National recovery plan for the Net-veined Gyrostemon (Gyrostemon reticulatus)
Department of Environment and Conservation, Geraldton
- National recovery plan for the Net-veined Gyrostemon (Gyrostemon reticulatus) (PDF - 206 KB) | (RTF - 897 KB)
- Scientific Name: Gyrostemon reticulatus
- Common Name: Net-veined Gyrostemon
- Family: Gyrostemonaceae
- Flowering Period: September
- DEC Region: Midwest
- DEC District: Geraldton
- Shire: Mullewa
- Recovery Team: Geraldton District Threatened Flora Recovery Team
- NRM Region: Northern Agricultural
Illustrations and/or further information:
Atkins, K. (2008) Declared Rare and Priority Flora List for Western Australia. Department of Environment and Conservation, Western Australia; Brown, A., Thomson-Dans, C. and Marchant N. (eds) (1998) Western Australia’s Threatened Flora. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Western Australia. pp 75; DEC (1990-) Threatened Flora Database (2008) Department of Environment and Conservation (2008) Western Australian Herbarium FloraBase 2 – Information on the Western Australian Flora. Department of Environment and Conservation, Western Australia. http://www.calm.wa.gov.au/science/; George, A.S. (1982) Gyrostemonaceae. Flora of Australia 8: 393. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra.
Analysis of outputs and effectiveness of IRP 119 (2002 – 2007):
This IRP replaces IRP No. 119, prepared by Gillian Stack and Val English.
Although the number of known plants in the wild has decreased from 500 to just five, the criteria for success in the previous plan (the number of individuals in populations have increased by 10% or more over the term of the plan) is now not believed to be applicable as G reticulatus is a ephemeral species which forms transient components of the above-ground flora, germinating after fire, growing rapidly, flowering, producing seed and dying before the next fire. The second half of the criteria for success (the number of populations have increased by 10% or more over the term of the plan) has been met, as the number of known populations in the wild has increased from two to five (although most of these populations do not currently have extant plants).
Actions carried out through the previous plan include:
Action 3. Conduct further surveys
Action 4. Complete fencing at Population 1
Action 5. Monitor populations
Action 7. Collect seed
Action 10. Promote awareness
Actions 3, 5 and 10 and other recovery actions included in the plan are ongoing and are included in this revised plan.
There are no new actions in this plan.
Gyrostemon reticulatus was declared as Rare Flora in August 2001 under the Western Australian Wildlife Conservation Act 1950. Following survey it was found to meet World Conservation Union (IUCN 2001) Red List Category Critically Endangered (CR) under criteria B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) due to the severe fragmentation of populations, extremely small range and continuing decline in the quality of habitat. G. reticulatus is currently listed as Critically Endangered under the Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act).
Gyrostemon reticulatus was thought to be extinct in Western Australia until a specimen collected in 1990 was confirmed to be the species in 2000. Prior to this, the species had not been collected since 1938. In 2001 over 500 plants were recorded in a recently burnt area of vegetation. The population declined rapidly in the following years and in October 2005 only two plants remained at the site. The main threats are limited range, firebreak maintenance, inundation, inappropriate fire regimes and rising salinity.
Five populations are known however four do not contain extant plants and one contains just five plants as at 2008.
Gyrostemonreticulatus is an erect shrub to 1 m tall with crowded, persistent linear leaves 11 to 35 mm long. They are circular in cross-section and sometimes have hooked tips. The male and female flowers are on separate plants. The solitary flowers have pointed calyx lobes. Male flowers have twelve to fourteen stamens that end in sharp points and are arranged in a whorl. The female flowers have five to seven carpels with narrow, flattened stigmas about 1 mm long. The stalked, solitary fruit is spherical, and the 3 mm long carpels are semi-circular and narrow towards the margin with patterned surfaces. The species is distinguished from G. australasicus by its reticulate carpels with narrow keels and by a generally higher number of stamens (usually nine to twelve in G. australasicus) (Brown et al. 1998).
Gyrostemon reticulatus is currently known from a range of approximately 2 km in an area south east of Mullewa, but has historically been recorded from near Canna, Wubin and Kalannie. It grows in dense shrubland with Melaleuca species, Acacia acuminata and Allocasuarina campestris on yellow-brown sandy slopes.
Habitat critical to the survival of the species, and important populations:
Given that Gyrostemon reticulatus is ranked as CR, it is considered that all known habitat for wild populations is critical to the survival of the species, and that all wild populations are important populations. Habitat critical to the survival of G. reticulatus includes the area of occupancy of populations; areas of similar habitat surrounding and linking populations (these providing potential habitat for population expansion and for pollinators), additional occurrences of similar habitat that may contain undiscovered populations of the species or be suitable for future translocations and the local catchment for the surface and/or groundwater that maintains the habitat of the species.
