National recovery plan for Twenty-five threatened orchid taxa of Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales 2003 - 2007
Coates, F., Jeanes, J. and Pritchard, A.
Department of Sustainability and Environment, Melbourne, 2002
Prasophyllum subbisectum Nicholls
- Conservation status:
- EPBC Act 1999: E
- IUCN (2000): CR
- NRE (2000): E
- Endemic to Victoria - Goldfields Bioregion (Stawell area). Formerly known from near Pomonal.
- Specific details of population localities (including GPS data) are held on DSE internal files.
- <75 plants known in the wild, in 3 populations. Likely to be naturally rare, but more common prior to landscape scale disturbance from gold exploration and mining.
- Occurs in open forest dominated by Eucalyptus tricarpa - E. macrorhynca - E. microcarpa, with a healthy understorey typically consisting of Ozothamnus obcordatum, Brachyloma ciliatum, and Calytrix tetragona or E. leucoxylon - E. goniocalyx open forest on well drained sandy loam. Critical habitat has not been determined, but may require disturbance.
- Reservation status:
- Reserved at Deep Lead Flora and Fauna Reserve, Three Jacks Flora Reserve.
- Parks Victoria (Victoria West Region, Horsham)
|Current threats||Perceived risk|
|Weed invasion||Low - weeds are scarce at sites.|
|Grazing||High - macropods and rabbits are common at all sites.|
|Inappropriate fire regimes||Low at present - sites are long unburnt and fire risk is low; otherwise unknown.|
|Site disturbance||Moderate at Deep Lead - sites may be vulnerable to disturbance by illegal gold prospecting.|
|Reservation status||Inadequately reserved, but subject to implementation of ECC recommendations.|
|Potential threats||Perceived risk|
|Illegal collection||Low - no evidence of collection in the past.|
|Ecology/biology||High - conditions for seed recruitment and maintenance of pollinator and fungal activity unknown; increased extinction risk due to small population sizes.|
Maintain and/or increase existing population sizes; protect and manage habitat.
Recovery actions undertaken:
- Monitoring at 2 sites by Stawell Field Naturalists.
- Searches conducted annually by Stawell Field Naturalists and in 2001 by Centre for Plant Conservation Biology, Canberra.
- All sites were visited during recovery plan preparation.
Issues specific to recovery:
- P. subbisectum populations are vulnerable to damage from trampling and site confidentiality is vital. Involvement from non government organisations and individuals will be limited to a small number of individuals with a proven track record in its conservation (ANOS conservation group, Stawell Field Naturalists Club).
- One population at Deep Lead FFR is close to tracks and vulnerable to damage from recreational vehicles.
- Kangaroo numbers at both reserves require assessment particularly in relation to loss of ground flora and soil disturbance. Further searches may prove more fruitful after protective measures have been implemented.
Overall recovery strategy:
Known populations will be monitored. Risk management in the short term will include protection of populations from grazing and gold prospecting, and maintenance of site confidentiality. Populations will be managed to promote seedling recruitment, using fine-scale habitat management techniques and re-stocked using seed from cultivated plants. Recovery will be jointly managed by DSE and PV. Involvement from Stawell Field Naturalists will continue.
Parks Victoria (West Victoria Region, Horsham); DSE-BNR SW; Stawell Field Naturalists Club.
|Action||Deep Lead (H)||Three Jacks (H)|
|1. Determine current conservation status|
|1.1 Clarify taxonomy||N/A||N/A|
|1.2 Acquire baseline population data||M||M|
|Responsibility||DSE-BNR SW, SFN||DSE-BNR SW, SFN|
|2. Investigate population biology|
|2.1 Describe life history||M||M|
|2.2 Evaluate natural pollination levels and/or causes of pollinator limitation||M||M|
|2.3 Determine the effects of artificial pollination on growth survival and reproduction||M||M|
|2.4 Determine spatial distribution of mycorrhizal fungi||M||M|
|2.5 Determine optimal conditions for growth of mycorrhizal fungi in-situ||M||M|
|Responsibility||DSE-BNR, RP||DSE-BNR, RP|
|3. Determine habitat requirements of key populations|
|3.1 Identify key populations||N/A||N/A|
|3.2 Conduct surveys||H||H|
|3.3 Identify ecological correlates of populations||M||M|
|3.4 Prepare habitat descriptions||L||L|
|Responsibility||DSE-BNR SW||DSE-BNR SW|
|4. Manage risks to populations|
|4.1 Identify and implement strategies to control threats||H||H|
|4.2 Identify disturbance regimes to promote regeneration and recruitment||H||H|
|4.3 Protect key public land populations and habitat||N/A||N/A|
|4.4 Protect key private land populations and habitat||N/A||N/A|
|Responsibility||PV (Horsham), DSE-BNR||PV (Horsham), DSE-BNR|
|5. Promote in-situ recruitment|
|5.1 Prepare habitat for seedling recruitment||M||M|
|5.2 Re-stock populations with seed||M||M|
|Responsibility||DSE-BNR, RP||DSE-BNR, RP|
|6. Measure population trends and responses against recovery actions|
|6.1 Conduct annual censusing of populations||M||M|
|6.2 Collate, analyse and report on census data||M||M|
|6.3 Re-prioritise and adjust recovery actions and/or threat management||H||H|
|7. Increase populations ex-situ|
|7.1 Hand pollinate plants||M||M|
|7.2 Establish a threatened orchid seed bank and determine seed viability||N/A||M|
|7.3 Establish a mycorrhizal fungi bank||N/A||M|
|7.4 Establish and maintain cultivated populations||N/A||M|
|7.5 Maintain a database of threatened orchid taxa in cultivation||N/A||L|
|8. Translocate cultivated plants|
|8.1 Determine criteria for re-stocking/re-introduction||N/A||N/A|
|8.2 Evaluate site suitability||N/A||N/A|
|8.3 Determine long term cost-benefits and feasibility of translocating plants||N/A||N/A|
|8.4 Prepare and implement translocation plans||N/A||N/A|
|8.5 Maintain translocated populations||N/A||N/A|
|9. Implement an education and communication strategy|
|9.1 Prepare technical educational material on in-situ recovery techniques||L||L|
|9.2 Undertake community extension||L||L|
|9.3 Conduct workshops and symposia on in-situ recovery techniques||L||L|
|9.4 Encourage and support research by Higher Education Institutions and existing research partners||M||M|
|10. Consolidate recovery and extend networks|
|10.1 Maintain the Threatened Orchid Recovery Team||L||L|
|10.2 Establish and facilitate regional Recovery Teams||L||L|
|10.3 Co-ordinate recovery and exchange knowledge with interstate agencies||N/A||N/A|