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Ingleburn Army Camp, Campbelltown Rd, Ingleburn Village, NSW, Australia

Photographs View Photo Database Record
List Commonwealth Heritage List
Class Historic
Legal Status Place removed from CHL
Place ID 105649
Place File No 1/15/010/0042
Summary Statement of Significance
The Ingleburn Army Camp, one of Australia's major army camps from 1939-1970s, is of considerable historic significance as the first purpose-built infantry training camp for World War II. It played a central role in the mobilisation of Australia's citizens and in their military training throughout the war and was the assembly point for the first miliary contingent assembled for overseas service in the war.

Ingleburn Army Camp is also significant for its role in the training of personnel for the Korean and Vietnam Wars. The Army Camp was a major centre in Australia for training under the National Service Scheme (1951-1972) and it is also associated with the anti-conscription movement. The Army Camp also played a major role in the training of Army Reserves from 1973 through to the 1990s. (Criterion A.4).

Ingleburn Army Camp is of social significance as a symbol of the service given by generations of soldiers who trained there and as a place where respect for and remembrance of that service has become a continuing and highly valued tradition. It has social value to those who lived, and worked at the army camp. Ingleburn Army Camp has a long association with a State-wide "Army community", and is a place where this sense of community is expressed, celebrated and passed on. It also serves to symbolise to the community the role of the Army within the area. (Criterion G.1).

The Sydney Williams Type Barracks (1939-1946) have a strong historic association with the war effort mounted by Australia for World War II. The huts are able to demonstrate aspects of military life at the camp. The placement of the huts in rows enhances the visual impact of the group. The barracks form a major part of the memories of the site for those who have been accommodated in them (Criteria A.4, B. 2 and G.1).

The Kitchen/Dining Hall Complex, c1955, is historically significant for its association with the expansion of the camp as a training school after the Korean War and following the introduction of National Service. It illustrates the scale of the former Training School operations and the dining needs of large numbers of troops at a permanent camp site. It represents the military practice of developing standardised building responses to needs associated with the support of a large number of army personnel. It is visually prominent due to its location, size and clerestory roof line. It contains moveable items such as crockery, furniture and kitchen appliances which illustrate its role (Criteria A.4, E.1).

The Lecture Hall Building (former Recreation Centre), 1953, is of historical significance for its role as a recreation centre erected specifically for National Service trainees of non-commissioned rank and as an education facility in its use as part of the Second Training Group Headquarters facility. Its provision reflects the self-containment characteristic of military organisations of the period. It is of social significance to National Servicemen as a former recreation facility and social centre and as a meeting place for army personnel. It is an example of architecture developed for military support structures after World War II. This building uses an unusual combination of arch-frame and standard hut construction techniques and is important for demonstrating efficient structural and acoustic design qualities for multi-purpose use (Criteria A.4, B.2, E.1 and G.1).

The Bardia Barracks entrance precinct, comprising entrance gates, Guard House and Cell Block, Chaplain's Office and Post Office, is significant as a landmark for the local community symbolising the important role played by the Army in this area. The area symbolises the entry to army life, an event which was formative in the lives of many thousands of people who served at Ingleburn. The entry gates are associated with the establishment of military barracks on the site from 1939 and with Bardia Barracks in particular. The brick sentry boxes are symbolic of the military prescence at the site (Criteria A.4 and G.1).

The Guard House and Cell Block are historically significant as part of Bardia Barracks, with the introduction of conscription and in particular, their use during the Vietnam War. It is a representative example of a guard house and cell block. The cells demonstrate aspects of defence force discipline (Criteria A.4 and D.2).

The Mont St Quentin Oval, entry gates and flagpole are of historical significance. The oval served as the original parade ground for WWII troops, and the location from which troops were formally farewelled and welcomed on return from service overseas (Criteria A.4 and G.1).

The Memorials located within the Ingleburn Military Heritage Precinct are historically significant, being associated with former military personnel and the regiments who have occupied the Army Camp. The memorials commissioned by particular regiments or organisations celebrate or commemorate the contribution made by a particular regiment or the military collectively to the war effort. The memorials have become the focus of commemoration and gatherings (Criterion G.1).

(Historic Themes: 7.7 Defending Australia, 9.7.3 Remembering the dead)

The vegetation communities present on the site are important remnants of the vegetation communities once widespread on the Cumberland Plain. This site contains a significant proportion of those communities still present in western Sydney.

