|List||World Heritage List|
|Legal Status||Declared property (17/12/1994)|
|Place File No||1/01/114/0002|
|Statement of Significance|
official statement of Outstanding Universal Value see the UNESCO site http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/368
Main Range Group|
The eastern edge of the Main range is a steep escarpment, part of the Great Escarpment, with peaks up to 1,100m above the broad valley to the east. The upper part of the scarp consists of cliffs of Basaltic rocks. Lower down, talus slopes, in many places, obscure the lower members of the volcanic sequence and the contact with the underlying Mesozoic sedimentary rocks. The Great Divide is close to, or coincides with, the top of the escarpment. West of the Divide the original Basaltic tableland has been strongly dissected by streams, leaving only ridges and a few small remnants between them. The volcanic rocks, dominantly Basalts, have a total thickness of up to 900m beneath the highest points on the Divide; they have been divided into two formations of almost equal thickness. The lower formation, the Governors Chair Volcanics, contains well-marked members interbedded with the Basalts. The upper formation consists entirely of Basaltic rocks and is widespread over an area of 160,000ha. The trachytes of the lower formation exhibit outstanding cliff faces at The Steamers, in Emu Creek and at Mount Castle on the escarpment.
The Main Range, although on the whole drier than the McPherson Range, has at least three major waterfalls. The Main Range volcanics are of late Oligocene to early Miocene age (DASET, 1992). Vegetation of the region includes rainforest, tall open forest, woodland, tall scrubland and steep rock pavements. Rainforest is virtually restricted to altitudes above 700m, on areas of fertile basalt soils. Cool subtropical rainforest predominates, of a type significantly different from the equivalent type found in the McPherson Range and Tweed Range. Small stands of warm temperate rainforest occur on sheltered southerly slopes to the south of the region. Above the cliffs the mountain top is covered with Leptospermum, Prostanthera scrub, with an unusual low forest (10m) of Rapanea variabilis carrying a dense cover of epiphytic bryophytes (DASET, 1992).
In exposed, elevated habitats along the Main Range, a lower form of closed forest occurs. A diversity of tall open forest communities occurs on the Main Range, dominated by various eucalypt species. A significant feature of the Main Range is the presence of "temperate" eucalypt species in the open forests at higher altitudes along the summit and western slopes, which reach the northern limit of their distribution here. Rocky heath communities include Helichrysum lindsayanum (R), and Wahlenbergia glabra (R). Two endangered species of the genus Marsdenia, M. coronata and M. longiloba occur within the property (DASET, 1992).
Focal Peak Group
The Mount Barney Intrusive Complex consists of a variety of igneous rocks, mainly intrusive, forming a mountainous region. Several centres of intrusion have been recognised along an east-west line, including Focal Peak and Mount Gillies, centres for eruption of basalt and rhyolite of the Focal Peak shield volcano. Mount Barney itself is a mountain mass composed of granophyre, about 24 million years old. Volcanic influence is evident along the Richmond Range in the form of isolated basalt caps.
Cool subtropical rainforest comprises a major proportion of the vegetation of the western half of Mount Barney National Park, at higher altitudes (greater than 600m). Above 900m on Mount Nothofagus and Mount Ballow, areas of cool temperate rainforest with Nothofagus moorei occur, representing the largest single stand of N. moorei in the Border Ranges area. Open forest communities occur in Mount Barney National Park, especially in the north-eastern section. Eucalyptus michaeliana (R) has been recorded in the region.
Of particular significance is the tall open forest with Eucalyptus oreades and associated montane heath shrublands. These include a range of narrow endemics and several rare and endangered species: Banksia conferta, Callitris monticola, Comesperma esulifolium, Coopernookia scabridiuscula, Helichrysum lindsayanum, H. whitei, Hibbertia monticola, Leucopogon sp. 'Mount Barney', Plectranthus alloplectus, Pultenaea whiteana, Rulingia salviifolia, Wahlenbergia scopulicola and Westringia blakeana. Most of the vegetation in Mount Clunie Flora Reserve is rainforest, including subtropical rainforest, a small stand of warm temperate rainforest, and a significant stand of unlogged Araucaria cunninghamii rainforest. Ceratopetalum apetalum is absent from the warm temperate rainforest. A comprehensive description of vegetation types and species list is given in DASET (1992).
