National recovery plan for Twenty-five threatened orchid taxa of Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales 2003 - 2007
Coates, F., Jeanes, J. and Pritchard, A.
Department of Sustainability and Environment, Melbourne, 2002
Arachnorchis concolor (Fitzg.) D.L. Jones & M.A. Clem. Crimson Spider-orchid
- Conservation status:
- EPBC Act 1999: V
- IUCN (2000): CR
- NSW TSP Act 1995: E
- NRE (2000): E
- In New South Wales - IBRA (Thackway and Cresswell 1985) South Western Slopes Bioregion (Albury).
- In Victoria - Victorian Northern Inland Slopes Bioregion (Beechworth, Chiltern). Additional populations are thought to occur in the Central Victorian Uplands (Broadford/Tyaak area). Records from the Goldfields Region in the Bendigo and Castlemaine areas are doubtful (D. Rouse, pers. comm.), as are those from the Cootamundra and Tumbaraumba areas in NSW (D. Jones, pers. comm.)
- Specific details of known population localities (including GPS data) are held on DSE internal files.
- <75 plants in the wild, in fewer than 10 populations. This species has often been confused with other taxa of similar appearance and its former abundance is not known. However, population sizes at extant sites are likely to have been at least double current numbers.
- In New South Wales - occurs on granite slopes and ridges in open heathy regrowth Box woodland (usually Eucalyptus blakeleyi, E. polyanthemos, E. macrorhyncha, E. albens) on well drained gravelly or stony sand and clay loam. Critical habitat has not been determined.
- In Victoria - occurs in Box-Ironbark open forests (usually Eucalyptus goniocalyx , E. macrorhyncha, E. polyanthemos, E. sideroxylon) on well drained gravelly or stony sand and clay loam. The understorey typically consists of scattered heathy shrubs and grasses such as Brachlyoma ciliatum, Platylobium formosum, Dillwynia phylicoides, Hibbertia riparia, and Joycea pallida. Critical habitat has not been determined.
- Reservation status:
- Reserved at Chiltern Box Ironbark National Park, Mt Pilot Multipurpose Park.
- Parks Victoria (Central Region, Beechworth); Department of Natural Resources and Environment (Parks, Flora and Fauna, Forest Management, Wodonga); NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (Queanbeyan); Albury City Council, NSW; Department of Land and Water Conservation, NSW.
|Current threats||Perceived risk|
|Weed invasion||Moderate to high - exotic annual grasses a potential threat in Vic and of concern in NSW.|
|Grazing/pest animals||High in Victoria - rabbit and kangaroo grazing.Low in NSW - pest animal numbers low.|
|Inappropriate fire regimes||High in NSW - frequent unplanned fires.Moderate in Vic - populations are close to towns and unplanned fires are possible.|
|Site disturbance||High in NSW - off road vehicles, close proximity to tracks, moderate seasonal disturbance by orchid enthusiasts.Moderate in Vic - close proximity to tracks.|
|Potential threats||Perceived risk|
|Reservation status||Reserved in Vic - Chiltern Box Ironbark NP; potential for reservation at Mt Pilot Regional Park subject to implementation of ECC recommendations.Unreserved in NSW - occurs on public land with uncertain land tenure.|
|Illegal collection||High in Vic and NSW-evidence of collection in the past; highly sought after by collectors.|
|Timber harvesting||High - occurs at one, possibly two sites in State Forest|
|Other disturbance||High - roadworks and soil dumping potentially occur on at least one steep unstable site close to road edge.|
Maintain and/or increase existing populations; protect and manage habitat.
Recovery actions undertaken:
- Regional recovery team established (NSW).
- Recovery Plan Prepared for New South Wales (New South Wales Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 NSW).
- Annual searches at various sites in Victoria and New South Wales since 1992.
- Monitoring of 5 populations in north-east Victoria since 1990 and in southern New South Wales since 2000.
- Fencing, weed control and fire management planning in (NSW) and at Chiltern Box-Ironbark National Park (Victoria).
- Hand pollination, seed collection.
- Preliminary fungal isolation and culture.
- All known sites were visited during preparation of the recovery plan.
Issues specific to recovery:
- A. concolor is highly sought after by collectors, so that site confidentiality is vital. Involvement from non government organisations and individuals will be limited to a small number of individuals with a proven track record in conservation (FOC, ABG).
- Taxonomic definition of the taxon is currently unclear with some confusion existing over its current and former distribution and population size. Populations in the Bendigo, Castlemaine, and Broadford areas need determination (referred to below as unconfirmed populations).
- The response of A. concolor to fire is not known, fire management should be undertaken with caution, especially in New South Wales where populations are vulnerable to frequent unplanned fires.
- A recovery plan for NSW populations of A. concolor has been prepared under NSW New South Wales Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 1995 (NSW NPWS 2001). Adoption of that plan by the Commonwealth minister for the Environment is required under the EPBC Act 1999. Actions and priorities from that plan have been incorporated here.
Overall recovery strategy:
Known and potential populations will be surveyed to determine population sizes and habitat requirements and to provide ecological knowledge necessary for management. Broadscale risk management will include fire planning, protection of populations from grazing and weed invasion, prevention of accidental damage, securing site tenure for conservation, and maintenance of site confidentiality. The population will be managed to promote seedling recruitment, using fine-scale habitat management techniques. Populations will be re-stocked using seed from cultivated plants. Recovery will be jointly managed by NSW NPWS, DSE and PV. Involvement from Albury Botanic Gardens and Friends of Chiltern will continue and biological research is strongly encouraged.