Benefits to other species or ecological communities:
Recovery actions implemented to improve the quality or security of the habitat of Gyrostemon reticulatus will also improve the status of associated native vegetation. To date, no other Rare or Priority Flora have been recorded in association with the species. However, as the habitat is still regenerating after the 2000 fire at Population 1 and soil disturbance at Populations 2 and 3, the identity of many associated species has not yet been recorded. Should other Rare or Priority flora be found in the vicinity of G. reticulatus, recovery actions implemented to improve the quality or security of its habitat will also assist in protecting these other Rare and Priority Flora.
This plan is fully consistent with the aims and recommendations of the Convention on Biological Diversity, ratified by Australia in June 1993, and will assist in implementing Australia’s responsibilities under that Convention. Gyrostemon reticulatusis not listed under any specific international treaty however, and this IRP does not affect Australia’s obligations under any other international agreements.
The Aboriginal Sites Register maintained by the Department of Indigenous Affairs does not list any significant sites in the vicinity of populations of Gyrostemon reticulatus, however not all significant sites are listed on the register.
The local organisation representing the indigenous community, the Yamatji Land and Sea Council, was consulted to identify possible indigenous interest in recovery of Gyrostemonreticulatus. A representative from this organisation has also been invited to become a member of the Geraldton District Threatened Flora Recovery Team (GDTFRT). This will enable ongoing liaison with the indigenous community and involvement in flora recovery where they have an interest.
Social and economic impacts:
The implementation of this recovery plan is unlikely to cause significant adverse social and economic impact. However, as all Gyrostemon reticulatus populations occur on private property and unvested reserves, the protection of the species at these sites may potentially affect development and asset protection measures. Population 1 of G. reticulatus occurs on private property which is farmed for agriculture. However the remnant vegetation in which the population occurs has been fenced and is excluded from stock. This has been undertaken to protect the rare flora population and to assist in protecting the property against salinity. Populations 2 and 3 of G. reticulatus are located on an unvested reserve that is managed as a mission. Recovery actions refer to continued liaison between stakeholders with regard to populations located on private property and unvested reserves.
The implementation of this plan has some implications for land managers, particularly where populations occur on lands not specifically managed for conservation. The occurrence of a Gyrostemon reticulatus population on private property will have implications for the property owners. Where it occurs on an unvested reserve under the care, control and management of the Palotine Mission at Tardan, the mission will be required to ensure protection of the population. Recovery actions refer to continued liaison between stakeholders with regard to all of these areas.
Evaluation of the plan’s performance:
DEC, in conjunction with the Geraldton District Threatened Flora Recovery Team, will evaluate the performance of this IRP. In addition to annual reporting on progress and evaluation against the criteria for success and failure, the plan will be reviewed within five years of implementation.
Completed recovery actions
- Land managers have been made aware of the location and threatened status of the species.
- Declared Rare Flora markers have been installed near the track at Population 1.
- The remnant vegetation containing Population 1 has been fenced.
- Some 10644 seeds from Population 1 and 2015 seeds from Subpopulation 2b are stored in DEC’s Threatened Flora Seed Centre at –18°C.
- Surveys located Populations 2 and 3.
- The area around Kalannie was surveyed for this species in 1990, but was done before its preferred habitat was known.
- Staff from DEC’s Geraldton District undertook surveys in recently burnt areas of similar soil type in a nearby Conservation Park, however no new populations were located.
Ongoing and future recovery actions
- Staff from DEC’s Geraldton District office regularly monitor all known populations.
- The GDTFRT is overseeing the implementation of this IRP and will include information on progress in its annual report to DEC's Corporate Executive and funding bodies.
The objective of this IRP is to abate identified threats and maintain or enhance in situ populations to ensure the long-term preservation of the species in the wild.
Criteria for success:
The number of populations have increased and/or the habitat of the species has remained healthy over the five year term of the plan.
Criteria for failure:
The number of populations have decreased and/or the habitat of the species has degraded over the five year term of the plan.
- Coordinate recovery actions
- Monitor populations
- Conduct further surveys
- Seek security of tenure for populations
- Stimulate the germination of soil-stored seed
- Obtain biological and ecological information
- Map habitat critical to the survival of Gyrostemon reticulatus
- Promote awareness
- Develop and implement a fire management strategy
- Undertake and monitor translocations, if required
- Review this plan and assess the need for further recovery actions