Tweed Caldera Group
The Border Ranges, where the majority of the sites are located, lie along the New South Wales-Queensland border, and include a large area to the north and south. They are formed from predominantly basaltic Tertiary volcanic rocks that were deposited in numerous sub-horizontal layers. The Border Range sites are remnants of the easily recognisable Tweed Shield Volcano, which, despite its age (20.5-23.5 million years), is probably one of the best preserved for its age in the world. The western part of Border Ranges lies within the area of Focal Peak Volcano. The erosion caldera of the Tweed Shield Volcano, one of the largest in the world, is remarkable for its size, prominent central mountain mass (Mount Warning) and because the caldera floor has been eroded down to basement rock by Tweed River. Mount Warning itself represents the original neck of the volcano which, being more resistant (comprising syenite, gabbro and monzonite) than the surrounding basalt and rhyolite, remains as an isolated plug. Differential erosion of the basalt and rhyolitic lava flows is responsible for a landscape characterised by sloping valleys below vertical rhyolite cliffs and such features as the tiered shape of Mount Lindesay. Basalts give rise to krasnozems on the plateau and less acidic prairie soils on the slopes, both of which are moderately fertile. Weathering of rhyolites produces yellow podzolic soils of much lower fertility.
The intrusive rocks of the Mount Warning mountain mass are isolated from the remaining parts of the volcanic shield by a broad, deep valley, eroded below the level of the lowest basalts to expose the basement of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic rocks. Basalts and rhyolites of the shield have been cut back uniformly to produce precipitous cliffs in an arc around the central mass. This formation, he Mount Warning erosion caldera, is one of the major examples of this landform in the world. The original upper surface of the volcano has been dissected by radially arranged streams, leaving intervening ridges and sloping plateau remnants. A range of rock types occur, from extensive flows from the main vents and from the more local activity of numerous subsidiary vents, which have eroded to form different soil types. Basalts have given rise to krasnozems on the plateau and prairie soils on the slopes, both of which are moderately fertile. The rhyolites have weathered to produce yellow podzolic soils of much lower fertility (DASET, 1992).
Warm subtropical rainforest occurs on basalts at lower altitudes (less than 800m) on Lamington Plateau and on lower mountain slopes. Of particular floristic significance are the stands of this rainforest type on basalt shelves and lower slopes within the Mount Warning erosion caldera, where numerous rare and threatened species occur. As the major rainforested creeks run downstream into broader, drier valleys a floristically distinct gallery fringe develops. At higher altitudes (800-1100m), warm subtropical rainforest is replaced by cool subtropical rainforest.
In Lamington National Park, closed forests in which Ackama paniculata dominates the canopy, form an ecotone between cool subtropical and cool temperate Nothofagus rainforest. Araucarian vine forest or 'dry' rainforest, characterised by a discontinuous overstorey of hoop pine Araucaria cunninghamii, a species prized for its timber, occurs mainly at lower altitudes, although it can extend above 700m. Many areas of Araucaria cunninghamii have been heavily logged and disturbed, but the largest unlogged stands are within the nominated property.
Warm temperate rainforest approaches the northern limit of its distribution in this area, although there are structurally similar outliers in northern Queensland. This rainforest type is found mainly on sites that cannot support subtropical rainforest, either because of infertile soils (for example, on rhyolite rather than basic igneous rocks) or on windswept ridges where shallow soils and exposure to strong cool winds prevent the development of the more luxuriant subtropical rainforest. Cool temperate rainforest dominated by Nothofagus moorei reaches its northern limit in the nominated property.
Although rainforest is the major vegetation type, there are also important stands of open forests, woodlands and shrublands. A number of shrub-dominated communities occur on exposed rock knolls and cliff lines. Montane heathlands are notable for their concentration of rare and restricted species. A detailed description of vegetation and species list is given in DASET (1992).
Washpool and Gibraltar Range
Gibraltar Range National Park is essentially a high plateau, at almost 1,200m, which extends north into Washpool National Park as a series of high ridges and plateaux separated by sharply dissected, steeply inclined valleys. Swamps of up to 0.5km in width and 2km in length are widespread in the lowest lying areas. The main rock types are: a middle Palaeozoic sequence of metasediments (argillites, greywackes and feldspar porphyries with minor chert horizons), which outcrops in the eastern part of both parks; a Late Permian volcanic complex, which outcrops over much of the southern part of Washpool National Park; and a Permo-Triassic granite, which intrudes both the above older types largely in Gibraltar Range National Park and has weathered to give some of the tors that are some of the spectacular landscape features of this park.
