 book the 'The Crustaceans of South Australia (Part I)' was the first real attempt to popularise Australian Crustacea, and its interesting natural history notes and good illustrations have ensured its relevance into the twenty-first century.

Mary Rathbun (1860-1943) of the United States National Museum, was one of the most influential brachyuran taxonomists of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries (for biography and bibliography, see Schmitt (1973)). While many of her papers are crucial for any student of the Australian fauna, two reports (Rathbun 1914, 1924) dealt directly with collections from Western Australia.

Other important early works on crabs of western and south-western Australia are those of S.K. Montgomery on the Percy Sladen Trust Expedition to the Abrolhos (Montgomery 1931), and that of the great German taxonomist Heinrich Balss on the material collected by the Hamburg Museum's expedition to southwestern Australia in 1905 (Balss 1935a, 1935b).

Two other English scientists who made an important contribution to Australian carcinology through their study of the H.M.S. Challenger collections were Charles Spencer Bate's (1888) report on the Macrura, and J.R. Henderson's (1888) report on the Anomura.

Waldo Schmitt (1887-1977) was an eminent American carcinologist. His most significant contribution to the Australian scene was his 1926 report on the families Penaeidae, Campylonotidae and Pandalidae obtained by the F.I.S. Endeavour while in Australian waters.

John Yaldwyn held the post of Curator of Crustacea and Coelenterata at the Australian Museum from 1962 to 1968. His chief research concerned the taxonomy and distribution of the Decapoda of New Zealand, Antarctica, and the Subantarctic islands. He was, however, an active collector, and greatly enhanced his museum's collection of tropical species as well. His popular book, Australian Crustaceans in Colour (1970) co-authored with photographer Anthony Healey, brought the love of crustaceans into many an Australian household. He left the Australian Museum to become the Assistant Director and later Director of the Dominion Museum, Wellington (now the National Museum of New Zealand).

Desmond 'Des' J.G. Griffin replaced John Yaldwyn as Curator of Crustacea at the Australian Museum, later becoming Director of the Museum. Des specialised in majid crabs, amongst other valuable contributions across a variety of decapod groups. Of many papers from the 1960s to the 1980s, his review of Australian majid spider crabs (Griffin 1966) was a pivotal work, for the first time facilitating identification of species in this difficult group. This was superceded by the monumental Griffin & Tranter (1986) 'Siboga' report, that reviewed the taxonomy of the Majidae for the Indo-west Pacific region.

Melbourne Ward (1903-1966) was a particularly colourful carcinological character. The son of a theatrical entrepreneur, Mel was interested in crabs from early childhood, but started his career on the stage as an acrobatic dancer. At about age 24 Mel decided the call of the crabs was too enticing, and left the theatre to pursue his hobby as a carcinologist. He travelled and collected widely both in Australia and overseas. In 1933 he and his wife moved to live on Lindeman Island on the Great Barrier Reef, the type locality for a number of his new species For several years he worked there in his own laboratory and tourist museum. While a number of his taxa have failed to stand the test of time, nevertheless his most important papers (Ward 1933a, 1933b, 1934, 1936, 1945) are an important legacy. Whitley (1967) gave an interesting account of his life and a full bibliography.

Michael W.F. Tweedie based at the Raffles Museum in Singapore produced two important papers (1947, 1950) on the Brachyura and Stomatopoda of the Australian Indian Ocean protectorates, Christmas and Cocos-Keeling Islands.

Eric R. Guiler from the University of Tasmania, published on various invertebrate groups, and made a notable compilation of the crustaceans of Tasmania (1952).

Although predominantly a peracarid worker, Gary Poore, at Museum Victoria, in partnership with Des Griffin, produced an important revision of Australian thalassinideans (Poore & Griffin 1979). Poore followed this with several other significant papers describing new taxa, and examining the phylogeny of the group. The Thalassinidea can now be considered to be one of the better known groups of Australian decapods, thanks also to considerable attention from two other modern workers Katsushi Sakai (Shikoku University, Japan) and Nguyen Ngoc-Ho (MNHP, Paris).

The late American scientist, Janet Haig, made a major contribution to our understanding of the Anomura. Her papers covered a number of families including the Albuneidae, Hippidae, Galatheidae, Paguridae and Diogenidae, but in particular she was one of the very few workers to deal extensively with the Porcellanidae. Keiji Baba (Kumamoto Univ., Japan), has also published several important papers on the Galatheidae.

Freshwater decapods have been very well studied. Works include a series of papers by E. Clark from 1936 to 1941 on parastacid crayfish; E.F. Riek from 1951 to 1972 on the full range of freshwater decapods, but with major revisions of the crayfish; J. Bishop (1963) on parthelphusid crabs; and more recently by Gary Morgan on crayfish of the genus Euastacus; and Pierre Horwitz on Engaeus and Engaewa crayfish.

Raymond Manning (1934-2000) was the greatest taxonomist ever to work on the Stomatopoda, and during the course of his career described an enormous number of species and genera, as well as 19 new families (for biography and bibliography, see Lemaitre & Reed 2000). Two papers (Manning 1966, 1970) directly concerned the Australian fauna. Shane Ahyong, currently working at the Australian Museum, has received the baton passed from Stephenson and Manning, and recently published a major revision of the Australian Stomatopoda which nearly doubled the species previously known to occur here (Ahyong 2001).

A.J. 'Sandy' Bruce studied as a medical doctor before turning his back on medicine to pursue his true love, the taxonomy of shrimps, particularly of the Palaemonidae. Sandy has held a variety of research positions worldwide, but finally settled in Australia in the 1970s to become the Director of Heron Island Research Station on the southern end of the Great Barrier Reef. After two terms there he moved to Darwin, becoming the Curator of Crustacea, and head of the Natural Science program in the Northern Territory Museum. Sandy helped to forge a strong group of marine taxonomists to work on the poorly known fauna of the Northern Territory; upon retirement, he moved to Brisbane where he holds an honorary research position at the Queensland Museum. Sandy has been a prolific author, by any standards, and has contributed more than any other worker to the taxonomic understanding of Australian carid shrimps.