The vegetation is comprised primarily of Cumberland Plain Woodlands, Sydney Coastal River-Flat Forest and a gradient between the two. Only 8% of the pre-1750 extent of Cumberland Plain Woodlands and 9% of the pre-1750 extent of Sydney Coastal River-Flat Forest remain. Despite the management history of the site, the vegetation remains as a good example of both communities. This large area of woodland habitat, particularly taken together with vegetation external to the site boundary, contributes significantly to the overall stock of Cumberland Plain Woodlands left to the west of Sydney and contributes to a local and regional bushland corridor with connections to other woodland areas to the north of the site.

Cumberland Plain Woodland is listed as an Endangered Ecological Community under both the Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 and the NSW Threatened Species Act 1995. Sydney Coastal River Flat Forest is listed as an Endangered Ecological Community under Schedule 1 Part 3 of the NSW legislation.

Some key diagnostic species for Cumberland Plain Woodlands identified on the site include forest red gum (EUCALYPTUS TERETICORNIS), grey box (E. MOLUCCANA), stringybark (E. EUGENIOIDES), native cherry (EXOCARPOS CUPRESSIFORMIS), and the wattles (ACACIA FALCATA, A. IMPLEXA and A. DECURRENS). Sydney Coastal River Flat Forest is represented by EUCALYPTUS TERETICORNIS and CASUARINA GLAUCA. Casuarina is typically associated with saline estuarine situations; its distribution on the Cumberland Plain is therefore unusual and probably related to the presence of saline groundwater.

Three species listed under the NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995, have been recorded within the place; eastern freetail-bat (MORMOPTERUS NORFOLKENSIS), greater broad-nosed bat (SCOTEANAX RUEPPELLI), and the large land snail (MERIDOLUM CORNEOVIRENS).
The regionally significant brown toadlet (PSEUDOPHRYNE BIBRONII), little eaglet (HIERAAETUS MORPHNOIDES), yellow-rumped thornbill (ACANTHIZA CHRYSORRHOA) and crested shrike-tit (FALCUNCULUS FRONTATUS) have been identified as using the vegetation communities.
Official Values
Criterion A Processes
The Ingleburn Army Camp, one of Australia's major army camps from 1939-1970s, is of considerable historic significance as the first purpose-built infantry training camp for World War II. It played a central role in the mobilisation of Australia's citizens and in their military training throughout the war and was the assembly point for the first military contingent assembled for overseas service in the war.

Ingleburn Army Camp is also significant for its role in the training of personnel for the Korean and Vietnam Wars. The Army Camp was a major centre in Australia for training under the National Service Scheme (1951-1972) and it is also associated with the anti-conscription movement. The Army Camp also played a major role in the training of Army Reserves from 1973 through to the 1990s.

The Sydney Williams Type Barracks (1939-1946) have a strong historic association with the war effort mounted by Australia for World War II.

The Kitchen/Dining Hall Complex, c1955, is historically significant for its association with the expansion of the camp as a training school after the Korean War and following the introduction of National Service.

The Lecture Hall Building (former Recreation Centre), 1953, is of historical significance for its role as a recreation centre erected specifically for National Service trainees of non-commissioned rank and as an education facility in its use as part of the Second Training Group Headquarters facility.

The Guard House and Cell Block are historically significant as part of Bardia Barracks, with the introduction of conscription and in particular, their use during the Vietnam War.

The Mont St Quentin Oval, entry gates and flagpole are of historical significance. The oval served as the original parade ground for WWII troops, and the location from which troops were formally farewelled and welcomed on return from service overseas.

The vegetation remaining on the site is one of the larger remnants of the vegetation communities that were formerly widespread on the Cumberland Plain (Benson 1992, AHC 1995). The vegetation communities present include Cumberland Plain Woodland and Sydney Coastal River Flat Forest (URS 2002). Only 6% of the pre-1750 extent of Cumberland Plain Woodland (Commonwealth Government Gazette 23 September 1998) and 9% of the pre-1750 extent Sydney Coastal River Flat Forest (NSW NPWS 1997) remains.