The outstanding feature of this area is the diversity of plant communities and the mosaic of wet sclerophyll and rainforest communities. The major areas of rainforest are in Washpool National Park. Small areas of rainforest occur in Gibraltar Range National Park but many of these were subject to logging prior to its dedication. Warm temperate rainforest is the most extensively distributed form. Subtropical rainforest is restricted to more sheltered sites on better soils, while dry rainforest is very limited in extent. Despite the very high rainfall at high altitude, cool temperate rainforest is absent. The more extensive of the subtropical rainforest associations are of the cool type characterised by Sloanea woollsii, Dysoxylum fraserianum, Argyrodendron actinophyllum and Ackama paniculata, although stands are restricted to moist aspects in gully heads, protected from fire and on deep, moderately fertile soil. The major warm temperate rainforest association is a Ceratopetalum apetalum, Schizomeria ovata, Ackama sub alliance. Willowie Scrub in Washpool National Park is the largest extent of coachwood rainforest remaining in Australia and, therefore, the world. Wet sclerophyll forest, frequently with a well-developed rainforest understorey, is an outstanding feature of both national parks. At high altitudes along ridges the dominant eucalypt is Eucalyptus campanulata, with E. icrocorys, E. saligna and Lophostemon confertus communities at lower altitudes. Wet and dry heathland is restricted to steep rocky outcrops at high altitudes. Several species of the heathland communities are endemic to the Gibraltar Range. Natural grasslands, occupying frost hollows and sedge swamps, occur in Gibraltar Range National Park and in the southernmost part of Washpool National Park. A comprehensive vegetation description and species list is given in DASET (1992).
Iluka Nature Reserve
The Iluka peninsula consists of a series of dune ridges. The sand is siliceous and, as with other sand masses on the New South Wales north coast, contains significant quantities of the heavy minerals rutile, zircon and ilmenite. Underlying the sand is a complex of Triassic/Jurassic sedimentary rocks, which outcrop to form the series of low headlands along the coast. Soils tend to be poor in nutrients and well-drained (DASET, 1992).
The reserve contains the largest single stand in New South Wales of littoral rainforest, a distinctive coastal variant of sub-tropical rainforest, and the least extensive of all New South Wales rainforest types. The herb layer is generally sparse. East of the rainforest, on the most seaward dunes, is a characteristic East Coast dune flora with the pioneer grass Spinifex sericeus. As elsewhere along the coast, the introduced shrub Chrysanthemoides monilifera is a major component of the littoral fringe. To the west, the rainforest abuts Lophostemon - Eucalyptus open forest. The western edge of the rainforest is thought to be maintained in its present position by the incidence of fire in the woodland. A comprehensive description of the vegetation types, together with a list of plants recorded in the reserve is given in the World Heritage nomination document (DASET, 1992).
New England Group
The erosion of the Dorrigo volcanic plateau by the westward retreat of the Great Escarpment is the outstanding feature of the New England/Dorrigo region. The sweep of the escarpment around the head of Bellinger Valley is one of the most impressive sections of the whole Great Escarpment. The remnant plug of Ebor Volcano is believed to be located in the region of New England National Park known as the Crescent (Ollier 1982). The Tertiary basalt of Ebor Volcano outcrops along the rim of the escarpment in New England National Park and its erosion is responsible for the high nutrient status of the alluvial and colluvial soils at lower altitude. The lowlands below the escarpment are a complex of Carboniferous/Permian metamorphic and sedimentary rocks (slate, phyllite, sandstone and conglomerate). Ebor Volcano basalt outcrops only in the western part of Dorrigo National Park. Much of the plateau region of the park is made up of Carboniferous metamorphic rocks (argillites and slates), which also underlie Mount Hyland Nature Reserve. Igneous rocks of Permian age outcrop in the southern part of Dorrigo National Park.
