|List||National Heritage List|
|Legal Status||Listed place (03/07/2007)|
|Place File No||5/08/203/0056|
|Summary Statement of Significance|
Dampier Archipelago (including the Burrup
Peninsula) contains one of the densest
concentrations of rock engravings in Australia with some sites
containing thousands or tens of thousands of images. The rock engravings
comprise images of avian, marine and terrestrial fauna, schematised human
figures, figures with mixed human and animal characteristics and geometric
designs. At a national level it has an exceptionally diverse and dynamic range
of schematised human figures some of which are arranged in complex scenes. The
fine execution and dynamic nature of the engravings, particularly some of the
composite panels, exhibit a degree of creativity that is unusual in Australian
The range of human images found in the Dampier Archipelago include forms characteristic of all the major style provinces in the Pilbara, an area that has been described as the richest and most exciting region of rock engravings in Australia. The different degrees of weathering and the large number of super-positioned engravings provide an outstanding opportunity to establish a relative chronology for motifs characteristic of the major style provinces in the Pilbara. The combination of archaeological sites and high densities of engraved images provides an outstanding opportunity to develop a scientific understanding of the social functions of motifs.
The different degrees of weathering of particular types of faunal engravings on the Dampier Archipelago provide, in the national context, an unusual and outstanding visual record of the Aboriginal responses to the rise of sea levels at the end of the last Ice Age. The different degrees of weathering of some complex scenes provide exceptional visual evidence for the antiquity of depictions of complex scenes of human activity. The deeply weathered ‘archaic faces’ are an exceptional demonstration of the long history of contact and shared visual narratives between Aboriginal societies in the nominated place and inland arid Australia.
There is a high density of stone arrangements within part of the nominated area, the Burrup Peninsula. They include standing stones, stone pits and more complex circular stone arrangements. Standing stones in the Dampier Archipelago range from single monoliths through to extensive alignments comprising at least three or four hundred standing stones. Some of these standing stones are associated with increase ceremonies, thalu, others were used to mark particular places with scarce resources, such as seasonal rock pools, and were also used to mark sites of traditional significance. The overall density of stone arrangements on the Burrup Peninsula, and the wide range of types of stone features found in the Dampier Archipelago, are exceptional by Australian standards.
The Dampier Archipelago (including the Burrup Peninsula) is on the Indian Ocean coast of the west Pilbara region in north Western Australia, approximately 1,550km north of Perth. The Archipelago comprises 42 islands, islets and rocks that range from less than 2ha to 3,290ha in size and covers an area of approximately 400 km2. The Burrup Peninsula (which measures 27km long by 5km wide) was formerly Dampier Island - the largest in this island chain. Prior to industrial development and the building of road and rail infrastructure between Karratha and Dampier, it was separated from the mainland by tidal mudflats.
The Dampier Archipelago is located north of the Tropic of Capricorn and is one of the major features of the Pilbara Onshore marine bioregion. The place is part of an inshore zone of a relatively expansive shelf region that includes the nearby Barrow Island/Montebello Island Group that are part of the neighbouring Pilbara Offshore bioregion. The north-western Australian shelf is of significant biological interest for its suspected high diversity and the relatively high numbers of endemic taxa.
The Dampier Archipelago is a system of islands, rocky reefs, coral reefs, shoals, channels and straits. The area rises above a submarine plain and the seafloor has extensive limestone pavements and large sheets of shell gravel, sand and other sediments. The marine environment of the place is characterised by intertidal mud and sand flats associated with fringing mangals in bays and lagoons, a large tidal range, highly turbid water and the occurrence of fringing coral reefs around some of the islands.
The Dampier Archipelago contains a diverse array of Aboriginal heritage including dreaming sites, ceremonial sites, rock engravings and archaeological sites. It is of exceptional heritage interest for its diverse array of rock engravings and stone arrangements and the importance of these within the Aboriginal traditions of Ngarda-Ngarli peoples.
Formation of the Dampier Archipelago
The Ngarda-Ngarli people of this region have traditional accounts of the formation of the Dampier Archipelago. For them, ancestral beings formed the landscape of the Dampier Archipelago in the Dreamtime and the spirits of these beings and other spirits such as Ngkurr, Bardi, and Gardi continue to live in the area (Mardudhunera Yaburara et al 2004). The ancestral beings left their mark on the landscape as natural features such as the Marntawarrura ("black hills") that are said to be stained from the blood of the creative beings, and in the form of some engraved images (Robinson in McDonald and Veth 2005: 73). Ngarda-Ngarli people say they have lived in this area since time immemorial (Mardudhunera Yaburara et al 2004).
The islands of the Dampier Archipelago are an inundated coastal landmass that is essentially representative of the adjacent mainland. The archipelago was formed approximately 6,000 to 8,000 years ago when rising sea levels flooded what were once coastal plains. Prior to inundation the coastline ran the periphery of the area that is now the archipelago. A steep slope to the 30m contour that slopes away from the outer islands now represents the position of the palaeo-shoreline.
Although the formation of the Dampier Archipelago is a relatively recent event, the underlying rocks are amongst the oldest on earth, formed in the Archaean more than 2,400 million years ago. The majority of the larger islands in the Dampier Archipelago are different geologically from other Pilbara offshore islands as they are made up of these Archaean volcanic rocks rather than Quarternary and Tertiary limestones. The underlying geology of the area was strongly influenced by volcanic events between 3,300 and 2,400 million years ago, with the rocks that now make up the Burrup Peninsula formed at the end of this period. The landscape within these areas is characterised by steep slopes and ridges with masses of apparently haphazardly distributed boulders, which are the result of ancient in situ weathering. Boulders vary markedly in size, from small to extremely large, and can be either rounded or angular. This variety in morphology is explained by differential jointing within the parent rock and variations in the amount of time that particular intrusions have been exposed to weather.
