National recovery plan for Twenty-five threatened orchid taxa of Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales 2003 - 2007
Coates, F., Jeanes, J. and Pritchard, A.
Department of Sustainability and Environment, Melbourne, 2002
Thelymitra mackibbinii F. Muell.
- Conservation status:
- EPBC Act 1999: V
- IUCN (2000): CR
- NRE (2000): E
- Endemic to Victoria - Goldfields Bioregion (Stawell, St Arnaud and Maryborough areas). Formerly known from near Bendigo and also recorded from near Port Elliot, South Australia although the latter is highly likely to have been mis-identified.
- Specific details of population localities (including GPS data) are held on DSE internal files.
- <30 plants known in the wild, in 3 populations. Likely to be naturally rare, but more common prior to landscape scale disturbance from gold exploration and mining.
- Occurs in open forest dominated by Eucalyptus leucoxylon sens. lat. and sometimes with Allocasuarina verticillata, with a heathy understorey typically consisting of Acacia paradoxa, A. montana and Pultenaea largiflorens on well drained light brown silt with quartz and lateritic lag deposits. Critical habitat has not been determined, but likely to require an undisturbed ground layer well covered by leaf litter.
- Reservation status:
- Reserved at Mt Bolangum Flora and Fauna Reserve, Deep Lead Flora and Fauna Reserve, Paddys Ranges State Park
- Parks Victoria (West Victoria Region, Maryborough, Horsham, Inglewood).
|Current threats||Perceived risk|
|Weed invasion||Low - weeds are scarce at sites.|
|Grazing/pest animals||Low - Mt Bolangum FFR at present.Moderate - macropods and rabbits at Paddys Ra. SP.|
|Inappropriate fire regimes||Low at present(?) - sites are long unburnt and fire risk is low, but may require fire.|
|Site disturbance||Moderate - sites are subject to disturbance by recreational vehicles.|
|Reservation status||Adequately reserved with implementation of ECC recommendations.|
|Potential threats||Perceived risk|
|Illegal collection||Moderate - no evidence of collection in the past, but may be sought by collectors.|
|Ecology/biology||High - conditions for maintenance of pollinator and fungal activity unknown; increased extinction risk due to small population sizes; response to fire unknown.|
Maintain and/or increase existing population sizes; protect and manage habitat.
Recovery actions undertaken:
- Monitoring at 1 site by Stawell Field Naturalists.
- Searches conducted by ANOS members in 2001.
- All sites were visited during recovery plan preparation.
Issues specific to recovery:
- This taxon variously appears in the literature as a species or a hybrid. To date, no sound evidence has been presented to support its putative hybrid status, so it is prudent to treat it as a species until such evidence is forthcoming.
- T. mackibbinii populations are vulnerable to damage from trampling and site confidentiality is vital. Involvement from non government organisations and individuals will be limited to a small number of individuals with a proven track record in its conservation (ANOS conservation group, Stawell Field Naturalists Club).
- One population at Mt Bolangum FFR is close to tracks and extremely vulnerable to damage from recreational vehicles.
- The Paddys Ranges SP population has not been seen in recent years and kangaroo numbers require assessment particularly in relation to loss of ground flora and soil disturbance. Searches may prove more fruitful after protective measures have been implemented.
Overall recovery strategy:
Known populations will be monitored and searches will be conducted at similar sites in the region. Risk management in the short term will include protection of populations from grazing and vehicle damage, and maintenance of site confidentiality. Populations will be managed to promote seedling recruitment, using fine-scale habitat management techniques and re-stocked using seed from cultivated plants. Recovery will be jointly managed by DSE and PV. Involvement from ANOS conservation group and Stawell Field Naturalists will continue.
Parks Victoria (West Victoria Region, Maryborough, Horsham, Inglewood); ANOS Conservation Group; Stawell Field Naturalists Club.
|Action||Paddys Ranges SP (L)||Mt Bolangum FFR (H)||Deep Lead (H)|
|1. Determine current conservation status|
|1.1 Clarify taxonomy||N/A||N/A||N/A|
|1.2 Acquire baseline population data||M||M||M|
|2. Investigate population biology|
|2.1 Describe life history||M||M||M|
|2.2 Evaluate natural pollination levels and/or causes of pollinator limitation||N/A||N/A||M|
|2.3 Determine the effects of artificial pollination on growth survival and reproduction||N/A||N/A||M|
|2.4 Determine spatial distribution of mycorrhizal fungi||M||M||M|
|2.5 Determine optimal conditions for growth of mycorrhizal fungi in-situ||M||M||M|
|3. Determine habitat requirements of key populations|
|3.1 Identify key populations||H||N/A||N/A|
|3.2 Conduct surveys||H||H||H|
|3.3 Identify ecological correlates of populations||H||H||H|
|3.4 Prepare habitat descriptions||M||M||M|
|4. Manage risks to populations|
|4.1 Identify and implement strategies to control threats||H||H||H|
|4.2 Identify disturbance regimes to promote regeneration and recruitment||H||H||H|
|4.3 Protect key public land populations and habitat||N/A||N/A||N/A|
|4.4 Protect key private land populations and habitat||N/A||N/A||N/A|
|Responsibility||PV (Maryborough)||PV (Inglewood)||PV (Horsham)|
|5. Promote in-situ recruitment||H||H||H|
|5.1 Prepare habitat for seedling recruitment|
|5.2 Re-stock populations with seed||H||H||H|
|6. Measure population trends and responses against recovery actions|
|6.1 Conduct annual censusing of populations||M||M||M|
|6.2 Collate, analyse and report on census data||M||M||M|
|6.3 Re-prioritise and adjust recovery actions and/or threat management||H||H||H|
|Responsibility||DSE-BNR, ANOS||DSE-BNR||DSE-BNR, SFN|
|7. Increase populations ex-situ|
|7.1 Hand pollinate plants||H||H||H|
|7.2 Establish a threatened orchid seed bank and determine seed viability||N/A||N/A||H|
|7.3 Establish a mycorrhizal fungi bank||N/A||N/A||H|
|7.4 Establish and maintain cultivated populations||N/A||N/A||H|
|7.5 Maintain a database of threatened orchid taxa in cultivation||N/A||N/A||L|
|Responsibility||DSE-BNR||DSE-BNR||DSE-BNR, RBG, ANOS|
|8. Translocate cultivated plants|
|8.1 Determine criteria for re-stocking/re-introduction||N/A||N/A||N/A|
|8.2 Evaluate site suitability||N/A||N/A||N/A|
|8.3 Determine long term cost-benefits and feasibility of translocating plants||N/A||N/A||N/A|
|8.4 Prepare and implement translocation plans||N/A||N/A||N/A|
|8.5 Maintain translocated populations||N/A||N/A||N/A|
|9. Implement an education and communication strategy|
|9.1 Prepare technical educational material on in-situ recovery techniques||L||L||L|
|9.2 Undertake community extension||L||L||L|
|9.3 Conduct workshops and symposia on in-situ recovery techniques||L||L||L|
|9.4 Encourage and support research by Higher Education Institutions and existing research partners||M||M||M|
|10. Consolidate recovery and extend networks|
|10.1 Maintain the Threatened Orchid Recovery Team||L||L||L|
|10.2 Establish and facilitate regional Recovery Teams||L||L||L|
|10.3 Co-ordinate recovery and exchange knowledge with interstate agencies||N/A||N/A||N/A|