Australian Biological Resources Study

Australian Faunal Directory


Regional Maps

Phylum PARAMYXEA Chatton, 1911

Compiler and date details

November 2014 - Checked by Peter O’Donoghue, The University of Queensland.

July 2010 - Data provided by O’Donoghue, entered in AFD by ABRS.


The Paramyxea exhibit both protistan and metazoan characters. They are characterised by the formation of unique multicellular spores where the daughter cells remain enclosed within the parent cells (up to four cells may be enclosed within each other). All species are parasitic in marine invertebrates and different taxa are distinguished by the number of spores and sporal cells within sporonts, and the taxonomic position of the host (Polychaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea).

Paramyxean and haplosporidian parasites have recently been grouped together on the basis of their molecular phylogenetic similarities in the Phylum Ascetospora Sprague, 1979, emend. Cavalier-Smith, 2009, placed near the base of the Cercozoa Cavalier-Smith, 1998, emend. Adl et al., 2005 (cf. Adl et al. 2012).

[Note: Broadened taxon concept also attributed to Levine in Sprague, 1979].


General References

Adl, S.M., Simpson, A.G.B., Lane, C.E., Lukes, J., Bass, D., Bowser, S.S., Brown, M.W., Burki, F., Dunthorn, M., Hampl, V., Heiss, A., Hoppenrath, M., Lara, E., Le Gall, L., Lynn, D.H., McManus, H., Mitchell, E.A.D., Mozley-Stanridge, S.E., Parfrey, L.W., Pawlowski, J., Rueckert, S., Shadwick, L., Schoch, C.L., Smirnov, A. & Spiegel, F.W. 2012. The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59: 429-493

Chatton, E. 1911. Sur une Cnidosporidie sans cnidoblaste (Paramyxa paradoxa n.g., n.sp.). Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences. Paris 152: 631-633

Desportes, I. 1984. The Paramyxea Levine 1979: an original example of evolution towards multicellularity. Origins of Life 13: 343-352

Desportes, I. & Parkins, F.O. 1990. Phylum Paramyxea. Chapt. 3. pp. 30-35 in Margulis, L., Corliss, J.O., Melkonian, M. & Chapman, D.J. (eds). Handbook of Protoctista. Boston : Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Sprague, V. 1979. Classification of the Haplosporidia. pp. 40-44 in Perkins, F.O. (ed.). Haplosporidian and Haplosporidian-like Diseases of Shellfish. Special Bulletin. United States National Museum 44


History of changes

Note that this list may be incomplete for dates prior to September 2013.
Published As part of group Action Date Action Type Compiler(s)
09-Feb-2015 OPISTHOKONTA Cavalier-Smith, 1987 09-Feb-2015 MOVED
20-Nov-2014 PARAMYXEA Chatton, 1911 18-Nov-2014 MODIFIED
26-Jul-2012 26-Jul-2012 MODIFIED
26-Jul-2012 14-Mar-2012 MODIFIED
05-Jul-2011 ADDED