There are two distinct geomorphologies represented on the islands. The first is Archaean rocks which outcrop on Dolphin, Tozer and Enderby Islands. It is these Precambrian granites that form the backbone of the Dampier Archipelago. Topographically, they resemble the adjacent mainland and the Burrup Peninsula. The second geomorphology is found on Legendre Island and other flatter islands and islets in the north of the archipelago. The outer islands consist primarily of younger Pleistocene or Holocene limestone and have fringing intertidal platforms and coral reefs, low elevations, lack the rock piles characteristic of the other islands and feature superficial sand dunes and beaches. These islands are the remnants of consolidated limestone ridges formed along the previous coastline.
The terrestrial environment
The terrestrial areas of the Dampier Archipelago support a diversity of flora from the Pilbara region. Approximately 32% of the flowering plant species known from the Pilbara region occurs on the islands. More than 288 plant species from 60 families have been recorded from the islands of the Dampier Archipelago. The Poaceae and Papilionaceae are particularly well represented. A total of 393 species of vascular plants have been recorded on the Burrup Peninsula representing 67 families and 184 genera.
Over one hundred species of birds have been recorded in the Dampier Archipelago region, including both terrestrial species and sea and shore birds, some of which are migratory. At least ten terrestrial species, and fifteen sea and shore bird species, are known to breed on the islands and many more use the extensive mudflats, intertidal reefs and salt-marshes during their annual migration between Australia and south-east Asia. Many reptiles occur in the place with thirty-two species known from the Burrup Peninsula and forty-one species known from the islands of the Dampier Archipelago.
The marine environment
The diversity of marine fauna on the northern coastline of Western Australia is high and the northwest shelf marine region contains significant conservation value. The environmental values characteristic of the Dampier Archipelago reflect both the clear water communities of the Ningaloo Marine Park to the southwest and the more turbid waters of the Kimberley coast to the northeast. The Dampier Archipelago contains a wide variety of marine habitats, varying from exposed areas subject to high wave energies, clear water and low sedimentation rates in the seaward areas (such as the seaward reefs of Delambre, Legendre, Rosemary and Kendrew Islands), to sheltered habitats with turbid water in the coastal bays. The presence of islands and reefs reduces the ability of the Leeuwin Current and other broad scale regional currents to make any significant sustained incursions into the near shore zone. The marine plants and animals of the area are highly diverse and abundant as the warm tropical waters of the Dampier Archipelago provide an ideal habitat for marine life.
The archipelago is rich in coral species, as a result of the wide variety of habitats found at the place. Coral growth in the inshore waters of the Dampier Archipelago is prolific, particularly on sublittoral rock slopes where species diversity is high, although there is no reef formation in these areas. The best reef development occurs on the seaward slopes of the outer archipelago where the fringing reefs form a deeply dissected reef front sloping to a reef edge zone, with a reef flat behind, shallow back reefs and an occasional lagoon.
Surveys of the Dampier Archipelago between 1998 and 2002 indicated that the place is very rich in marine invertebrates, particularly echinoderms (286 species), molluscs (695 species) and sponges (275 species). The richest groups were the brittle-stars (Ophiuroidea) with 89 species, the sea-cucumbers (Holothruoidea) with 68 species, the starfish (Asteroidea) with 54 species, the sea-urchins (Echinoidea) with 39 species and the sea-lilies (Crinoidea) with 36 species.
The extensive sand and mud flats support a rich invertebrate fauna, including bivalves, gastropods, crustaceans, worms, brachiopods, burrowing anemones, echinoderms. Crustaceans (particularly crabs) and bivalves (mainly Donax) and surface gastropods are typical of exposed beach situations. The low tidal limestone pavements include several xanthids, encrusting and erect sponges, polychaete worms, amphipods, fish, scattered corals, algae and a wide range of molluscs including bivalves, gastropods and chitons. Fauna typical of the extensive subtidal plains include a wide range of fish, particularly flatheads, flounders, catfish, eels and rays, echinoderms, polychaetes crustaceans, gastropods and bivalves.
The marine flora includes both vascular plants and macroscopic algae and is as yet poorly known. Marine seagrasses recorded for the place include: Halophila ovalis, H. decipiens, H. spinulosa, H. ovata, Cymodocea angustata and Halodule uninervis. Seagrass beds, although not as well developed as in some other areas, provide important habitat for fauna particularly for dugongs. Macroscopic algae form a dominant component of the marine flora. The most common forms of algae include phaeophyceae such as Dictyopteris sps. Shoals of the outer archipelago contain the greatest diversity of species of algae.
A total of 650 species of shallow water marine fish have been recorded within the Dampier Archipelago that includes a rich reef assemblage. Areas with the greatest topographic complexity have the most diverse and rich fish faunas. These areas are mostly those furthest away from the mainland such as the northern edge of Legendre Island where water turbidity is low and fish that favour off-shore conditions can also be found.