The two parks contain a great variety of habitats over a wide range of altitudes. Conditions on the high, cold, windswept and frequently mist-shrouded plateau margins contrast starkly with the warm, sheltered environments of the lower river valleys. These two extremes have few species in common. The region is one of the four distribution centres for Nothofagus moorei, which predominates in cool temperate rainforest. Other vegetation types present comprise: subtropical rainforest; warm temperate rainforest; wet sclerophyll rainforest; tall open eucalypt forest; intermediate subtropical/warm temperate rainforest; subalpine heath, extensive grasslands and swamp. A number of rare species are present, particularly in Dorrigo National Park, including Bosistoa floydii (R) and Backhousia anisata (R).
The Hastings group includes an example of the Great Escarpment, with the sharp break between the plateau and the escarpment being well shown in the gulfs and gorges of the upper Macleay. Spectacular lookouts are located at Wollomombi and Long Point.
The contrast between the Forbes and Hastings river valleys is marked. Both rivers fall a considerable altitude over comparable distances, but the Forbes has an even gradient with no major waterfalls. The Hastings, on the other hand, descends in a series of steps in a deeply incised gorge with two major waterfalls (Upper and Lower Falls) and a number of others. Scenic falls also occur on tributaries of the Hastings, notably on Cobcrofts Creek.
The geology of the area is imperfectly known, and both the Forestry Commission (1981) and the National Parks and Wildlife Service (NPWS, 1981) note discrepancies between their observations and the published geological map. An intrusive complex of dacite with sedimentary and metamorphic rocks of Palaeozoic age comprises the predominant rock forms. In the Kunderang Brook section of Werrikimbe National Park and in the southern half of The Castles Flora Reserve, these include a narrow belt of Lower Permian limestone which features some cave development. At Mount Seaview there are outcrops of Permian ultra-basic serpentine.
The vegetation is extremely diverse and includes cool temperate, warm temperate, sub-tropical and dry rainforest, a range of eucalypt dominated communities as well as heath and swamp. In the cool temperate rainforest, which contains some of the largest Nothofagus trees in existence, there is often a well-developed understorey of warm temperate species. The two major warm temperate rainforest associations in the area, substantial areas of which remain in unmodified condition, are a Ceratopetalum - Doryphora sub-alliance and Ceratopetalum/Schizomeria-Argyrodendron/Sloanea sub-alliance. In Mount Seaview Nature Reserve, warm temperate rainforest at the head of Cedar Creek is notable for the absence of Ceratopetalum.
Lowland subtropical rainforest is not abundant but a small stand is located in Mount Seaview Nature Reserve. This reserve also has an important stand of dry rainforest. The higher altitude form of subtropical rainforest, with Sloanea woollsii as a prominent species, is found at the heads of sheltered valleys below the plateau to the east of Forbes River.
Dry rainforest communities dominated usually by Backhousia sciadophora are found in five protected gullies in Oxley Wild Rivers National Park and the Kunderang Brook section of Werrikimbe National Park. In the steeper, rockier sections of the gorges, vine thickets grow. The Castles Flora Reserve includes one of the few occurrences of rainforest on limestone in New South Wales (Forestry Commission, 1989).
A wide variety of wet and dry sclerophyll communities are present within the reserves. The single most important commercial hardwood species in northern New South Wales is blackbutt Eucalyptus pilularis, which is predominant over a range of understoreys varying from wet to dry sclerophyll forest. Unlogged stands of blackbutt are rare, however a good example of unlogged blackbutt forest is preserved in Mount Seaview Nature Reserve.
The drier blackbutt community occurs at lower altitudes on the northern slopes of Mount Banda Banda. The plateau supports: an open forest comprising a range of eucalypts and collectively referred to as New England hardwoods; swamps; grassland and areas of heath and scrub.
Threatened or rare species not already mentioned include Callitris oblonga (V), Sarcochilus fitzgeraldii (V) and S. hartmannii (V) (DASET, 1992).
Barrington Tops Area
Barrington Tops is a plateau at 1,200-1,580m, to the east of, and partly connected to, the Great Escarpment, with steep rugged slopes on all sides. Before the basalt eruption of Barrington Volcano, the land was of relatively low relief and its surface cut across a basement of steeply dipping Palaeozoic sediments. A number of hills of Permian granite rose above the generally subdued relief. Eruption of the volcano in the Tertiary, whose centre was probably close to the site of the present Mount Barrington, produced massive basalt lava flows, dated to between 44 and 55 million years ago. Today the basalt is restricted to plateau remnants and ridges between the remnants, and occupies the highest parts of the landscape. Since the volcanic activity, erosion has produced steep-sided valleys up to 1,000m deep and marked scarps which occur over much of the plateau. The park covers the upper catchments of six major rivers (DASET, 1992).