Attributes
The whole of the Army camp.
The bushland on the site contributes to a local and regional bushland corridor, which supports the continued viability of these communities in the Cumberland Plain. (URS 2002)
Criterion B Rarity
The vegetation remaining on the site contains viable remnants and regrowth of the Cumberland Plain Woodland and Castlereagh Woodland that were previously widespread on the Cumberland Plain. (GML, 2001). Cumberland Plain Woodlands are listed as an Endangered Ecological Community under the Environment Protection & Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Cth) and the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (NSW). 18 of the 68 plant species considered to be vulnerable on the Cumberland Plain are known to occur within the place.(URS 2002).

Attributes
Some key diagnostics species for Cumberland Plain Woodlands identified on the site include forest red gum (Eucalyptus tereticornis), grey box (E.moluccana), stringybark (E.eugenioides), native cherry (Exocarpus cupressiformis), and the wattles (Acacia falcate, A.implexa and A.decurrens). (URS 2002)
Sydney Coastal River Flat Forest is represented by E.tereticornis and Casuarina glauca. (URS 2002) (URS 2002)

Fauna species found in the area which are listed as vulnerable in Schedule 1 of the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 are the eastern freetail-bat (Mormopterus norfolkensis), greater broad-nosed bat Scoteanax rueppellii and the large land snail (Meridolum corneovirens). (URS 2002).

The brown toadlet (Pseudiphryne bibronii), little eaglet (Hieraaetus morphnoides), yellow-rumped thornbill (Acanthiza chrysorrhoa)and the crested shrike-tit (Falcunculus fronatus) are listed as regionally significant in western Sydney, having generally five or less recent records or with occurrences in fewer than 3 of the local government areas that make up western Sydney. (URS)
Criterion D Characteristic values
The Guard House and Cell Block representative examples of a guard house and cell block. The cells demonstrate aspects of defence force discipline.

The vegetation communities present on the site are important remnants of the vegetation communities once widespread on the Cumberland Plain. This site contains a significant proportion of those communities still present in western Sydney.

Attributes
The Guard House and Cell Block, and remnant vegetation.
Criterion E Aesthetic characteristics
The Kitchen/Dining Hall Complex, c1955 is visually prominent due to its location, size and clerestory roof line. The Lecture Hall Building (former Recreation Centre), 1953 uses an unusual combination of arch-frame and standard hut construction techniques and is important for demonstrating efficient structural and acoustic design qualities for multi-purpose use.

Attributes
The clerestory roofline of the Kitchen/Dining Hall Complex and the unusual combination of arch-frame and standard hut construction techniques Lecture Hall Building.
Criterion G Social value
Ingleburn Army Camp is of social significance as a symbol of the service given by generations of soldiers who trained there and as a place where respect for and remembrance of that service has become a continuing and highly valued tradition. It has social value to those who lived, and worked at the army camp. Ingleburn Army Camp has a long association with a State-wide "Army community", and is a place where this sense of community is expressed, celebrated and passed on. It also serves to symbolise to the community the role of the Army within the area.

The barracks form a major part of the memories of the site for those who have been accommodated in them

The Lecture Hall Building (former Recreation Centre), 1953, is of social significance to National Servicemen as a former recreation facility and social centre and as a meeting place for army personnel. The Bardia Barracks entrance precinct, symbolises the entry to army life, an event which was formative in the lives of many thousands of people who served at Ingleburn. The entry gates are associated with the establishment of military barracks on the site from 1939 and with Bardia Barracks in particular. The brick sentry boxes are symbolic of the military prescence at the site.

The Memorials located within the Ingleburn Military Heritage Precinct are historically significant, being associated with former military personnel and the regiments who have occupied the Army Camp. The memorials commissioned by particular regiments or organisations celebrate or commemorate the contribution made by a particular regiment or the military collectively to the war effort. The memorials have become the focus of commemoration and gatherings.

Attributes
The features noted above.
Description
HISTORY

Prior to 1939, the site was principally used for the grazing of livestock.

With the entry of Australia into WWII on 3 September 1939 there was a need for a principal site in New South Wale to train infantry for the Second Military District (NSW). Plans were drawn up for what was called the Ingleburn Military Camp in 1939 and the army acquired the 684 acres in 1940 although they were already in occupation in tents. Accommodation was initially constructed to provide for the 2nd Australian Imperial Forces (AIF). Two hundred and fifty three buildings were originally constructed with a further eighty constructed soon after. These included Artillery Units (62 buildings); Brigade Headquarters (22 buildings); Signallers Unit (44 buildings); Engineers Unit (31 buildings); Works and Ordinance Unit (6 buildings); Army Services Corps Depot (7 buildings); Army Medical Corps Depot (7 buildings); Army Medical Corps (27 buildings); Army Services Corps Camp (80 buildings); Reconnaissance Section (41 buildings) and Miscellaneous buildings (13 buildings).