Marine vertebrate fauna recorded for the place include at least seven species of mammals; the humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae, the false killer whale Pseudorca crassidens, the southern bottle nosed whale Hyperoodon planifrons, Risso's dolphin Grampus griseus, bottle nose dolphin Tursiops truncatus, Indo-Pacific hump backed dolphin Sousa chinensis, dugong Dugong dugong; six species of sea snakes: Aipysurus laevis, Astrotia stokesii, Ephalophis greyi, Hydrelaps darwiniensis, Hydrophis species and white bellied mangrove snake Fordonia leucobalia. The Dampier Archipelago is recognised as providing important habitat for marine turtles and four of the five species found in the area nest there. Large numbers of green turtles nest in the area, especially on the north-eastern shore of Legendre Island and the north-western beaches of Rosemary Island. Loggerheads also nest in the area although in lower numbers than the green turtles. The hawksbill nesting sites on beaches on Rosemary Island are of significance as the Western Australian population is the only large population remaining in the Indian Ocean. Flatback turtles only breed along the Australian coastline. Within the Dampier Archipelago, there are significant flatback turtle nesting sites on Rosemary, Delambre and Malus Islands.
Mangals line over 50% of the mainland shoreline with the biggest blocks found at the mouths of the larger creeks and rivers and in sheltered bays. These mangals contribute significantly to the nutrient resources of the Pilbara coastal waters and are usually narrow bands of vegetation in sheltered locations where the substrate is muddy. A total of six species of mangroves have been recorded within the place. The white mangrove Avicennia marina and the red mangrove Rhizophora stylosa are the two most prominent species.
The Ngarda-Ngarli people exploited the resources of both the terrestrial and marine environment of the Dampier Archipelago. The Dampier Archipelago contains very high densities of Aboriginal archaeological sites (McDonald and Veth 2005: 158; Vinnicombe 2002; Bednarik 2006). These include the remains of camp sites under small rock overhangs and in the open, shell middens, quarries, standing stones, stone arrangements, rock engravings and burials. It has been suggested that the density and diversity of sites is a result of large groups of Aboriginal people coming into the area at periods of high resource availability to exploit the area’s rich marine and terrestrial environments (McDonald and Veth 2006).
The geology of the Dampier Archipelago does not provide large rock shelters and there are no deeply stratified sites with occupation extending back tens of thousands of years. Radiocarbon dates from excavations in the small rock overhangs and in middens provide clear evidence that Aboriginal people have lived in the area for at least 8,000 years (Bradshaw 1995). There is an earlier date of about 18,000 years ago from a piece of shell wedged between rocks in the southern part of the Burrup Peninsula (Lorblanchet 1992) but this is not a firm date for Aboriginal occupation because it is not directly associated with buried Aboriginal material.
There is archaeological evidence of the pattern of human occupation on the Dampier Archipelago. The occurrence in the Dampier Archipelago of many grinding patches, often stained with silica glass, provides evidence for the grinding and consumption of grass seeds. Excavations in middens show that from the onset of maritime conditions between 8,000 and 6,000 years ago Aboriginal people had a marine focus that included use of the shellfish in the area (Bradshaw 1995; Lorblanchet 1992: 44; McDonald and Veth 2005: section 3.4.4). The archaeological evidence indicates that as mangrove forests developed with the rising sea levels, Aboriginal people relied on Terebralia palustris, a mangrove mollusc. With the development of extensive mudflats by about 4,000 years ago Aboriginal people switched to eating the bivalve Anadara granosa and other rocky shore species. The midden material also shows that Aboriginal people ate a wide range of terrestrial and marine animals such as kangaroo, euro, rock wallaby, flying fox, northern quoll, lizard, turtle, dugong, mangrove crab as well as fish and birds (McDonald and Veth 2005: 31) but there is no clear evidence for changes over time in preferences for these species. The range of species in the Aboriginal diet is partly reflected in the engravings of animals found on the Dampier Archipelago which include depictions of the euro, kangaroo, echidna, marine and terrestrial birds, turtles, fish (some of which can be identified to their genus or species level) and crustaceans.
Aboriginal sites and engravings provide evidence for changing Aboriginal technologies during the last 8,000 years of Aboriginal occupation of the Dampier Archipelago. Prior to 3,500 years ago the stone tools found in campsites include scrapers, horsehoof (single platform) cores and retouched flakes (Lorblanchet 1978). Over the next 3,500 years microliths, tula adzes and slugs were added to the Aboriginal tool kit. The smaller tools would have been hafted rather than being held in the hand. The material for making many of the common tools was obtained from stone quarries in the Dampier Archipelago. Most of these are located in areas of fine-grained volcanic rock although coarser material was sometimes used opportunistically (McDonald and Veth 2005: 58). The smaller tools are made of exotic material imported into the Archipelago (McDonald and Veth 2005: 56). Although there are very few engraved images of Aboriginal material culture on the Dampier Archipelago, they show that spears were used (McDonald and Veth 2005: 119). The boomerang is the most commonly depicted item of material culture. These are very stereotyped and appear to illustrate their use as clap sticks (McDonald and Veth 2005: 119; Vinnicombe 2002: 19). There are also engravings of people using nets (McDonald and Veth 2005: 34).
The Aboriginal occupants built a number of structures to help them catch fish and other prey including fish traps and hunting hides. Standing stones also occur, some of which are thought have been erected as markers for important resources such as water holes, soaks and camping areas.
Other standing stones in the Dampier Archipelago are thalu, which are traditional sites where ceremonies were conducted to increase the natural species or phenomenon (e.g. rain) associated with the place. These sites normally comprise a standing stone with one or more smaller stones that are used as part of the ceremony (Vinnicombe 2002: 15, 33; Bednarik 2006). Engraved images of the species may also be part of these ceremonial sites.
