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25 March 2014 - Douglass F. Hoese


The Tetraodontiformes were considered to comprise two suborders in the published catalogue (Hoese et al. (2006), the Triacanthoidei and Tetraodontoidei following Nelson (1994). Based on the work of Santini & Tyler (2003), Nelson (2006) divided the group into three suborders, Triacanthodoidei, Balistoidei and Tetraodontoidei. Several molecular and morphological studies have produced different classifications (see Winterbottom 1974; Tyler 1980; Leis 1984; Rosen 1984; Holcroft 2005; Alfaro et al. 2007; Yamanoue et al. 2008; Near et al. 2012; Santini et al. 2013). Konstantinidis & Johnson (2012a, 2012b) discussed the general lack of agreement of interrelationships of many of the groups. The various classifications have been reviewed by Santini et al. (2013). Because the classifications differ so widely, we do not treat suborders here until a higher classification is more widely accepted, but list the families in sequence following Santini et al. (2013).

Ten families are recognised here, following Santini et al. (2013). The Aracanidae was included in the Ostraciidae in the published catalogue (Hoese et al. 2006). Species are found in a variety of habitats from freshwater to oceanic environments and many are pelagic whereas others are benthic.


General References

Alfaro, M.E., Santini, F. & Brock, C.D. 2007. Do reefs drive diversification in marine teleosts? Evidence from the pufferfishes and their allies (order Tetraodontiformes). Evolution 61: 2104-2126

Hoese, D.F., Bray, D.J., Paxton, J.R. & Allen, G.R. 2006. Fishes. In, Beesley, P.L. & Wells, A. (eds) Zoological Catalogue of Australia. Volume 35. ABRS & CSIRO Publishing : Australia Part 1, pp. xxiv 1–670; Part 2, pp. xxi 671–1472; Part 3, pp. xxi 1473–2178.

Holcroft, N.I. 2005. A molecular analysis of the interrelationships of tetraodontiform fishes (Acanthomorpha: Tetraodontiformes). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 34(3): 525-544

Konstantinidis, P. & Johnson, G.D. 2012a. Ontogeny of the jaw apparatus and suspensorium of the Tetraodontiformes. Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 93: 351–366 [online 2011 - doi: 10.1111/j.1463-6395.2011.00509.x]

Konstantinidis, P. & Johnson, G.D. 2012b. A comparative ontogenetic study of the tetraodontiform caudal complex. Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 93: 98–114 [online 2011 - doi: 10.1111/j.1463-6395.2010.00490.x]

Leis, J.M. 1984. Tetradontiformes: Relationships. pp. 459-463 in Moser, H.G. et al. (eds). Ontogeny and Systematics of Fishes. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists. Special Publication 1: 1-760

Near, T.J., Eytan, R.I., Dornburg, A., Kuhn, K.L., Moore, J.A., Davis, M.P., Wainwright, P.C., Friedman, M. & Smith, W.L 2012. Resolution of ray-finned fish phylogeny and timing of diversification. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109: 13698-13703

Nelson, J.S. 1994. Fishes of the World. New York : John Wiley & Sons 600 pp.

Nelson, J.S. 2006. Fishes of the World. Hoboken, New Jersey : John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 601 pp.

Rosen, D.E. 1984. Zeiforms as primitive plectognath fishes. American Museum Novitates 2782: 1-45 figs 1-38

Santini, F., Sorenson, L. & Alfaro, M.E. 2013. A new phylogeny of tetraodontiform fishes (Tetraodontiformes, Acanthomorpha) based on 22 loci. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 69: 177–187

Santini, F. & Tyler, J.C. 2003. A phylogeny of the families of fossil and extant tetraodontiform fishes (Acanthomorpha, Tetraodontiformes), Upper Cretaceous to Recent. Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology 139: 565-617

Tyler, J.C. 1980. Osteology, phylogeny, and higher classification of the fishes of the order Plectognathi (Tetraodontiformes). National Marine Fisheries Service (U.S.). Technical Report 434: 1-422 figs 1-326

Winterbottom, R. 1974. The familial phylogeny of the Tetraodontiformes (Acanthopterygii : Pisces) as evidenced by their comparative myology. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 155: 1-102 figs 1-185

Yamanoue, Y., Miya, M., Matsuura, K., Katoh, M., Sakai, H. & Nishida, M. 2008. A new perspective on phylogeny and evolution of tetraodontiform fishes (Pisces: Acanthopterygii) based on whole mitochondrial genome sequences: basal ecological diversification? BMC Evolutionary Biology 8(212): 1-14


History of changes

Note that this list may be incomplete for dates prior to September 2013.
Published As part of group Action Date Action Type Compiler(s)
29-Apr-2014 TETRAODONTIFORMES 25-Mar-2014 MODIFIED Dr Doug Hoese (AM) Matthew Lockett (AM)
12-Feb-2010 (import)