Ingleburn was the first purpose-built army camp for the training of Australian infantry to fight in WWII and became the major training facility in New South Wales. It was a unified infantry camp but all corps were represented there including engineers, transport, signals and anti-aircraft units. The camp was an assembly point for Army brigades most notably, the 16th Battalion of the 6th Division, the first Australian overseas contingent. Other brigades included units from the 7th and 9th Division.

During the years between WWII and Australia's involvement in the Korean War (1951) the Army leased sections of the site to farmers for grazing purposes. The Korean War saw changes to the size and use of the site. During the 1950s, Battalions destined for Korea were stationed at Ingleburn. National Service recommenced following the outbreak of the Korean War and by 1954 Ingleburn was a major centre for the National Service Program. From 1951 onwards, many Australians experienced military training at Ingleburn prior to going into a Reserve Unit.

By 1959, a number of sporting fields, vehicle parks, larger buildings and a large area of the Married Quarters (Ingleburn Village) had been constructed. Buildings erected in the western half of the Village included some 35 Riley-Newsum houses Type CA4, produced by H Newsum Sons & Company Ltd in LIncoln, England. Between 1951-54 an order of 600 was shipped to Australia. Prefabricated Amals Sagverk Aktibolag cottages were also erected in the village area.

After 1964 the National Service Program played an even greater role in Ingleburn's history, when the Commonwealth Government extended compulsory military training and conscripts were sent on military operations outside Australia. In the 1960s, Ingleburn was a focus for public concern over the issue of conscription, as several "conscientious objectors" were interred in Ingleburn's Guard House and Cell Blocks, usually while awaiting transport to the Military Prison at Holsworthy.

The training of National Service recruits was the main function of Ingleburn from 1951 until 1972, when the Commonwealth Government abolished National Service. Since the end of WWII the Camp's main functions was training camp for the National Service Scheme (1951-1972) and as the Headquarters of Second Training Group of the Army Reserves (post 1973).

From the mid-1990s, activity at the Camp began to wind down with the units gradually being transferred to other areas. The site has most recently been used by the Australian Army for housing a combination of army units, as well as being a training facility for the Army Reserve. Many buildings were demolished or destroyed by fire in the late 1990s. There were formerly around one hundred and ten buildings of the P-1 type huts located in the Bardia Barracks Precinct containing residential, storage or administrative functions. Less than twenty remain (2002). The site has been vacant since late 2000.

DESCRIPTION

The Ingleburn Army Camp in 2001 covered 311 hectares. It is located forty kilometres south-west of Sydney. The land is elevated, generally flat or gently rolling, grassland and bushland. Ingleburn was an open army base, generally accessible to the public. Built complexes remaining on the site include groups of timber framed, barracks-style buildings in a standard military layout, with each group originally served by a standard pattern mess, ablutions buildings, recreation facilities, a few isolated, general use structures, such as the former Lecture Hall Complex; and two discrete areas of detached housing used as married quarters. Outdoor facilities include parade ground, sporting grounds, tennis courts and firing ranges.

During military occupation of the site, a grid and block road pattern containing rows of ordered and uniform buildings, separated by areas of undeveloped land evolved. The planning was characteristic of such Defence sites and the prevailing philosophies regarding the social heirarchy of the Army and the separation of functions. The separation of functions was increased by the undulating nature of the land, with development taking place on areas of higher ground.
A group of prefabricated cottages in the Ingleburn Village area is separately listed in the Register at Reg No. 103576.
The areas and buildings of heritage significance included in this listing are:

1. The Ingleburn Military Heritage Precinct, formed in the late 1990s, and housing the former Bardia Barracks entrance gates and sentry boxes, Guard House and Cell Block, former Post Office and Chaplain's Office (Sydney Williams New Type huts), three P-1 type huts formerly used for administration and dormitory purposes), and a number of memorials. These are described as follows.