NSW NPWS (Threatened Species Unit, Queanbeyan); Parks Victoria (Central Victoria Region Beechworth); DSE NE (BNR Wodonga); Friends of Chiltern; Albury Botanic Gardens; NSW NSW DLWC.
|Action||Chiltern (H)||Mt Pilot (H)||Beechworth (H)||Albury (H)||Unconfirmed populations (H)|
|1. Determine current conservation status|
|1.1 Clarify taxonomy||Completed||L||Completed||Completed||L|
|1.2 Acquire baseline population data||M||M||M||M||M|
|Responsibility||DSE-BNR||CPBR, DSE-BNR||DSE-BNR||NSW NPWS NSW LWC||CPBR, DSE-BNR|
|2. Investigate population biology|
|2.1 Describe life history||M||M||M||M||M|
|2.2 Evaluate natural pollination levels and/or causes of pollinator limitation||M||M||M||M||M|
|2.3 Determine the effects of artificial pollination on growth survival and reproduction||M||N/A||M||M||N/A|
|2.4 Determine spatial distribution of mycorrhizal fungi||M||N/A||M||M||N/A|
|2.5 Determine optimal conditions for growth of mycorrhizal fungi in-situ||M||N/A||M||M||N/A|
|Responsibility||DSE-BNR, Research Partner||DSE-BNR, Research Partner||DSE-BNR, Research Partner||DSE-BNR, Research Partner||DSE-BNR, Research Partner|
|3. Determine habitat requirements of key populations|
|3.1 Identify key populations||N/A||H||N/A||N/A||H|
|3.2 Conduct surveys||M||H||M||M||H|
|3.3 Identify ecological correlates of populations||M||M||M||M||M|
|3.4 Prepare habitat descriptions||M||M||M||M||M|
|Responsibility||DSE-BNR||DSE-BNR, PV||DSE-BNR||NSW NPWS, NSW LWC||DSE-BNR|
|4. Manage risks to populations|
|4.1 Identify and implement strategies to control threats||H||H||H||H||H|
|4.2 Identify disturbance regimes to promote regeneration and recruitment||H||H||H||H||H|
|4.3 Protect key public land populations and habitat||N/A||H||H||N/A||H|
|4.4 Protect key private land populations and habitat||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||H(if applicable)|
|Responsibility||PV, DSE-BNR||PV, DSE-BNR||DSE-BNR, Forests NE||NSW NPWS, NSW LWC||DSE-BNR|
|5. Promote in-situ recruitment|
|5.1 Prepare habitat for seedling recruitment||H||H||H||H||H|
|5.2 Re-stock populations with seed||H||H||H||H||H|
|Responsibility||DSE-BNR, FOC||DSE-BNR, FOC||DSE-BNR||NSW NPWS, NSW LWC, ABG||DSE-BNR|
|6. Measure population trends and responses against recovery actions|
|6.1 Conduct annual censusing of populations||M||M||M||M||N/A|
|6.2 Collate, analyse and report on census data||M||M||M||M||N/A|
|6.3 Re-prioritise and adjust recovery actions and/or threat management||H||H||H||H||H|
|Responsibility||PV||PV||DSE-BNR, Forests NE||NSW NSW NPWS, NSW NSW DLWC, ABG||DSE-BNR|
|7. Increase populations ex-situ|
|7.1 Hand pollinate plants||H||H||H||H||H|
|7.2 Establish a threatened orchid seed bank and determine seed viability||H||N/A||N/A||H||N/A|
|7.3 Establish a mycorrhizal fungi bank||H||N/A||N/A||H||N/A|
|7.4 Establish and maintain cultivated populations||H||N/A||N/A||H||N/A|
|7.5 Maintain a database of threatened orchid taxa in cultivation||L||N/A||N/A||L||N/A|
|Responsibility||PV, FOC, RBG, DSE-BNR, NOGN||FOC, PV||DSE-BNR||NSW NPWS, NSW NSW NPWS, ABG, KPBG||DSE-BNR|
|8. Translocate cultivated plants|
|8.1 Determine criteria for re-stocking/re-introduction||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A|
|8.2 Evaluate site suitability||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A|
|8.3 Determine long term cost-benefits and feasibility of translocating plants||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A|
|8.4 Prepare and implement translocation plans||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A|
|8.5 Maintain translocated populations||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A|
|9. Implement an education and communication strategy|
|Prepare technical educational material on in-situ recovery techniques||L||L||L||N/A||L|
|Undertake community extension||L||L||L||L||L|
|Conduct workshops and symposia on in-situ recovery techniques||L||L||L||N/A||L|
|Encourage and support research by Higher Education Institutions and existing research partners||M||N/A||M||M||N/A|
|Responsibility||PV, DSE-BNR, FOC, TSN, RP||PV, DSE-BNR, TSN||PV, DSE-BNR, FOC, TSN, RP||NSW NPWS, RP, ABG||DSE-BNR, TSN|
|10. Consolidate recovery and extend networks|
|10.1 Maintain the Threatened Orchid Recovery Team||Completed||Completed||Completed||N/A||Completed|
|10.2 Establish and facilitate regional Recovery Teams||L||L||L||L||L|
|10.3 Co-ordinate recovery and exchange knowledge with interstate agencies||L||L||L||L||L|
|Responsibility||DSE-BNR, PV, FOC||DSE-BNR||DSE-BNR||NSW NPWS||DSE-BNR|