At the Western Australian Museum, the first Curator of Crustacea, R.W. George was appointed in 1965. Ray published widely on a number of groups, but his great love and specialty was the Palinuridae. In 1962, Ray described the commercial rock lobster of Western Australia, Panulirus cygnus, and this paper was soon followed by several others (George & Holthuis 1965; George 1968; George & Kensler 1970). Later in his career (1982), he co-authored with his then technical assistant, Diana Jones, a superb revision of Australian fiddler crabs (Uca). Ray retired in 1984 and was succeeded by Gary J. Morgan. Gary, currently the Director of the Western Australian Museum, distinguished himself through the 1980s and early 1990s with his excellent work on the freshwater parastacid crayfish genus Euastacus and later extensive work on Australian hermit crabs. The current curator Diana Jones has specialised in the systematics of the Cirripedia, but has published a number of papers on decapods, especially on fiddler crabs. Her 1994 book, A Field Guide to Crustaceans of Australian Waters, with Gary Morgan, has proved to be a very popular and useful field guide to Australian Crustacea.

John Lucas of James Cook University, Townsville, no longer an active carcinologist, made a major contribution to the systematics of the false spider-crabs (Hymenosomatidae) (Lucas 1980; Lucas & Davie 1982).

William 'Bill' Stephenson (1921-1997) came to Australia from Britain to take up a position as Lecturer at the University of Queensland in Brisbane. Professor Stephenson was eventually appointed to the inaugural chair in zoology, and was an influential figure in championing the study of marine biology and ecology in Queensland. During the first part of his tenure in the 1950s, he produced a number of papers on the taxonomy of the Stomatopoda, culminating in his 1955 work that included a checklist and key to the known Australian species. From 1955 onwards, his taxonomic efforts were directed almost exclusively to the swimming crabs of the family Portunidae, on which he produced a succession of papers, alone, and with various co-authors. These are the benchmark for studies on this family in Australia, and are the single largest body of work on this family by any worker (see especially Stephenson & Hudson (1957); Stephenson & Campbell (1959, 1960); Stephenson (1961, 1972); Stephenson & Rees (1968a, 1968b, 1968c); Stephenson & Cook (1970). In his later years, Bill gave up taxonomy in pursuit of ecological studies of soft-bottom macrobenthic communities, in which field he also made his characteristic mark.

William 'Bill' Dall, was an early student of Professor Stephenson in Brisbane. Bill produced some important early papers on the taxonomy of Australian Penaeidae (Dall 1957; Racek & Dall 1965), before leaving taxonomy to pursue an illustrious research career in the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). Since retirement, he has been an honorary research scientist at the Queensland Museum, and is once again producing some important revisionary taxonomic studies (Dall 1999).

Bruce M. Campbell came to the Queensland Museum as Curator of Zoology in 1964. Having previously worked with, and been a postgraduate student of, Professor Stephenson, Bruce continued his passion with crabs, particularly the mangrove Grapsidae. Bruce laid the foundations of the Queensland Museum's strength in brachyurans. Another student of Stephenson, and originally a technical assistant to Campbell, the current Curator of Crustacea, Peter J.F. Davie, has published widely on a variety of brachyuran families, as well as dabbling in a few other decapod groups. He has particular expertise in grapsoid, ocypodoid, and xanthoid crabs. Peter's technical assistant and collection manager, John Short, has developed a strong expertise in freshwater decapods, including the atyid and palaemonid prawns, and parastacid crayfish.

NOTES ON THE CATALOGUE
Every effort has been made to include all relevant literature published before 30 June 2001 relating to the description of new taxa of Australian Malacostracans (excluding Peracaridea and Syncaridea dealt with in separate volumes). However, because Australia is part of the much larger Indo-west Pacific faunal province, it is possible that publications which could impact on the taxonomy and systematics of Australian species may have been missed despite the best efforts to embrace them.

Nomenclature and Classification

In general, Volumes 19.3A and 19.3B of the Catalogue are intended to be a summary of the systematics of major groups among Australian malacostacans, without being used as vehicles for new information on Australian species and their distribution. However, a number of decisions regarding synonymies, type species designations, and higher classification have been taken for the first time, and where these are not based on my own experience, I have endeavoured to give due credit to the authority or authorities followed. Every effort possible has been made to present full synonymies for all taxa.

The arrangement of taxa within these Volumes is not intended to reflect a phylogenetic classification. Families are arranged alphabetically to simplify access for all users (see Table 1). The introduction to each higher level taxon contains general references and comments on phylogenetic relationships and recent investigations where such information has been uncovered and/or deemed useful. The 'Reference for Synonymy' often refers to the latest review paper that is being followed, and does not necessarily mean that the cited author was responsible for creating the original synonymy. This decision was taken for pragmatic reasons, but also recognising that, typically, a synonymy consisting of multiple names includes decisions taken by several authors. Apologies are hereby tended if an author has not been given due credit for his or her original research leading to a new synonymy. Numbers of taxa catalogued in the two volumes are listed in Table 2.


Table 1. Higher level classification of malacostracan crustacean families recorded in the Australian fauna, excluding superorders Syncarida and Peracarida, ordered phylogenetically by higher taxa, and alphabetically by family.