The most common Aboriginal sites in the Dampier Archipelago are the engravings. Ngarda-Ngarli people say that the rock engravings on the Dampier Archipelago images serve a variety of purposes. Some are interpreted as ancestral beings, others are interpreted as spirit figures or in relation to sacred ceremonies and rites of passage. Places with depictions of sacred ceremonies and rites of passage may be specifically for men or women, while others are open to all (Mardudhunera Yaburara et al 2004). Images are sometimes an element of increase sites for particular species. Ngarda-Ngarli relate some images to traditional songs and invocations learned during initiation or for use in hunting. As Palmer (1975a: 158) points out, there are spiritual songs for many animals in traditional law, which are sung in association with the engravings since the songs belong to the Dreamtime. Although many of the engravings have spiritual significance, others are interpreted as representations of everyday life or events (Mardudhunera Yaburara et al 2004).
There are a wide variety of engraved motifs on the Dampier Archipelago. These include geometric designs, naturalistic depictions of animals, depictions of people, images of some items of material culture as well as depictions of human and animal tracks. Circles, concentric circles, lines and dots are common geometric motifs. Some of these are deeply weathered and probably belong to the earliest phases of rock engraving in the area (Lorblanchet 1992).
Many of the species depicted in the engravings are found in the area today but there are some images of species that no longer occur in the area, such as emu tracks, or are extinct, such as the thylacine (McDonald and Veth 2005; Vinnicombe 2002).
The diversity of engraved human figures on the Dampier Archipelago is outstanding (McDonald and Veth 2005: section 4.5; 2006; Vinnicombe 2002). These include stick figures, solid figures, a variety of profile figures and figures with decorated bodies, marked sexual characteristics, complex headdresses and other items of material culture. There are groups of figures shown copulating, climbing men, dancing men, and larger humans shown with very small figures positioned either side of their bodies. Figures with mixed human and animal characteristics (therianthrops) also occur.
The engravings of the human form in the Dampier Archipelago are often dynamic rather than being static and crudely naturalistic, a characteristic that they share with other engravings styles in the Pilbara region. However, the Dampier Archipelago represents a unique style province within this region. McDonald and Veth (2005: 148-149) have identified the following anthropomorph designs as central to the Dampier Archipelago style:
McDonald and Veth’s analysis (2005) also demonstrates that these motifs are not evenly distributed across the Dampier Archipelago. Art complexes across the Dampier Archipelago demonstrate internal cohesion and patterning as well as links to the rest of the Archipelago and to the broader western Pilbara region.
Aboriginal people from this region identify themselves as Ngarda-Ngarli and say they have lived in this area since
time immemorial, with the last tribe known as Yaburara
(Mardudhunera Yaburara et
al 2004). Archaeological studies demonstrate occupation in the Dampier
Archipelago, which includes the Burrup Peninsula,
for at least 8,000 years. During this time the Ngarda-Ngarli
people have adapted to significant changes including changes to the environment,
sea levels and climate (Department of Environment and Conservation 2006:13).
The Ngarda-Ngarli people also actively managed the
land (Mardudhunera Yaburara
et al 2004). This is shown by features in the landscape, including thalu or increase
sites, which are used to manage a range of natural resources. |
Sir William Dampier was the first European to visit the archipelago that is now named after him. He landed on Rosemary Island but didn’t encounter any Aboriginal people. In 1818, the British Admiralty sent Captain Phillip Parker King to search for rivers and fresh water on the West Coast of Australia. He landed in the Dampier Archipelago and had a number of meetings with Aboriginal people. He recorded information on their use of logs as canoes and their humpies. While most of his encounters were friendly, he did not attempt to land on a second island because the occupants gestured for him not to (King 1826: 33-36).
In 1861 Francis T Gregory undertook the first European exploration of the Pilbara region. He landed on the coast and followed the Fortescue River before turning to the south-west and following the Harding River. He returned to the coast and then undertook another journey to the east and north of the previous track. Gregory returned with his party on 17 October 1861 having discovered some excellent country. A return was made by sea to Perth which was reached on 9 November 1861. Gregory estimated that there were two or three million acres of land in the area suitable for grazing, and he drew attention to the possibilities of a pearling industry.
As a result of Gregory’s reports Walter Padbury landed at the mouth of the Harding River in 1863 (Australian Heritage Commission 2001). He brought with him a party of settlers and some stock. A port was established at the Mouth of the Harding River. It was originally named Tien Tsin after the barque which carried Padbury and his party. The town was also later referred to as Port Walcott, North District and Landing. In December 1871, after a visit by Western Australian Governor Weld on the HMS Cossack, the town was renamed Cossack. As the first port in the North West, Cossack provided a vital point of access for the settlement and development of the Pilbara region.
Pearling and shore-based whaling industries were established in the area in the 1860s and 1870s (Australian Heritage Commission 1978a, 1978b). These industries attracted a diverse work force including Aboriginals, Chinese, Malays, Filipinos and Japanese. While Cossack was the main port for the pearling industry, the fleet also established a small station at Blackhawk Bay on Gidley Island (Australian Heritage Commission 1978 b). Shore-based whaling, which lasted for almost a decade, was established on Malus Island in 1870 (Gibbs 1994; Australian Heritage Commission 1978b). Gold was discovered in the Pilbara in the 1870s.
Aboriginal people of the area played a significant role in both the pearling and pastoral industries. However, the development of these industries, and the shore-based whaling industry, began the process of Aboriginal dispossession in the area. In 1868, Constable Griffis arrested an Aboriginal man, Coolyerberri, for stealing flour although there are also suggestions that Griffis had earlier abducted Coolyeberri’s wife. Griffis and two companions were killed when Coolyerberri was rescued by a group of Aboriginals. The Government Resident responded by swearing in nineteen special constables who, over several days, attacked the Aboriginal camps on the Burrup Peninsula and islands to the north of the peninsula (Gara 1993, Bednarik 2006). Records vary, but indicate that between five and forty Yaburara men, women and children were killed during what has become known as the Flying Foam Massacre (Gara 1993). This devastated the Yaburara population.