The park contains an unsurpassed series of gradations between various sclerophyll and rainforest types in response to factors such as altitude, aspect, soil type, rainfall and fire history. The major rainforest forms are subtropical and cool temperate, with relatively smaller areas of warm temperate rainforest.
Lower altitude subtropical rainforest is well-developed in the south-eastern slopes of the plateau. On the alluvial flats of Boonabilla Creek a very different type of subtropical rainforest has developed. Colonising and late secondary successional species are present, indicating major disturbance in the past. Subtropical rainforest occurs at higher altitudes (up to 1,000m), and contains a large element of warm temperate rainforest species. A curious feature of the area is the virtual absence of what is normally one of the major species of warm temperate rainforest, Ceratopetalum apetalum.
Towards the heads of the valleys subtropical elements mingle with cool temperate rainforest. Barrington Tops mark the southern limit of Nothofagus moorei, with stands also occurring in Kerripit Beech Flora Reserve. Wet sclerophyll forest types include a Eucalyptus saligna - E. quadrangulata association, which is widespread on valley slopes and often merges with rainforest or rainforest understorey. At high altitudes, normally on more fertile soils and associated with Nothofagus, tall forests of E. obliqua and E. fastigata occur. On drier slopes, E. campanulata - E. biturbinata - E. canaliculata - E. propinqua is predominant. On the plateau, subalpine woodlands are associated with an extensive series of open swamps. Open grassy areas (grassland balds), believed to be of natural origin, feature at the summits of a number of peaks (DASET, 1992).
The Barrington Tops region marks the northern or southern distribution limits of a number of species. Of considerable scientific interest is the rare endemic Tasmannia purpurascens, among the most primitive of living angiosperms. A recently described species, T. glaucifolia , is restricted to Barrington Tops and near Point Lookout in New England National Park. Other threatened or rare species include Dendrobium tenuissimum, Plantago cladarophylla and P. palustris (DASET, 1992).
A comprehensive description of vegetation types, and list of vascular plants recorded throughout the nominated sites is given in Appendix 1 of the nomination document. A list of rare, endangered and poorly known species recorded from the nominated sites is given in Table 7 of the nomination document (DASET, 1992).
of Aboriginal use of the subtropical rain forests appears to have commenced at
about 9,000 to 10,000 years BP, shown by the occupation of Bushrangers Cave,
which lies within the nominated property. Aboriginal hunter-gatherers appear to
have used the subtropical rain forest as one of a number of diverse habitats
within their tribal range, primarily for gathering food, rather than as a place
to live. Food gathering appears to have caused very minor disturbances to the
ecosystem. In contrast, the use of fire as a traditional land management tool
had more dramatic consequences. The complex rain forest boundaries documented
in early historic records appear to have been an artefact
of traditional Aboriginal land management practices. Some of the main geographical
features of the Border
Ranges area are regarded
as sacred by Aboriginal communities. On the southern rim of the Mount Warning
crater, rhyolite cliffs have been undercut forming rockshelters (DASET, 1992).|
|Condition and Integrity|
Bitou bush is a major threat at
Iluka Nature Reserve. Biological control agents for Bitou Bush have been
released in the vicinity of Iluka Nature Reserve.|
About 366,703ha, comprising eight blocks of protected areas
extending from the Queensland/New South Wales border in the north to the
Barrington Tops in the south. The eight blocks are as follows:|
Main Range Group
Located about 10km north-east of Killarney, Queensland, comprising the following:
Acacia Plateau Flora Reserve
Main Range National Park
Spicers Gap Conservation Park
Goomburra State Forest (part)
Spicers Gap State Forest (part)
Gilbert State Forest (part)
Emu Vale State Forest (part)
Gambubal State Forest (part)
Teviot State Forest (part)
Focal Peak Group
Located on the New South Wales/Queensland border, extending down the Richmond Range, between the Main Range Group and the Shield Volcano Group, comprising the following:
Captains Creek Flora Reserve (part)
Mallanganee National Park
Mount Clunie National Park (part)
Mount Nothofagus National Park (part)
Tooloom National Park (part)
Toonumber National Park (part)
Burnett Creek State Forest (part)
Shield Volcano Group
Located on the border between New South Wales and Queensland, along the McPherson and Tweed Ranges, and comprising the following:
Amaroo Flora Reserve
Border Ranges National Park (part)
Lamington National Park
Limpinwood Nature Reserve
Mebbin National Park (part)
Mount Chinghee National Park
Mount Warning National Park
Nightcap National Park (part)
Numinbah Nature Reserve
Springbrook National Park (part)
Reserve for prison purposes R932 (Res 12018)
Reserve for prison purposes R547 (Res 2678)
Rabbit Board Reserve R475 (Res 5740)
Rabbit Board Reserve R470 (Res 11.135)
Rabbit Board Reserve R603 (Res 3934)
Rabbit Board Reserve R464 (Res 11.108)
Rabbit Board Reserve R489 (Res 929)
Iluka Nature Reserve
About 136ha, at Iluka, NSW, comprising the whole of the Iluka Nature Reserve (1994 boundary).