Class MALACOSTRACA Latreille, 1802
Subclass PHYLLOCARIDA Packard, 1879
Order LEPTOSTRACA Claus, 1880
Nebaliidae Samouelle, 1819
Paranebaliidae Walker-Smith & Poore, 2001

Subclass HOPLOCARIDA Calman, 1904
Order STOMATOPODA Latreille, 1817
Bathysquillidae Manning, 1967
Eurysquillidae Manning, 1977
Erythrosquillidae Manning & Bruce, 1984
Gonodactylidae Giesbrecht, 1910
Hemisquillidae Manning, 1980
Lysiosquillidae Giesbrecht, 1910
Nannosquillidae Manning, 1980
Odontodactylidae Manning, 1980
Parasquillidae Manning, 1995
Protosquillidae Manning, 1980
Pseudosquillidae Manning, 1977
Squillidae Latreille, 1803
Takuidae Manning, 1995
Tetrasquillidae Manning & Camp, 1993

Subclass EUMALACOSTRACA Grobben, 1892
Superorder EUCARIDA Calman, 1904
Order EUPHAUSIACEA Dana, 1850
Bentheuphausiidae Holt & Tattersall, 1905
Euphausiidae Dana, 1850

Order AMPHIONIDACEA Williamson, 1973
Amphionididae Holthuis, 1955

Order DECAPODA Latreille, 1803
Suborder DENDROBRANCHIATA Bate, 1888
Aristeidae Wood-Mason, 1891
Benthesicymidae Wood-Mason, 1891
Luciferidae De Haan, 1849
Penaeidae Rafinesque-Schmaltz, 1815
Sergestidae Dana, 1852
Sicyoniidae Ortmann, 1898
Solenoceridae Wood-Mason, 1891

Suborder PLEOCYEMATA Burkenroad, 1963
Infraorder STENOPODIDEA Bate, 1888
Spongicolidae Schram, 1986
Stenopodidae Claus, 1872

Infraorder CARIDEA Dana, 1852
Alpheidae Rafinesque, 1815
Anchistioididae Borradaile, 1915
Atyidae De Haan, 1849
Bathypalaemonellidae de Saint Laurent, 1985
Bresiliidae Calman, 1896
Campylonotidae Sollaud, 1913
Crangonidae Haworth, 1825
Eugonatonotidae Chace, 1937
Glyphocrangonidae Smith, 1884
Gnathophyllidae Dana, 1852
Hippolytidae Bate, 1888
Hymenoceridae Ortmann, 1890
Kakaducarididae Bruce, 1993
Nematocarcinidae Smith, 1884
Ogyrididae Holthuis, 1955
Oplophoridae Dana, 1852
Palaemonidae Rafinesque, 1815
Palaemoninae Rafinesque, 1815
Pontoniinae Kingsley, 1878
Pandalidae Haworth, 1825
Pasiphaeidae Dana, 1852
Physetocarididae Chace, 1940
Processidae Ortmann, 1890
Psalidopodidae Wood-Mason & Alcock, 1892
Rhynchocinetidae Ortmann, 1890
Stylodactylidae Bate, 1888
Thalassocarididae Bate, 1888

Infraorder ASTACIDEA Latreille, 1802
Enoplometopidae de Saint Laurent, 1988
Glypheidae Zittel, 1885
Nephropidae Dana, 1852
Parastacidae Huxley, 1879
Thaumastochelidae Bate, 1888

Infraorder PALINURA Latreille, 1802
Palinuridae Latreille, 1802
Polychelidae Wood-Mason, 1875
Scyllaridae Latreille, 1825
Arctidinae Holthuis, 1985
Ibacinae Holthuis, 1985
Scyllarinae Latreille, 1825
Theninae Holthuis, 1985

Infraorder THALASSINIDEA Latreille, 1831
Axiidae Huxley, 1879
Callianassidae Dana, 1852
Ctenochelidae Manning & Felder, 1991
Laomediidae Borradaile, 1903
Micheleidae Sakai, 1992
Strahlaxiidae Poore, 1994
Thalassinidae Latreille, 1831
Thomassiniidae de Saint Laurent, 1979
Upogebiidae Borradaile, 1903

Infraorder ANOMURA MacLeay, 1838
Albuneidae Stimpson, 1858
Chirostylidae Ortmann, 1892
Coenobitidae Dana, 1852
Diogenidae Ortmann, 1892
Galatheidae Samouelle, 1819
Hippidae Stimpson, 1858
Lithodidae Samouelle, 1819
Lomisidae Bouvier, 1895
Paguridae Latreille, 1802
Parapaguridae Smith, 1882
Porcellanidae Haworth, 1825
Pylochelidae Bate, 1888
Pylochelinae Bate, 1888
Trizochelinae Forest, 1987