The harbour at Cossack, Butcher's Inlet, could only cater for ships up to 200 tons, and could only be safely negotiated at high tide. As a result the pearling industry relocated to Broome in the early 1890s. The gold rush also slowed in the early 1900s.
The need for a deep-water port to serve the Pilbara remained an important issue. Depuch Island was an early candidate, with the first serious scheme for a railway between Marble Bar and the coast being raised in 1908. There was no progress on developing a port until the 1960s when Depuch Island again was considered. However, it was concluded that because of the Island’s exceptional Aboriginal heritage the port should be built elsewhere (McDonald and Veth 2005:160; Vinnicombe 2002: 6; Bednarik 2006:25). In 1963 the Western Australian Government and Hamersley Iron entered into an agreement to develop the Tom Price mine and the town and port of Dampier. The town was completed by 1966.
In 1978, the Burrup Peninsula was chosen as the site for a treatment plant for offshore gas deposits on the North-West Shelf. Following an Environmental Impact Assessment, Withnell and King Bays were recommended for the development. A programme to salvage information on Aboriginal heritage in the area began in 1980 (McDonald and Veth 2005: 162).
At this same time, the Clough report on port and land planning on the Burrup Peninsula was prepared and concluded that there was no serious conflict between industrial needs and conservation requirements (McDonald and Veth 2005: 162). Although a report was prepared by Bruce Wright identifying the Dampier Archipelago as a major archaeological resource with high scientific value and specifying the need for consultation with Aboriginal people (Department of Aboriginal Sites 1980) the Western Australian government adopted the Clough report as a guideline for future development on the Burrup Peninsula. Throughout the nineties and into the new millennium there were numerous ongoing developments that have resulted in additional large and small-scale survey work on the Burrup Peninsula.
During this time three native title claims were registered that included parts of the Dampier Archipelago. In 2002 the Western Australian Government entered into the Burrup and Maitland Industrial Estates Agreement Implementation Deed (the Agreement) with the three native title claimant groups. This Agreement enabled the State Government to compulsorily acquire any native title rights and interests in the area of the Burrup Peninsula and other parcels of land near Karratha. The Agreement also included a range of economic and community benefits for the Ngarluma Yindjibarndi, Wong-Goo-Tt-Oo and Yaburara Mardudhunera peoples, including education, training and a stake in future land developments (Department of Premier and Cabinet 2005).
The Agreement also provided for the parts of the non-industrial land of the Burrup Peninsula to be returned as freehold title to Ngarda-Ngarli, and for this area to become a Conservation Reserve jointly managed with the Department of Environment Conservation (Department of Environment Conservation 2006).
|Condition and Integrity|
Parts of the area, particularly the Burrup Peninsula,
East Intercourse Island
and Mid East Intercourse Island, have been subject to industrial development
and other impacts such as the construction of towns and work camps. A land use
impact assessment, undertaken using aerial photographs from August 2004,
estimates that high levels of impact have occurred on 1,643 hectares (or 16.4
square kilometres) on the Burrup Peninsula (McDonald
and Veth 2006). A high level of impact in these areas
on the Burrup
Peninsula has resulted in
the destruction of archaeological material and in some cases the relocation of
engravings and other stone features. Despite this, the natural and cultural
heritage in Dampier Archipelago and its surrounding waters is in good condition.|
About 36,860ha, at Dampier, comprising
the following parts of Burrup Peninsula and surrounding islands:|
Burrup Peninsula Areas
Comprises an area commencing at northern most point of Lot 588 P028526, then northerly, easterly and southerly via the western, northern and eastern boundary of Lot 587 P028526 to its intersection with Lot 594 P028526 (also included is all Unallocated Crown Land that adjoins Lot 587), then southerly via the eastern boundary of Lot 594 P028526 to its intersection with Lot 595 P028526, then southerly via the eastern boundary of Lot 595 to its intersection with Lot 596 P028526, then southerly via the eastern boundary of Lot 596 to its intersection with Lot 595, then southerly via the eastern boundary of Lot 595 to its intersection with Lot 594, then southerly via the eastern boundary of Lot 594 to its intersection with Lot 479 P220555, then southerly via the eastern boundary of