Renée Hartley and Sarah Barrett
Government of Western Australia, Department of Environment and Conservation 2008
Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts 2008
About the plan
Common Name: Yellow Mountain Bell
Flowering Period: March to April & August to November
DEC Regions: South Coast
DEC District: Albany Work Centre
Shires: Gnowangerup, Plantagenet
Recovery Team: Albany District Threatened Flora Recovery Team
Illustrations and/or further information:
Brown, A., Thomson-Dans, C. and Marchant, N. (Eds). (1998) Western Australia's Threatened Flora. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Western Australia; Western Australian Herbarium (1998) FloraBase - Information on the Western Australian Flora. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Western Australia. http://www.calm.wa.gov.au/science/.
Darwinia collina was declared as Rare Flora under the Western Australian Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 in 1980 and currently meets World Conservation Union (IUCN 2001) Red List Category Endangered (EN) under Criteria A2c due to its limited geographic range and decline in habitat quality. The species is currently known from four populations in the Stirling Range National Park. The species is listed as Endangered under the Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act).
Darwinia collina is a bushy shrub up to 1m high with minutely toothed leaves, 1cm by 5mm, and bracts that are the most rounded of any of the mountain bells. Each bell is in fact a cluster of drooping flowers with white petals and stigmas up to 2 cm long that are enclosed by broad, lemon-yellow petal-like leaf bracts. This species is known to hybridise with the common mountain bell (Darwnia leiostyla) (Brown et al. 1998).
Darwinia collina is endemic to mountain summit areas of the Stirling Range where it grows on shallow siliceous soils over sandstone and shale, in dense heath and thicket. The species is endemic to the Critically Endangered Threatened Ecological Community, Eastern Stirling Range Montane Heath and Thicket Community, which is found at high altitudes.
Habitat critical to the survival of the species, and important populations:
The habitat critical to the survival of Darwinia collina comprises the area of occupancy of the known population; areas of similar habitat surrounding the known population (ie these areas provide potential habitat for natural range extension and for allowing pollinators or biota essential to the continued existence of the species to move between populations; and additional occurrences of similar habitat that may contain important populations of the species or be suitable for future translocations). All population are considered important for the long-term recovery and survival of the species.
Benefits to other species/ecological communities:
Darwinia collina occurs exclusively within the Montane Threatened Ecological Community (Montane Heath and Thicket of the South West Botanical Province), which is classified as Endangered under the Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (listed as Eastern Stirling Range Montane Heath and Thicket) and contains a number of threatened species. Furthermore, Stirling Range National Park is habitat for seven threatened fauna species. Recovery actions put in place for D. collina will benefit the Montane TEC and the adjacent threatened fauna species and reciprocally, actions put in place for the recovery of the Montane TEC and the adjacent threatened fauna species will benefit D. collina.
This plan is fully consistent with the aims and recommendations of the Convention on Biological Diversity and will assist in implementing Australia's responsibilities under that convention. The taxon is not listed under any specific international treaty and therefore this IRP does not affect Australia's obligations under any other international agreements.
Role and interests of Indigenous people:
Involvement of the Indigenous community is being sought through the advice of the Department of Indigenous Affairs to determine whether there are any issues or interests identified in the plan. A search of the Department of Indigenous Affairs Aboriginal Heritage Sites Register, has identified one registered site, Kojaneerup (S01409), which occurs within 20 kilometres of Darwinia collina. Where no role is identified for the Indigenous community associated with this species in the development of the recovery plan, opportunities may exist through cultural interpretation and awareness of the species. Indigenous involvement in the implementation of recovery actions will be encouraged.
All known populations are on Crown land.
Social and economic impacts:
The implementation of this recovery plan has minimal social and economic impact as all populations are on DEC-managed land.
Evaluation of the Plan's Performance:
The Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC), in conjunction with the Albany District Threatened Flora Recovery Team (ADTFRT) will evaluate the performance of this IRP.
Completed Recovery Actions:
The following recovery actions have been implemented:
- All land managers have been notified of the location and threatened status of the species.
- Seed collections have been made by staff from DEC Threatened Flora Seed Centre (TFSC).
- Volunteers and staff from the DEC Albany Work Centre have regularly monitored populations.
- Phosphite has been applied to three extant populations for control of Phytophthora cinnamomi.
- An information sheet on mountain bells has been provided to the land manager to promote awareness.
The objective of this Interim Recovery Plan is to abate identified threats and maintain or enhance in situ populations to ensure the long-term preservation of the species in the wild.
Criteria for success:
The number of populations and individuals within populations remains stable or increases over the five years of the plan.
Criteria for failure:
The number of populations or the number of individuals within populations decreases over the five years of the plan.
- Coordinate recovery actions.
- Monitor populations.
- Collect seed.
- Conduct further surveys.
- Implement fire management.
- Obtain biological and ecological information.
- Implement Phytophthora cinnamomi management.
- Investigate the methodology for future translocation(s).
- Promote awareness and encourage involvement.
- Map habitat critical to the survival of the species.
- Review the IRP and assess the need for further recovery actions.