Infraorder BRACHYURA Latreille, 1802
Aethridae Dana, 1851
Atelecyclidae Ortmann, 1893
Calappidae De Haan, 1833
Camptandriidae Stimpson, 1858
Cancridae Latreille, 1803
Carpiliidae Ortmann, 1893
Corystidae Samouelle, 1819
Cryptochiridae Paul'son, 1875
Cyclodorippidae Ortmann, 1892
Cyclodorippinae Ortmann, 1892
Xeinostomatinae Tavares, 1992
Cymonomidae Bouvier, 1897
Dairidae Ng & Rodriguez, 1986
Domeciidae Ortmann, 1893
Dorippidae Macleay, 1838
Dorippinae Macleay, 1838
Dromiidae De Haan, 1833
Dynomenidae Ortmann, 1892
Eriphiidae Macleay, 1838
Dacryopilumninae Serène, 1984
Eriphiinae Macleay, 1838
Menippinae Ortmann, 1893
Oziinae Dana, 1851
Gecarcinidae Macleay, 1838
Geryonidae Colosi, 1923
Goneplacidae Macleay, 1838
Carcinoplacinae H. Milne Edwards, 1852
Chasmocarcininae Serène, 1964
Euryplacinae Stimpson, 1871
Goneplacinae Macleay, 1838
Planopilumninae Serène, 1984
Pseudoziinae Alcock, 1898
Grapsidae Macleay, 1838
Cyclograpsinae H. Milne Edwards, 1853
Grapsinae Macleay, 1838
Sesarminae Dana, 1851
Varuninae H. Milne Edwards, 1853
Hexapodidae Miers, 1886
Homolidae De Haan, 1839
Homolodromiidae Alcock, 1900
Hymenosomatidae Macleay, 1838
Latreilliidae Stimpson, 1858
Leucosiidae Samouelle, 1819
Cryptocneminae Stimpson, 1907
Ebaliinae Stimpson, 1907
Leucosiinae Samouelle, 1819
Philyrinae Rathbun, 1937
Majidae Samouelle, 1819
Epialtinae Macleay, 1838
Inachinae Macleay, 1838
Inachoidinae Dana, 1851
Majinae Samouelle, 1819
Mithracinae Macleay, 1838
Pisinae Dana, 1851
Planoterginae Stevcic, 1991
Tychinae Dana, 1851
Matutidae De Haan, 1835
Mictyridae Dana, 1851
Ocypodidae Rafinesque, 1815
Dotillinae Stimpson, 1858
Heloecinae H. Milne Edwards, 1852
Macrophthalminae Dana, 1851
Ocypodinae Rafinesque, 1815
Palicidae Bouvier, 1898
Crossotonotinae Moosa & Serène, 1981
Palicinae Bouvier, 1898
Panopeidae Ortmann, 1893
Eucratopsinae Stimpson, 1871
Parathelphusidae Alcock, 1910
Parthenopidae Macleay, 1838
Cryptopodiinae Stimpson, 1871
Daldorphiinae Ng & Rodriguez, 1986
Parthenopinae Macleay, 1838
Pilumnidae Samouelle, 1819
Calmaniinae Stevcic, 1991
Eumedoninae Dana, 1853
Galeninae Alcock, 1898
Halimedinae Alcock, 1898
Pilumninae Samouelle, 1819
Rhizopinae Stimpson, 1858
Pinnotheridae De Haan, 1833
Pinnotherelinae Alcock, 1900
Pinnotherinae De Haan, 1833
Xenophthalminae Stimpson, 1858
Plagusiidae Dana, 1851
Portunidae Rafinesque, 1815
Caphyrinae Paul'son, 1875
Carcininae Macleay, 1838
Carupinae Paul'son, 1875
Podophthalminae Dana, 1851
Polybiinae Ortmann, 1893
Portuninae Rafinesque, 1815
Thalamitinae Paul'son, 1875
Raninidae De Haan, 1839
Lyreidinae Guinot, 1993
Notopodinae Serène & Umali, 1972
Ranininae De Haan, 1839
Raninoidinae Lörenthey & Beurlen, 1929
Trapeziidae Miers, 1886
Trogloplacidae Guinot, 1986
Xanthidae Macleay, 1838
Actaeinae Alcock, 1898
Chlorodiinae Dana, 1851
Cymoinae Alcock, 1898
Etisinae Ortmann, 1893
Euxanthinae Alcock, 1898
Kraussiinae Ng, 1993
Liomerinae Sakai, 1976
Polydectinae Dana, 1851
Xanthinae Macleay, 1838
Zalasiinae Serène, 1968
Zosiminae Alcock, 1898

Common names
Common names have been derived from a variety of sources, but efforts to find such names have not been exhaustive. A nationwide acceptance of common names for the majority of species is still lacking, even for the most well known species. For species of commercial importance, the official name used by FAO has been included (see Holthuis 1980, 1991; Chan 1998; Ng 1998), as well as one or two of the names more commonly used within the fishing industry (see, especially, Commonwealth of Australia 1995; Grey et al. 1983).

Type Specimens
Information on type material has been taken from the original publication when it was listed there. If no holotype designation was made specifically, and the number of specimens examined was not explicitly stated, then I have treated them as syntypes, or sometimes as 'status unknown'. I have also used information from published and unpublished type catalogues and lists, some of the more significant being Zimsen (1964), Evans (1967), Griffin & Stanbury (1970), Jones (1986), Lew Ton & Poore (1987), Springthorpe & Lowry (1994), Fransen et al. (1997), and Sakai (1999). In a few cases I have verified type information directly with relevant curators, but generally this has been logistically impossible. Where a Museum registration number is accompanied by an '*', it means that the information has not been recently verified. In many cases I have made an informed guess where material should have been deposited, knowing the history of the individual worker, and where he/she generally deposited their material. Where I was uncertain, I qualified the museum cited with the statement 'probable depository institution'.

Table 2. Statistics on families, genera and species of the groups covered in the Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Volumes 19.3A and 19.3B.

[Families - Genera - Valid Species Names - Available Species]

VOLUME 19.3A
—Phyllocarida - 2 - 4 - 4 - 4
—Hoplocarida - 14 - 63 - 146 - 226
- - Euphausiacea - 2 - 9 - 55 - 83
- - Amphionidacea - 1- 1 - 1 - 4
—Decapoda
- - Dendrobrachiata - 7 - 37 - 141 - 201
- - Pleocyemata
- - - Astacidea - 5 - 16 - 137 - 171
- - - Caridea - 25 - 159 - 605 - 921
- - - Palinura - 3 - 14 - 50 - 104
- - - Stenopodidea - 2 - 3 - 6 - 13
- - - Thalassinidea - 9 - 38 - 80 - 94

Total 70 - 343 - 1225 - 1821

VOLUME 19.3B
—Decapoda
- - Pleocyemata
- - - Anomura - 13 - 69 - 274 - 368
- - - Brachyura - 42 - 369 - 969 - 1549

Total - 55 - 438 - 1243 - 1917

Distributions
Distributions within Australia are given in a rather broad-brush following the State and biogeographic zones as defined on Map 1 (p. viii); this was the original charter from ABRS. Many species are only known from one or two specific localities, and there was some attempt as the project evolved to record these as a qualification, or to give more precise geographic detail of distributional limits. Unfortunately, many species entries were not revisited to add this information. Similarly, often a reference was added that will allow individual Australian records to be isolated, but this was not done in every case. In some instances distributional information from the literature was augmented with personal knowledge based on unpublished museum records, but no systematic attempt was made to review the data in Australian museum collections for new records or range extensions.