Lot 479 to its intersection with MGA easting 479093E (approximate MGA point 479093E 7719091N), then via straight lines joining the following MGA points consecutively: 479045E 7719106N, 478796E 7719564N, 478819E 7719629N, 478952E 7720034N, 478613E 7720034N, 478857E 7720443N, 478978E 7720661N, 478998E 7720835N, 478485E 7720835N, 478202E 7720611N, 478318E 7720531N, 478309E 7720459N, 478293E 7720408N, 478240E 7720409N, 478085E 7720518N, 477912E 7720380N, 477837E 7720410N, 477784E 7720404N, 477761E 7720386N, 477771E 7720357N, 477829E 7720360N, 477854E 7720371N, 477883E 7720355N, 477752E 7720257N, 477743E 7720133N, 477318E 7719935N, 477317E 7719744N, 477383E 7719735N, 477434E 7719603N, 477282E 7719557N, 477182E 7719691N, 477044E 7719646N, 476945E 7719543N, 476908E 7719533N, 476911E 7719477N, 476553E 7719023N, 476345E 7719060N, 476333E 7719193N, 476451E 7719276N, 476351E 7719380N, 476167E 7719254N, 476112E 7719287N, 476083E 7719199N, 475938E 7719111N, 475893E 7719105N, 475891E 7719133N, 475889E 7719175N, 475892E 7719271N, 476059E 7719482N, then north westerly to the intersection of MGA northing 7719516N with the western boundary of Lot 598 P028526 (approximate MGA point 475978E 7719516N), then northerly via the western boundary of Lot 598 to its north west corner, then northerly to the south west corner of Lot 597 P028526, then northerly via the western boundary of Lot 597 to its intersection with MGA northing 7721386N (approximate MGA point 477048E 7721386N), then north westerly to the intersection of MGA northing 7721564N with the eastern boundary of Lot 155 P185700 (approximate MGA point 477007E 7721564N), then northerly via the eastern boundary of Lot 155 to its intersection with Lot 197 P0030713, then northerly via the eastern boundary of Lot 197 to the southern most point of Lot 473 P194623, then northerly via the western boundary of Lot 473 to its intersection with MGA northing 7722901N (approximate MGA point 477632E 7722901N), then westerly to the intersection of MGA northing 7722834N with the western boundary of Lot 197 P030713 (approximate MGA point 477338E 7722834N), then northerly via the western boundary of Lot 197 to its intersection with MGA northing 7723381N (approximate MGA point 477338E 7723381N), then via straight lines joining the following MGA points consecutively: 477233E 7723406N, 477230E 7723449N, 477241E 7723479N, 477271E 7723495N, 477270E 7723477N, then directly to the intersection of MGA easting 477290E with the northern boundary of Lot 199 P216680 (approximate MGA point 477290E 7723456N), then easterly via the northern boundary of Lot 199 to its intersection with the northern boundary of Lot 197 P030713, then easterly via the northern boundary of Lot 197 to its intersection with Lot 588 P028526, then northerly and westerly via the western boundary of Lot 588 to its intersection with Lot 589 P028526, then south westerly and north easterly via the south eastern and north western boundary of Lot 589 to its intersection with Lot 588 (included is UCL that adjoins the south eastern boundary of Lot 589), then north easterly via the north western boundary of Lot 588 to the point of commencement.
Excluded from within Area A is that part of Lot 196 P216682 bounded by a line commencing at the intersection of MGA easting 480046E with the southern boundary of Lot 196 (approximate MGA point 480046E 7724087N), then via straight lines joining the following MGA points consecutively: 480045E 7724166N, 480070E 7724233N, 480077E 7724270N, 480081E 7724373N, 480058E 7724373N, 480058E 7724438N, then easterly to the intersection of MGA northing 7724439N with the eastern boundary of Lot 196 (approximate MGA point 480156E 7724439N), then northerly, westerly, southerly and easterly via the eastern, northern, western and southern boundary of Lot 196 to the point of commencement.
Comprises an area bounded by a line commencing at MGA point 475838E 7719582N, then via straight lines joining the following MGA points consecutively: 475836E 7719564N, 475711E 7719589N, 475612E 7719577N, 475526E 7719555N, 475232E 7719447N, 475154E 7719445N, 475110E 7719455N, 475057E 7719433N, 475043E 7719414N, 474978E 7719434N, 474884E 7719483N, 474837E 7719525N, 474757E 7719546N, 474776E 7719440N, 474649E 7719361N, 474573E 7719363N, 474334E 7719414N, 474383E 7719530N, 474321E 7719571N, 474169E 7719713N, 474132E 7719743N, 474087E 7719713N, 474025E 7719764N, 474522E 7720350N, then directly to the point of commencement.
Comprises an area bounded by a line commencing at MGA point 475796E 7719076N, then via straight lines joining the following MGA points consecutively: 475788E 7719143N, 475847E 7719157N, 475854E 7719095N, then directly to the point of commencement.