- The Guard House and Cell Block located immediately to the west of the Bardia Barracks entrance gates. The Guard House was constructed by 1942, the Cell Block appears to be a later addition constructed by 1949. The Guard House is a timber framed, weatherboard clad building with a corrugated iron hipped roof. The front elevation has a verandah with timber posts. The Cell Block is located directly behind the Guard House, to the west, and consists of an L-shaped wing containing five cells in each length. It is timber framed with a corrugated iron clad hipped roof and features heavy timber doors to each cell. A corrugated iron flat-roofed weatherboard clad amenities block is located to the north side of the Guard House and Cell Block. The area enclosed by the three buildings forms a small exercise yard surrounded by ten cells, amenities and the guard's quarters.

- The former Post Office and Chaplains Office are P-1 type huts erected 1950-1959. They are longer and wider than the original P-1 hut type and have a two-paned hopper or double-hung sash window and are clad in profiled weatherboard with corrugated iron roof. They are associated with the Australian involvement in the Korean War and with subsequent army defence training needs.

- The three P-1 type huts (1939-1946) were formerly used for administration and dormitory purposes. The P-1 type hut was a standard Army barracks building. They are simple rectangular, gable roofed, weatherboard clad, structures raised on brick piers with corrugated-iron roof cladding. Six pairs of three-paned casement windows are located on the long sides of each building. Doors are located in the end walls with air vents located above in the apex of the gable.

- The memorials include the 16th Australian Infantry Brigade Memorial (relocated); memorial to National Servicemen erected in 1997 (relocated), a new Memorial Wall dedicated on 5 August 2001 by Mrs Danna Vale, Member for Hughes, which lists the names of all units which have served at Ingleburn; and a memorial grove of cypress surrounding a sandstone column monument, dedicated in 1987.

- The Lecture Hall building, 1953, was constructed as the Recreation Centre. It is U-shaped, constructed from four semi-circular arched corrugated iron building units that form three sides of a north-facing enclosure. The central section of the U consists of two arched building units, separated by a two storey, rectangular, skillion-roofed, weatherboard-clad building unit that forms a main entrance lobby and stairwell for the complex. A verandah runs around the enclosure side of the building. The east and west wings each contain two large rooms, three of which are fitted out as lecture rooms. The other large room contains a theatrette with tiered bench seating and a small stage recess. One of the lecture rooms has primitive but effective acoustic wall and ceiling panelling.

2. Mont St Quentin Oval, entry gates and flagpole are located to the south of Campbelltown Road. There is a set of gates, steps and flagpole mounting, creating a formal entrance to the oval. The gates are flanked by 800mm high walls of random coursed horizontal sandstone slabs with a concrete coping constructed by a local stonemason. The Mont St Quentin Oval was the original parade ground used during WWII training.

3. Kitchen/Dining Hall Complex, c1955, formerly part of the Mont St Quentin Barracks is the only one remaining of two such complexes. It consists of four P-1 hut type standard building units located in pairs on either side of a central gable-roofed service wing and kitchen, the latter distinguished by a central clerestory section in its roof. The service wing contains a delivery area along one side and a series of refrigeration and storage rooms along the other side. The four wings are fitted out as open dining rooms and all are directly connected to the central kitchen through their end wall. Wall cladding is weatherboard or profiled weatherboard. The interiors are lined with battened painted hardboard sheeting and the ceilings are asbestos cement sheeting. It contains moveable heritage items including embossed Army crockery, furniture and kitchen appliances and fittings.

The distribution of vegetation communities within western Sydney is determined primarily by geology and associated soils and drainage, rainfall and topography. These communities also tend to be predominantly eucalypt-dominated. The Cumberland Plain Woodlands are widely distributed on the gently undulating Cumberland Plain west of Parramatta. This geographic range is reflected in a high turnover of species within the community types. Despite this, the Cumberland Plain Woodlands community is considered to be floristically distinct from woodland or forest types with similar structure elsewhere in the NSW and nationally. On the Cumberland Plain there has been extensive clearing right up to creek lines for agricultural land uses and flood mitigation. The rich alluvial soils of the creek and river systems were extensively cleared by early settlers and as early as the 1820s the greater part of these alluvial lands along the Hawkesbury and Nepean Rivers had been cleared and cultivated. An estimated 93% of the original area covered by Cumberland Plain Woodland in western Sydney has been cleared. Present remnants comprise less than 10% of its former area and 90% of these remnants are in small patches which are subject to ongoing threatening processes.