'Australia' for the purposes of the Catalogue, includes all Australian territories and protectorates, e.g. Norfolk and Lord Howe Island, Elizabeth and Middleton Reefs, Coral Sea Islands Territory, Cartier and Hibernia Reefs, Christmas and Cocos Keeling Islands, Australian Antarctic Territory and Subantarctic islands.

For the largely oceanic Euphausiacea, Australian distributions were inferred if the available review literature included Australia or its territories within the known range of the species. Thus, for this group, inclusion in the Catalogue does not necessarily mean that an Australian point locality is known for that species.

Unless a species is an Australian endemic, an indication of the broader distribution is given. At the beginning of the project, this was kept to a relatively vague general category such as 'central Indo-west Pacific', but increasingly I added a more useful qualifying statement, defining the geographic boundaries more precisely. However, there has been no attempt to list all countries in which a species is to be found.

Reference Citation
Every endeavour was made to check original literature for correct citations, but this was not always possible. Further, dates of publication of some older works are not noted on the original work. Some works were published over an extended time period, and repeatedly have been wrongly cited. The following is a list of papers in which the author has endeavoured to sort out the problems associated with publications of many of the more important carcinological authors.

White, Adam-White's output was truly prodigious, but the dates of publication of many of his papers have caused considerable confusion; his April 1847, List of Species in the Collections of the British Museum, created a large number of nomina nuda, most of which (fortunately) were validated by White himself in a succession of papers soon thereafter. P.F. Clark and B. Presswell have published an exhaustive biographic and bibliographic study of White (Clark & Presswell 2001), the unpublished manuscript of which was generously made available to me. I have followed their decisions throughout.

Bell, Thomas-A History of the British Stalk-eyed Crustacea-for details on dates of publication of individual parts, see Gordon (1960: 191).

Shaw, G. & Nodder, F.P. (1802-1803)-for dates of publication, see Sherborn (1895).

Leach, W.E.-correct date and reference citations follow an as yet unpublished bibliography compiled by Dr Keith Harrison. I am very grateful for his generosity in making his manuscript available to me.

Guérin-Méneville, F.É. (1829-1844)-for dates of publication of Iconographie du règne animal de G. Cuvier …, see Cowan (1971).

Milne Edwards, H. (1834-1840)-for dates of publication of Histoire naturelle des Crustacés, see Holthuis (1979).

Milne Edwards, H. (1836-1844)-for dates of publication of 'Les Crustacés. In G. Cuvier's Le Règne Animal …', see Cowan (1976).

Hombron, J.B., Jacquinot, H. and Lucas, H., or combinations of these authors, as they relate to the zoology of the Voyage au pôle sud et dans l'Océanie sur les Corvettes l'Astrolabe et la Zélée …-for publication dates see Clark & Crosnier (2000) who undertook an exhaustive analysis of the publication history of the expedition.

Latreille, P.A.-for dates of publication of Encyclopédie méthodique, see Sherborn & Woodward (1899).

de Man, J.G. (1888)-Bericht über die von Herrn Dr. J. Brock im indischen Archipel gesammelten Decapoden und Stomatopoden, for dates of publication see Clark et al. (1990).

One problem of developing a catalogue in a database, is that in a moment of inattention, it is all too easy to mistakenly 'pick' the wrong reference from the reference table. I am confident that the obvious mistakes of this nature have been identified and corrected, but it is possible that a wrong paper is occasionally cited, and for this please accept my apologies.

Acknowledgements

A work of this nature consumes enormous amounts of time in reference hunting and checking. I was fortunate to receive funds from the ABRS for the employment of a full-time research assistant, Ms Kylie Stumkat, for two years. Kylie did a large part of the initial literature searching and data entry, and I am greatly indebted to her for her careful, painstaking efforts.

The Catalogue was originally entered into a purpose-built relational database, and Dr Robert Raven (QM) is gratefully thanked for his invaluable help in the database design and report writing. More recently, the work was converted into the ABRS Platypus database format, and Ms Katrina McArthur worked industriously to iron out the many bugs and translation problems resulting from the conversion process. John Short (QM) is also thanked for assistance in data verification and scanning of figures. I am particularly grateful to Alison Francis who drew a number of original illustrations to accompany family introductions.

The staff of the Queensland Museum Library, in particular Victoria Harrison, Kathleen Buckley, and Meg Lloyd provided their usual fabulous support in pursuing those almost-impossible-to-get references in whatever corner of the world they were hiding.

My editor Alice Wells deserves special mention and thanks for her gentle, and not-so-gentle prodding, as well as her scrupulous attention to detail, and good humour throughout.