Comprises an area bounded by a line commencing at the intersection of the eastern boundary of Lot 442 P220555 with MGA northing 7715020N (approximate MGA point 476257E 7715020N), then via straight lines joining the following MGA points consecutively: 476117E 7714816N, 475938E 7714509N, 475528E 7714208N, 475341E 7714113N, 474861E 7713792N, 474777E 7713929N, 474684E 7713920N, 474437E 7713923N, 474419E 7714139N, 474696E 7714327N, 474323E 7714587N, 474277E 7714536N, 474149E 7714653N, 473584E 7714305N, 473260E 7714094N, 473208E 7713959N, 473032E 7713863N, 472926E 7713806N, 472832E 7713980N, 472844E 7714002N, 472923E 7714016N, 472950E 7714025N, 473034E 7714067N, 473101E 7714127N, 473168E 7714180N, 473203E 7714231N, 473326E 7714363N, 473393E 7714454N, 473511E 7714542N, 473519E 7714573N, 473516E 7714617N, 473495E 7714673N, 473465E 7714688N, 473437E 7714685N, 473418E 7714671N, 473290E 7714526N, 473276E 7714496N, 473278E 7714468N, 473265E 7714446N, 472989E 7714296N, 472958E 7714278N, 472900E 7714234N, 472797E 7714180N, 472756E 7714215N, 472657E 7714189N, 472651E 7714066N, 472465E 7713965N, 472498E 7713904N, 472461E 7713898N, 472398E 7713899N, 472356E 7713882N, 472296E 7713846N, 472294E 7713783N, 472337E 7713708N, 472600E 7713716N, 472616E 7713687N, 472449E 7713608N, 472487E 7713525N, 472224E 7713428N, 472228E 7713221N, 472116E 7713161N, 471661E 7713060N, 471548E 7713120N, 471450E 7713293N, 471177E 7713096N, 471127E 7713102N, 471019E 7713030N, 470814E 7713042N, 470648E 7713160N, 470418E 7713040N, 470116E 7713149N, 470055E 7713241N, 470031E 7713345N, 470037E 7713517N, 470163E 7713806N, 470498E 7714239N, 470530E 7714245N, 470574E 7714297N, 470558E 7714323N, 470620E 7714393N, 470682E 7714502N, 470943E 7714536N, 471219E 7714586N, 471412E 7714596N, 471564E 7714598N, 471657E 7714512N, 471825E 7714331N, 471889E 7714235N, 471893E 7714087N, 471973E 7713974N, 472029E 7713958N, 472066E 7714108N, 472155E 7714236N, 472289E 7714697N, 472284E 7714756N, 472370E 7714926N, 472487E 7715069N, 472558E 7715142N, 472601E 7715147N, 472898E 7715487N, 472950E 7715576N, 473235E 7716062N, 473689E 7716157N, 473945E 7716366N, 474190E 7716689N, 474174E 7717068N, 473670E 7716878N, 473541E 7716793N, 473296E 7716617N, 473187E 7716688N, 473173E 7716706N, 473172E 7716748N, 473154E 7716747N, 473154E 7716746N, 472847E 7716397N, 472706E 7716531N, 472695E 7716628N, 472700E 7716648N, 472728E 7716689N, 472778E 7716791N, 472742E 7716924N, 472805E 7716992N, 472835E 7717070N, 473058E 7717250N, 473045E 7717321N, 473013E 7717394N, 472904E 7717423N, 472910E 7717519N, 472991E 7717567N, 473080E 7717581N, 473068E 7717624N, 473116E 7717649N, 473448E 7717756N, 473798E 7718002N, 474045E 7718118N, 474199E 7718235N, 474517E 7718294N, 474518E 7718201N, 474808E 7718018N, 474985E 7718087N, 475033E 7718203N, 475110E 7718261N, 475329E 7718377N, 475480E 7718388N, 475779E 7718236N, 475748E 7718190N, 475677E 7718182N, 475490E 7717998N, 475671E 7717827N, 475805E 7717736N, 475966E 7717886N, 476838E 7717951N, 476888E 7717986N, 476886E 7718226N, 476789E 7718226N, 476792E 7718415N, 476879E 7718466N, 476869E 7718680N, 477115E 7718679N, then south easterly to the intersection of MGA easting 477507E with the northern boundary of Lot 442 (approximate MGA point 477507E 7718337N), then easterly via the northern boundary of Lot 442 to its intersection with Lot 479 P220555, then via straight lines joining the following MGA points consecutively: 478847E 7718340N, 478914E 7718348N, 478926E 7718267N, 478965E 7718266N, 478989E 7718280N, then northerly to the intersection of MGA easting 479007E with the eastern boundary of Lot 479 P220555 (approximate MGA point 479007E 7718332N), then south easterly via the eastern boundary of Lot 479 to its intersection with Lot 442, then south westerly via the eastern boundary of Lot 442 to the point of commencement.
Comprises an area bounded by a line commencing at MGA point 472174E 7716446N, then via straight lines joining the following MGA points consecutively: 472190E 7716425N, 472207E 7716411N, 472210E 7716405N, 472197E 7716388N, 472158E 7716438N, 472167E 7716451N, then directly to the point of commencement.
Comprises an area bounded by a line commencing at MGA point 476301E 7718246N, then via straight lines joining the following MGA points consecutively: 476346E 7718246N, 476346E 7718184N, 476301E 7718184N, then directly to the point of commencement.
