National recovery plan for Twenty-five threatened orchid taxa of Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales 2003 - 2007
Coates, F., Jeanes, J. and Pritchard, A.
Department of Sustainability and Environment, Melbourne, 2002
Petalochilus maritimus (D.L. Jones) D.L. Jones & M.A. Clem. Angahook Petalochilus
- Conservation status:
- EPBC Act 1999: Not listed
- IUCN (2000): CR
- NRE (2000): Not listed
- Endemic to Victoria - Victorian Otway Plain Bioregion (Anglesea). Specific details of population localities (including GPS data) are held on DSE internal files.
- Approximately 200 - 250 plants in the wild, in 1 population.
- Occurs in Eucalyptus obliqua coastal woodland with a heathy understorey dominated by Xanthorrhoea australis, Hibbertia sericea and Leptospermum myrsinoides on well drained dark grey sandy loam. Critical habitat is yet to be determined, but is likely to include an open heathy understorey maintained by a suitable fire frequency.
- Reservation status:
- Reserved at Angahook-Lorne State Park.
- Parks Victoria, (Victoria West Region, Lorne).
|Current threats||Perceived risk|
|Ecology/biology||High - conditions for maintenance of pollinator and fungal activity unknown; increased extinction risk due to single population.|
|Weed invasion||Moderate at present - Boneseed (Chrysanthemoides monilifera) and Sallow wattle (Acacia longifolia var. longifolia) occur within the park.|
|Grazing/pest animals||Low - macropods absent; rabbits in low numbers.|
|Reservation status||Inadequate - confined to an area subject to multiple use.|
|Potential threats||Perceived risk|
|Illegal collection||High - probably highly sought after by collectors.|
|Inappropriate fire regimes||Moderate - site has been burnt recently and fire planning is in prep. Some pressure from nearby residents to burn site in Spring during flowering.|
|Accidental damage||High - potential for trampling from recreational users including walkers and dogs.|
- Recovery objectives:
- Maintain and/or increase existing population size; establish one new population; protect and manage habitat.
Recovery actions undertaken:
- Annual searches within the area since 1999.
Issues specific to recovery:
- P. maritimus is probably highly sought after by collectors, so that site confidentiality is vital. Involvement from non government organisations and individuals will be limited to a small number of individuals with a demonstrated track record in conservation (Angair).
- P. maritimus responds well to fire and determination of a suitable fire regime is essential to promote flowering and probably seedling recruitment.
- P. maritimus is extremely vulnerable to site disturbance. Re-alignment of existing walking tracks is urgently required.
- Apparently suitable habitat exists in the area and searches are urgently required.
- The site was visited during preparation of the recovery plan.
Overall recovery strategy:
Broadscale risk management will include fire planning, protection of the population from accidental damage, and maintenance of site confidentiality. Searches of similar habitat within the Anglesea Heath area may uncover additional populations. The population will be managed to promote seedling recruitment, using fine-scale habitat management techniques. Populations will be re-stocked with seed collected in-situ and one additional population established using cultivated plants. Recovery will be jointly managed by DSE and PV. Involvement from Angair will continue.
Parks Victoria (Victoria West Region, Lorne); DSE-BNR SW (Colac); Friends of Angahook-Lorne State Park.
|Action||Angahook Lorne (H)|
|1. Determine current conservation status|
|1.1 Clarify taxonomy||N/A|
|1.2 Acquire baseline population data||M|
|2. Investigate population biology|
|2.1 Describe life history||M|
|2.2 Evaluate natural pollination levels and/or causes of pollinator limitation||M|
|2.3 Determine the effects of artificial pollination on growth survival and reproduction||M|
|2.4 Determine spatial distribution of mycorrhizal fungi||M|
|2.5 Determine optimal conditions for growth of mycorrhizal fungi in-situ||M|
|3. Determine habitat requirements of key populations|
|3.1 Identify key populations||N/A|
|3.2 Conduct surveys||M|
|3.3 Identify ecological correlates of populations||M|
|3.4 Prepare habitat descriptions||M|
|4. Manage risks to populations|
|4.1 Identify and implement strategies to control threats||H|
|4.2 Identify disturbance regimes to promote regeneration and recruitment||H|
|4.3 Protect key public land populations and habitat||N/A|
|4.4 Protect key private land populations and habitat||N/A|
|Responsibility||PV (Lorne), DSE-BNR|
|5. Promote in-situ recruitment|
|5.1 Prepare habitat for seedling recruitment||M|
|5.2 Re-stock populations with seed||M|
|6. Measure population trends and responses against recovery actions|
|6.1 Conduct annual censusing of populations||M|
|6.2 Collate, analyse and report on census data||M|
|6.3 Re-prioritise and adjust recovery actions and/or threat management||H|
|Responsibility||DSE-BNR, PV, FAL|
|7. Increase populations ex-situ|
|7.1 Hand pollinate plants||H|
|7.2 Establish a threatened orchid seed bank and determine seed viability||M|
|7.3 Establish a mycorrhizal fungi bank||M|
|7.4 Establish and maintain cultivated populations||M|
|7.5 Maintain a database of threatened orchid taxa in cultivation||L|
|Responsibility||DSE-BNR, FAL, RBG, NOGN|
|8. Translocate cultivated plants|
|8.1 Determine criteria for re-stocking/re-introduction||M|
|8.2 Evaluate site suitability||H|
|8.3 Determine long term cost-benefits and feasibility of translocating plants||M|
|8.4 Prepare and implement translocation plans||H|
|8.5 Maintain translocated populations||H|
|Responsibility||DSE-BNR; RBG, FAL, PV|
|9. Implement an education and communication strategy|
|9.1 Prepare technical educational material on in-situ recovery techniques||L|
|9.2 Undertake community extension||L|
|9.3 Conduct workshops and symposia on in-situ recovery techniques||L|
|9.4 Encourage and support research by Higher Education Institutions and existing research partners||N/A|
|10. Consolidate recovery and extend networks|
|10.1 Maintain the Threatened Orchid Recovery Team||L|
|10.2 Establish and facilitate regional Recovery Teams||L|
|10.3 Co-ordinate recovery and exchange knowledge with interstate agencies||N/A|