This Catalogue has been eight years in preparation, and during this time I have called on the help of a very many colleagues. This help has, almost without exception, been given freely and promptly. Especially in the final stages, I am enormously grateful to the legion of referees who gave so much of their time and expertise to check the manuscript so carefully. Their suggested changes were valued greatly and have added to the rigour of this work. It goes without saying, however, that any errors, omissions, and ignored advice, are my responsibility. The following people have all contributed in a greater or lesser capacity as referees or by providing information on collections under their care: Dr Shane Ahyong (AM, Sydney), Dr Arthur Anker (MNHP, Paris), Dr Keiji Baba (Kumamoto University, Japan), Dr Chris Boyko (AMNH, New York), Dr Ed Brinton (SIO, La Jolla, California), Dr Sandy Bruce (QM), Dr Peter Castro (California State Polytechnic University, Pomona), Dr Fenner A. Chace (USNM, Washington), Dr Tin-Yam Chan (NTOU, Keelung, Taiwan), Mr Paul Clark (BMNH, London), Dr Regis Cleva (MNHP, Paris), Dr Alain Crosnier (MNHP, Paris), Dr Cedric D'Udekem D'Acoz (RIB, Bruxelles), Dr Bill Dall (QM), Dr Elliot Dawson (MONZ, Wellington), Prof. J. Forest (MNHP, Paris), Dr Charles Fransen (RMNH, Leiden), Dr Joe Goy (Harding University, Arkansas), Dr Danièle Guinot (NMHP, Paris), Dr Y. Hanamura (Nansei National Fisheries Research Institute, Hiroshima, Japan), Dr Ken-Ichi Hayashi (Shimonoseki University of Fisheries, Yamaguchi, Japan), Prof. Lipke Holthuis (RMNH, Leiden), Dr Gianna Innocenti (Museo di Storia Naturale dell'Università degli Studi di Firenze, Italy), Dr Brian Kensley (USNM, Washington), Dr. Tomohiko Kikuchi (Yokohama National University, Japan), Dr Roy Kropp (Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory, Sequim, USA), Dr Rafael Lemaitre (USNM, Washington), Dr John Lucas (James Cook University, Townsville), Dr Colin MacLay (University of Canterbury, Christchurch), Patsy McLaughlin (Western Washington University, Washington), Dr Nguyen Ngoc-Ho (MNHP, Paris), Dr Peter Ng (National University of Singapore), Dr Junji Okuno (Natural History Museum and Institute, Chiba, Japan), Dr Gary Poore (NMV, Melbourne), Dr Joseph Poupin (Institut de Recherche de l'Ecole Naval, Brest, France), Dr Katsushi Sakai (Shikoku University, Ohjincho-Furukawa, Japan), Dr Fred Schram (University of Amsterdam), Dr John Short (QM), Dr Vassily Spiridonov (Zoological Museum of the Moscow Lomonosov State University, Moscow ), Dr R.J. Symonds (UMZC, Cambridge), Tan Swee Hee (National University of Singapore, Singapore), Dr Marcos Tavares (Universidade Santa Ursula, Rio de Janeiro), Dr Michael Türkay (SMF, Frankfurt), Genefor Walker-Smith (NMV, Melbourne). To those I have unwittingly missed from placing on this list, please accept my apologies, and know that I am equally grateful to you.

Two eminent carcinologists who deserve special thanks are Dr Fenner A. Chace (USNM, Washington, DC) and Professor Lipke Holthuis (RMNH, Leiden). Both have left a legacy of painstaking and thorough taxonomic work that has greatly facilitated the compilation of the present catalogue.

Most of the illustrations reproduced in these pages are taken from published works, although several drawings were produced specifically for the Catalogue by P. Davie, S. Ahyong and A. Francis. All reasonable efforts have been made to obtain permission to use previously published figures. The following recent publications are acknowledged as sources of figures used here, and thanks are given to organisations, editors and others for permission to reproduce illustrations. For each previously published figure used, the full citation of the source is given in the 'References' for the respective family introduction.

Annals of the South African Museum (courtesy Dr E. Louw, Editor).
Australian Journal of Zoology (courtesy CSIRO Publishing, and Ms Sybil Monteith for access to the original figures).
Australian Zoologist (courtesy D. Lunney, Editor, Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales).
Crustaceana (courtesy Dr J.R. Groesbeek, Business Unit Manager, Brill Academic Publishers).
FAO Species Catalogue Volume 13. Marine Lobsters of the World. FAO Synopsis No. 125 (courtesy Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations).
Faune Tropicale (courtesy M.D. Mourier, Editions Manager, IRD Editions, and Dr G. Poore, author).
Hydrobiologia, with permission from Kluwer Academic Publishers (courtesy Iris Jägers, Rights and Permissions) for the figure of Kakaducaris glabra.
Journal of Crustacean Biology, with permission from The Crustacean Society (courtesy Dr D. Camp, Editor).
Journal of Crustacean Research (courtesy Carcinological Society of Japan).
Journal of Zoology (London), Vol. 165, fig. 1a, p. 30, reproduced with permission of Cambridge University Press (courtesy Ms C. Long, Permissions Officer).
Memoirs of Museum Victoria (courtesy Dr G. Poore, Editor).
Naturalists (courtesy Drs Sakai and Nakano).
New Zealand Fisheries Occasional Publication (courtesy Dr G. Baird, Manager, Science Communication, National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, New Zealand).
Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington (courtesy Dr R.v. Sternberg, Editor).
Proceedings of the Second International Marine Biology Workshop (courtesy Dr B. Morton, Hong Kong University Press).
Raffles Bulletin of Zoology (courtesy Dr Yeo, National University of Singapore).
Records of the Australian Museum (courtesy Dr S. McEvey, Editor, Scientific Publications).
Researches on Crustacea (courtesy Dr Q.B. Kazmi, Marine Reference Collection and Resource Centre, University of Karachi-who is also the artist of the figure used here).
The Beagle, Records of the Northern Territory Museum of Arts and Sciences (courtesy Dr H. Larson, Acting Editor).
The Crustaceans of South Australia. Part I (Eumalcostraca) (courtesy Dr M. Davies, Zoological Editor, Handbooks of the Flora and Fauna of South Australia Committee).
Zoologica Scripta (courtesy M.A.J. Allison, Permissions Assistant, Blackwell Publishing).
Zoologische Verhandelingen (courtesy Dr C. van Achterberg, Managing Editor, Zoological Publications, RMNH, Leiden).
Zoosystema (courtesy Dr C. Magerie, Publications Scientifiques, NMNH, Paris).

Lastly, but most importantly, I thank my loving wife Kathleen, and our two children Nicholas and Johanna, who have sacrificed so much family time for the catalogue. I'm back!