Washpool and Gibraltar Range
Located 53km north-east of Glen Innes, NSW, comprising:
Gibraltar Range National Park (1963 boundary)
Washpool National Park (1983 boundary)
New England Group
Located near Dorrigo, NSW, comprising:
Mount Hyland Nature Reserve (part)
Dorrigo National Park (part)
New England National Park (part)
Cunnawarra National Park (part)
Located 16km south-east of Armidale, NSW, comprising:
Willi Willi National Park (part))
The Castles Flora Reserve
Mount Seaview Nature Reserve
Oxley Wild Rivers National Park (part)
Werrikimbe National Park (part)
Barrington Tops Area
Located 20km north of Dungog, NSW, comprising:
Barrington Tops National Park (part)
Mount Royal National Park (part)
Adam, P. (1987). New
South Wales Rainforests - the nomination for the World Heritage List. New South Wales Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurtsville.
Adam, P. (1994). Australian Rainforests. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
DASET (1992). Nomination of Central Eastern Rainforests of Australia for inclusion on the World Heritage List. Department of the Arts, Sport the Environment and Territories. 209 pp.
DASET (1993). Australia's World Heritage Properties 1991 - 1992 Monitoring Report. Department of the Arts, Sport the Environment and Territories.
Floyd, A.G. (1990). Australian Rainforests in New South Wales. Surrey Beatty & Sons.
Forestry Commission (1981). Proposed rain forest logging operation, Hastings catchment. Environment Impact Statement Report. Forestry Commission of New South Wales, Sydney.
Forestry Commission (1989). Forest Preservation in State Forests of New South Wales. Research Note 47. 2nd Edition.
Gaia Films (n.d.). Give Trees a Chance: the story of Terania Creek. VHS video col 30 mins, presenter Jack Thompson.
Groom, A. (1950). One Mountain After Another. Angus & Robertson, Sydney.
Harmon-Price, P. (1993). Shades of Green: exploring Queensland's rainforests. Qld Department of Environment and Heritage, Brisbane.
Hunter, J. (1991). Under the Canopy: a guide to the rainforests of NSW. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Sydney.
Hunter, J. (2003). World Heritage and Associative Natural Values of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves of Australia, NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
NPWS (1981). Proposed forest operations in the Hastings catchment. Submission on Environmental Impact Statement. National Parks and Wildlife Service of New South Wales, Sydney.
NPWS (1987). Border Ranges National Park, Nightcap National Park, Numinbah Nature Reserve, and Limpinwood Nature Reserve Draft Plan of Management. National Parks and Wildlife Service, New South Wales, Sydney 1987. 45pp.
NPWS (n.d.). Park leaflets produced for each park. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Sydney.
O'Reilly, B. (1940). Green Mountains. Smith & Patterson, Brisbane.
Poole, S. et al. (1996). Wild Places of Greater Brisbane. Queensland Museum, Brisbane.
Reis, T. (2005). A Bibliography for the World Heritage Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves of Australia. NSW Department of Environment and Conservation, Sydney.
Williams, G. (1993). Hidden Rainforests: Subtropical Rainforests and their Invertebrate Diversity. University of NSW Press, Kensington.
Williams, G. (2002). CERRA Invertebrates. Technical Reports of the Australian Museum, Number 16, Australian Museum, Sydney.
Guidebooks are available for Barrington Tops, Border Ranges, Mt Warning and Dorrigo National Parks.
Report Produced Thu Aug 28 22:18:47 2014