Members of the Pleuronectiformes are usually referred to as flatfishes. Flatfishes of the Indo-Pacific regions have not been revised extensively and collections are not available from many areas. Relationships within the group have been assessed by Hensley & Ahlstrom (1984), Chapleau (1993), Cooper & Chapleau (1998) and Hoshino (2001). The classification here follows that of Nelson (1994). Nelson (2006) elevated some subfamilies to familial status and, although those changes are not a part of the classification used here, they are noted in the appropriate family introductions. Species are normally found over soft bottom environments of the continental shelf and slope, where individuals often cover themselves in sediment.
Chapleau, F. 1993. Pleuronectiform relationships: a cladistic reassessment. Bulletin of Marine Science 52(1): 516-540 figs 1-7
Cooper, J.A. & Chapleau, F. 1998. Monophyly and intrarelationships of the family Pleuronectidae (Pleuronectiformes), with a revised classification. Fishery Bulletin (U.S.) 69(4): 686-726
Hensley, D.A. & Ahlstrom, E.H. 1984. Pleuronectiformes: relationships. 670-687 in Moser, H.G. et al. (eds). Ontogeny and Systematics of Fishes. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists. Special Publication 1: 1-760
Hoshino, K. 2001. Homologies of the caudal fin rays of Pleuronectiformes (Teleostei). Ichthyological Research 48(3): 231-246
Nelson, J.S. 1994. Fishes of the World. New York : John Wiley & Sons 600 pp.