Database Notes

Every effort has been made to include all relevant literature published before 30 June 2001 relating to the description of new taxa of Australian Malacostracans (excluding Peracaridea and Syncaridea dealt with in separate volumes). However, because Australia is part of the much larger Indo-west Pacific faunal province, it is possible that publications which could impact on the taxonomy and systematics of Australian species may have been missed despite the best efforts to embrace them.
Nomenclature and Classification

In general, Volumes 19.3A and 19.3B of the Catalogue are intended to be a summary of the systematics of major groups among Australian malacostacans, without being used as vehicles for new information on Australian species and their distribution. However, a number of decisions regarding synonymies, type species designations, and higher classification have been taken for the first time, and where these are not based on my own experience, I have endeavoured to give due credit to the authority or authorities followed. Every effort possible has been made to present full synonymies for all taxa.
The arrangement of taxa within these Volumes is not intended to reflect a phylogenetic classification. Families are arranged alphabetically to simplify access for all users (see Table 1). The introduction to each higher level taxon contains general references and comments on phylogenetic relationships and recent investigations where such information has been uncovered and/or deemed useful. The 'Reference for Synonymy' often refers to the latest review paper that is being followed, and does not necessarily mean that the cited author was responsible for creating the original synonymy. This decision was taken for pragmatic reasons, but also recognising that, typically, a synonymy consisting of multiple names includes decisions taken by several authors. Apologies are hereby tended if an author has not been given due credit for his or her original research leading to a new synonymy. Numbers of taxa catalogued in the two volumes are listed in Table 2.

Common names
Common names have been derived from a variety of sources, but efforts to find such names have not been exhaustive. A nationwide acceptance of common names for the majority of species is still lacking, even for the most well known species. For species of commercial importance, the official name used by FAO has been included (see Holthuis 1980, 1991; Chan 1998; Ng 1998), as well as one or two of the names more commonly used within the fishing industry (see, especially, Commonwealth of Australia 1995; Grey et al. 1983).

Type Specimens
Information on type material has been taken from the original publication when it was listed there. If no holotype designation was made specifically, and the number of specimens examined was not explicitly stated, then I have treated them as syntypes, or sometimes as 'status unknown'. I have also used information from published and unpublished type catalogues and lists, some of the more significant being Zimsen (1964), Evans (1967), Griffin & Stanbury (1970), Jones (1986), Lew Ton & Poore (1987), Springthorpe & Lowry (1994), Fransen et al. (1997), and Sakai (1999). In a few cases I have verified type information directly with relevant curators, but generally this has been logistically impossible. Where a Museum registration number is accompanied by an '*', it means that the information has not been recently verified. In many cases I have made an informed guess where material should have been deposited, knowing the history of the individual worker, and where he/she generally deposited their material. Where I was uncertain, I qualified the museum cited with the statement 'probable depository institution'.

Distributions
Distributions within Australia are given in a rather broad-brush following the State and biogeographic zones as defined on Map 1 (p. viii); this was the original charter from ABRS. Many species are only known from one or two specific localities, and there was some attempt as the project evolved to record these as a qualification, or to give more precise geographic detail of distributional limits. Unfortunately, many species entries were not revisited to add this information. Similarly, often a reference was added that will allow individual Australian records to be isolated, but this was not done in every case. In some instances distributional information from the literature was augmented with personal knowledge based on unpublished museum records, but no systematic attempt was made to review the data in Australian museum collections for new records or range extensions.
'Australia' for the purposes of the Catalogue, includes all Australian territories and protectorates, e.g. Norfolk and Lord Howe Island, Elizabeth and Middleton Reefs, Coral Sea Islands Territory, Cartier and Hibernia Reefs, Christmas and Cocos Keeling Islands, Australian Antarctic Territory and Subantarctic islands.
For the largely oceanic Euphausiacea, Australian distributions were inferred if the available review literature included Australia or its territories within the known range of the species. Thus, for this group, inclusion in the Catalogue does not necessarily mean that an Australian point locality is known for that species.
Unless a species is an Australian endemic, an indication of the broader distribution is given. At the beginning of the project, this was kept to a relatively vague general category such as 'central Indo-west Pacific', but increasingly I added a more useful qualifying statement, defining the geographic boundaries more precisely. However, there has been no attempt to list all countries in which a species is to be found.
Reference Citation
Every endeavour was made to check original literature for correct citations, but this was not always possible. Further, dates of publication of some older works are not noted on the original work. Some works were published over an extended time period, and repeatedly have been wrongly cited. The following is a list of papers in which the author has endeavoured to sort out the problems associated with publications of many of the more important carcinological authors.
White, Adam-White's output was truly prodigious, but the dates of publication of many of his papers have caused considerable confusion; his April 1847, List of Species in the Collections of the British Museum, created a large number of nomina nuda, most of which (fortunately) were validated by White himself in a succession of papers soon thereafter. P.F. Clark and B. Presswell have published an exhaustive biographic and bibliographic study of White (Clark & Presswell 2001), the unpublished manuscript of which was generously made available to me. I have followed their decisions throughout.
Bell, Thomas-A History of the British Stalk-eyed Crustacea-for details on dates of publication of individual parts, see Gordon (1960: 191).
Shaw, G. & Nodder, F.P. (1802-1803)-for dates of publication, see Sherborn (1895).
Leach, W.E.-correct date and reference citations follow an as yet unpublished bibliography compiled by Dr Keith Harrison. I am very grateful for his generosity in making his manuscript available to me.
Guérin-Méneville, F.É. (1829-1844)-for dates of publication of Iconographie du règne animal de G. Cuvier …, see Cowan (1971).
Milne Edwards, H. (1834-1840)-for dates of publication of Histoire naturelle des Crustacés, see Holthuis (1979).
Milne Edwards, H. (1836-1844)-for dates of publication of 'Les Crustacés. In G. Cuvier's Le Règne Animal …', see Cowan (1976).
Hombron, J.B., Jacquinot, H. and Lucas, H., or combinations of these authors, as they relate to the zoology of the Voyage au pôle sud et dans l'Océanie sur les Corvettes l'Astrolabe et la Zélée …-for publication dates see Clark & Crosnier (2000) who undertook an exhaustive analysis of the publication history of the expedition.
Latreille, P.A.-for dates of publication of Encyclopédie méthodique, see Sherborn & Woodward (1899).
de Man, J.G. (1888)-Bericht über die von Herrn Dr. J. Brock im indischen Archipel gesammelten Decapoden und Stomatopoden, for dates of publication see Clark et al. (1990).
One problem of developing a catalogue in a database, is that in a moment of inattention, it is all too easy to mistakenly 'pick' the wrong reference from the reference table. I am confident that the obvious mistakes of this nature have been identified and corrected, but it is possible that a wrong paper is occasionally cited, and for this please accept my apologies.