Nine individual plant species which have been identified as vulnerable on the Cumberland Plain have been identified on the site. EUCALYPTUS AMPLIFOLIA, DAVIESIA GENISTIFOLIA, PHYLLANTHUS VIRGATUS, CHLORIS VENTRICOSA, PLANTAGO GAUDICHAUDI, AMYEMA GAUDICHAUDI, EREMOPHILA DEBILIS, GLYCINE MICROPHYLLA and CYPERUS TRINERVIS

The Ingleburn Defence Area has been subject to a range of impacts since the first land grants was made in 1816. While the area appears not to have been subject to intensive farming it has been subject to clearing and grazing from that time. The remnant natural vegetation within the Ingleburn Defence Site was identified in 1992 by Doug Benson as Grey Box Woodland. The Woodland, also known as Cumberland Plain Woodlands, occurs in a number of discrete areas on the site; a major area extending generally north-east of the property, an area to the north of the Bardia Barracks, a smaller area south of Campbelltown Road and a large block west of Zouch Road.
History Not Available
Condition and Integrity
Condition:
All buildings and structures in the Ingleburn Military Heritage Precinct are in good condition. The former lecture hall complex is in poor condition due to vandalism and lack of maintenance and protection. The kitchen/dining hall complex is in fair condition, it has suffered from vandalism.
The Riley-Newsum cottages are in relatively good condition. (2002)
Integrity:
The Riley-Newsum cottages are relatively intact with few changes to the setting. Other structures in the Military Heritage Precinct are of relatively high integrity although some have been relocated (refer to Description).

The site shows a history of clearing and grazing but retains sufficient mature canopy and substrate species to ensure natural regeneration. The absence of fire over a long period has contributed to the spreads of weeds, particularly African Olive. There are also infestations of Tiger Pear and Prickly Pear. The area to the north -east of the site contains cleared areas associated with a sewargae treatment plant established during the 1940s. The land to the west of Zouch Road is bisected by firetrails and other minor tracks most of which have not been used for some time. Regeneration of the least disturbed areas has occurred over the years since they were first identified by Benson.
Location
About 120ha, at Ingleburn Village, comprising the following areas:
1. Lot A DP188121.
2. Lot 3 DP831152.
3. Lot 1 DP801456.
4. An area bounded by a line commencing at the intersection of MGA easting 302000mE with an unnamed track (approximate MGA point 02003910), then westerly via the track to its intersection with MGA easting 301450mE (approximate MGA point 01453895), then via the following MGA points consecutively: 01453883, 01553877, 01653878, 01803868, 01903869, 01853875, 01773880, 01803888, 02003885, 02033886, 01983901, then directly to the point of commencement.
5. An area bounded by a line commencing at the north east corner of the Lecture Hall building (approximate MGA point 01643870), then westerly via the Lecture Hall wall and its alignment to its north west corner, then southerly to its south west corner, then directly to the intersection of MGA easting 301640mE with Campbelltown Road, then directly to the intersection of MGA northing 6238200mN with Wooten Road, then southerly via Wooten Road to its intersection with MGA northing 6238050, then directly to approximate MGA point 01603807, then northerly to the intersection of Eather Road with MGA easting 301550mE, then easterly via Eather Road to its intersection with MGA easting 301700mE, then directly to MGA point 01803830, then northerly directly to the point of commencement.
Bibliography
Godden Mackay Logan, "Ingleburn Defence Site: Heritage Analysis" .prepared for Department of Defence, Major Property Disposal Unit, June 2001.

Hobbs, R. "Deakin ACT: A Heritage Profile, Housing 1950-70" June 1991.

Schwager Brooks and Partners Pty Ltd & Thorp W. "Review of the Status and Value of Army's Historic Buildings", September 1995.

URS environmental & engineering professional services, "Flora and Fauna Opportunities and Constraints Study, Ingleburn Defence Site, Ingleburn, NSW - Final Report" August 2002

NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service," Native Flora of Western Sydney Urban Bushland Biodiversity Survey" July 1997

Benson, D. H. "Natural Vegetation of the Penrith area", Cunninghamia, Vol2(4) 1992

Report Produced  Thu Aug 21 08:44:16 2014