Catalogue publication dates
Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 19.3A. Crustacea: Malacostraca: Phyllocarida, Hoplocarida, Eucarida (Part1), published 20 May 2002.

Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 19.3B. Crustacea: Malacostraca: Eucarida (Part 2): Decapoda—Anomura, Brachyura, published 24 July 2002.

 

Diagnosis

Carapace highly variable in form; mostly a single piece fused dorsally with thoracic somites, but may be formed of two valves hinged dorsally; more or less entirely covers head and thoracic regions, but sometimes vestigial. Head typically with paired compound eyes, usually at ends of movable stalks, but occasionally greatly reduced or lacking, and/or stalks immovable. Eyes followed by five pairs of appendages including: biramous antennules (or first antennae), antennae (or second antennae) with flattened scale-like exopod, mandibles, maxillules, and maxillae. Thorax and abdomen distinctly differentiated; thorax with eight segments; abdomen typically with six segments (excluding telson), but seven segments in Phyllocarida; all thoracic and abdominal somites bearing paired appendages except seventh abdominal somite, if present. Male genital apertures located on eight thoracic somite or its appendages (rarely on seventh); female genital openings invariably on sixth thoracic somite or its appendages. Development usually involves metamorphosis; free-swimming nauplius stage in primitive forms.

 

General References

Ahyong, S.T. 2001. Revision of the Australian Stomatopod Crustacea. Records of the Australian Museum Suppl. 26: 1-326

Anderson, C. 1926. Alan Riverstone McCulloch, 1885–1925. Records of the Australian Museum 15(2): 140-148

Balss, H. 1935. Brachyura of the Hamburg Museum Expedition to South-Western Australia, 1905. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 21: 113-151, text-figs 1-3 pl. 13

Balss, H. 1935. Die brachyuren Dekapoden der Reise Michaelsen-Hartmeyer nach Südwestaustralien 1905. Eine geographische Übersicht nebst Beschreibung einiger neuer Formen. Zoologischer Anzeiger 111(1–2): 35-42 figs 1-5

Bate, C.S. 1888. Report on the Crustacea Macrura collected by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873–76. Report on the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H.M.S. Challenger 1873–1876, Zoology 24: 1-942, i-xc figs 1-76 pls 1-150

Bishop, J.A. 1963. The Australian freshwater crabs of the family Potamonidae (Crustacea: Decapoda). Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 14: 218-238

Bonnemains, J. & Jones, D. 1990. Les crustacés de la collection C.-A. Lesueur du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle du Havre (dessins et manuscrits). Bulletin Trimestriel de la Société Géologique de Normandie et des Amis du Muséum du Havre 77(1): 27-66 figs 1-33

Brusca, R.C. & Brusca, G.J. 1990. Invertebrates. Sunderland, Massachusetts : Sinauer Associates Inc. 922 pp.

Calman, W.T. 1900. On a Collection of Brachyura from Torres Straits. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 8(Zool. 1): 1-50 pls 1-3

Calman, W.T. 1909. Crustacea. 132-160 in Wood-Jones, F. The Fauna of the Cocos-Keeling Atoll collected by F. Wood-Jones. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1909: 159-160

Carter, H.J. 1928. William Aitcheson Haswell. 1854–1925. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 53: 485-498

Chan, T.-Y. 1998. Lobsters. pp. 973-1043 in Carpenter, K.E. & Niem, V.H. (eds). The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fisheries Purposes. Rome : FAO Vol. 2 687-1396 pp.

Clark, P.F., Harrison, K. & Goodman, S.L. 1990. Brock's Indian Archipelago Decapoda and Stomatopoda by De Man: 1887 or 1888? Archives of Natural History 17(1): 79-80

Clark, P.F. & Crosnier, A. 2000. The zoology of the Voyage au pôle sud et dans l'Océanie sur les corvettes l'Astrolabe et la Zélée; exécuté par ordre du roi pendant les années 1837-1838-1839-1840 sous le commandement de M. Dumont-d'Urville (1842–1854): titles, volumes, plates, text, contents, proposed dates and anecdotal history of the publication. Archives of Natural History 27(3): 407-435

Clark, P.F. & Presswell, B. 2001. Adam White: the crustacean years. Bulletin of the Raffles Museum 49(1): 149-166

Commonwealth of Australia 1995. Marketing Names for Fish and Seafood in Australia. Canberra : Department of Primary Industries and Energy 170 pp.

Cowan, C.F. 1971. On Guérin's Iconographie, Particularly the Insects. Journal of the Society for the Bibliography of Natural History 6(1): 18-29

Cowan, C.F. 1976. On the Disciple's Edition of Cuvier's Règne Animal. Journal of the Society for the Bibliography of Natural History 8(1): 32-64

Dall, W. 1957. A revision of the Australian species of Penaeinae (Crustacea Decapoda: Penaeidae). Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 8(2): 136-230 figs 1-29

Dall, W. 1999. Australian species of Solenoceridae (Penaeoidea: Decapoda). Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 43(2): 553-587

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History of changes

Note that this list may be incomplete for dates prior to September 2013.
Published As part of group Action Date Action Type Compiler(s)
12-Feb-2010 (import)