Comprises an area bounded by a line commencing at MGA point 472536E 7716689 N, then via straight lines joining the following MGA points consecutively: 472574 E 7716717 N, 472610 E 7716720 N, 472609 E 7716662 N, 472640 E 7716554 N, 472623 E 7716536 N, 472600 E 7716513 N, 472583 E 7716492 N, 472488 E 7716338 N, 472486 E 7716312 N, 472470 E 7716302 N, 472445 E 7716301 N, 472435E 7716331 N, 472443 E 7716352 N, 472437 E 7716362 N, 472322 E 7716278 N, 472293 E 7716293 N, 472294 E 7716294 N, 472280 E 7716304 N, 472247 E 7716280 N, 472182 E 7716165 N, 472160 E 7716152 N, 472138 E 7716145 N, 472124 E 7716141 N, 472114 E 7716134 N, 472106 E 7716128 N, 472088 E 7716114 N, 472059 E 7716061 N, 472027 E 7716041 N, 471980 E 7716001 N, 471975 E 7716017 N, 471971 E 7716030 N, 471965 E 7716047 N, 471968 E 7716071 N, 471948 E 7716076 N, 471933 E 7716049 N, 471878 E 7715991 N, 471849 E 7715948 N, 471815 E 7715916 N, 471792 E 7715916 N, 471796 E 7715936 N, 471801 E 7715959 N, 471782 E 7715965 N, 471769 E 7715950 N, 471745 E 7715950 N, 471728 E 7715950 N, 471705 E 7715950 N, 471703 E 7715952 N, 471689 E 7715963 N, 471700 E 7715980 N, 471700 E 7715996 N, 471676 E 7715987 N, 471666 E 7716013 N, 471658 E 7716023 N, 471646 E 7716037 N, 471608 E 7716032 N, 471584 E 7715998 N, 471599 E 7715977 N, 471596 E 7715967 N, 471593 E 7715950 N, 471605 E 7715931 N, 471611 E 7715918 N, 471628 E 7715918 N, 471656 E 7715904 N, 471661 E 7715878 N, 471704 E 7715796 N, 471608 E 7715689 N, 471521 E 7715572 N, 471432 E 7715554 N, 471410 E 7715560 N, 471410 E 7715561 N, 471399 E 7715564 N, 471379 E 7715468 N, 471352 E 7715478 N, 471294 E 7715576 N, 471195 E 7715595 N, 471092 E 7715649 N, 471046 E 7715706 N, 471070 E 7715800 N, 471145 E 7715893 N, 471132 E 7715929 N, 471143 E 7715980 N, 471170 E 7716019 N, 471198 E 7716076 N, 471200 E 7716123 N, 471224 E 7716184 N, 471280 E 7716225 N, 471295 E 7716184 N, 471302 E 7716152 N, 471259 E 7716100 N, 471253 E 7716054 N, 471241 E 7716015 N, 471256 E 7715988 N, 471270 E 7715970 N, 471293 E 7715965 N, 471302 E 7715927 N, 471366 E 7715922 N, 471364 E 7716026 N, 471398 E 7716078 N, 471404 E 7716095 N, 471408 E 7716109 N, 471394 E 7716140 N, 471386 E 7716167 N, 471396 E 7716181 N, 471426 E 7716175 N, 471506 E 7716165 N, 471520 E 7716157 N, 471523 E 7716128 N, 471512 E 7716052 N, 471525 E 7716051 N, 471526 E 7716054 N, 471625 E 7716201 N, 471681 E 7716290 N, 471722 E 7716319 N, 471810 E 7716393 N, 471907 E 7716367 N, 472014 E 7716361 N, 472045 E 7716278 N, 472086 E 7716278 N, 472148 E 7716285 N, 472151 E 7716288 N, 472168 E 7716321 N, 472220 E 7716372 N, 472244 E 7716405 N, 472265 E 7716432 N, 472293 E 7716453 N, 472324 E 7716469 N, 472327 E 7716485 N, 472323 E 7716505 N, 472332 E 7716532 N, 472353 E 7716550 N, 472372 E 7716600 N, 472377 E 7716626 N, 472363 E 7716666 N, 472395 E 7716730 N, 472414 E 7716746 N, 472498 E 7716796 N, 472517 E 7716784 N, 472514 E 7716767 N, 472539 E 7716762 N, 472521 E 7716696 N, then directly to the point of commencement.
Excluded is an area located within Area G that is bounded by a line commencing at MGA point 471458 E 7715837 N, then via straight lines joining the following MGA points consecutively: 471468 E 7715853 N, 471465 E 7715887 N, 471447 E 7715883 N, 471437 E 7715859 N, 471441 E 7715841 N, then directly to the point of commencement.
Comprises an area commencing at the intersection of the northern boundary of UCL with MGA easting 465066E (approximate MGA point 465066E 7712521N), then via straight lines joining the following MGA points consecutively: 465408E 7712135N, 465707E 7712216N, 465926E 7712331N, 465799E 7712072N, 465563E 7711561N, 465799E 7711528N, 465865E 7711609N, 465903E 7712097N, 466016E 7712316N, 465988E 7712406N, 465982E 7712474N, 466191E 7712486N, 466223E 7712461N, 466219 E 7712406 N, 466231 E 7712328 N, 466327 E 7712289 N, 466377 E 7712298 N, 466395 E 7712404 N, 466384 E 7712463 N, 466409 E 7712506 N, 466396 E 7712583 N, 466352 E 7712583 N, 466325 E 7712629 N, 466402 E 7712696 N, 466493 E 7712719 N, 466556 E 7712717 N, 466574 E 7712703 N, 467314 E 7712709 N, 467342 E 7712717 N, 467378 E 7712719 N, 467413 E 7712712 N, 467484 E 7712711 N, 467755 E 7712752 N, 467934 E 7712748 N, 467997 E 7712751 N, 468119 E 7712767 N, 468357 E 7712775 N, 468396 E 7712805 N, 468443 E 7712813 N, 468514 E 7712793 N, 468776 E 7712834 N, 468885 E 7712789 N, 469057 E 7712721 N, 469181 E 7712693 N, 469320 E 7712694 N, 469614 E 7712782 N, 469648 E 7712772 N, 469679 E 7712681 N, 469719 E 7712770 N, 469789 E 7712856 N, 469839 E 7712868 N, 469954 E 7712824 N, 470422 E 7712672 N, 470912 E 7712621 N, 470966 E 7712511 N, 471008 E 7712478 N, 471156 E 7712557 N, 471271 E 7712542 N, 471410 E 7712514 N, 471554 E 7712471 N, 471622 E 7712311 N, 471640 E 7712240 N, 471650 E 7712154 N, 471640 E 7711885 N, 471162 E 7711871 N, 471082 E 7711877 N, 471012 E 7711910 N, 470953 E 7712038 N, 470902 E 7712088 N, 470738 E 7712165 N, 470646 E 7712113 N, 470566 E 7712022 N, 470529 E 7712003 N, 470440 E 7711985 N, 470363 E 7711980 N, 470305 E 7711980 N, 470230 E 7711972 N, 470173 E 7711958 N, 470130 E 7711934 N, 470037 E 7711903 N, 469998 E 7711842 N, 469947 E 7711811 N, 469860 E 7711790 N, 469770 E 7711797 N, 469737 E 7711789 N, 469686 E 7711730 N, 469635 E 7711699 N, 469591 E 7711706 N, 469548 E 7711676 N, 469529 E 7711649 N, 469476 E 7711603 N, 469307 E 7711422 N, 469128 E 7711345 N, 469077 E 7711335 N, 469022 E 7711341 N, 468864 E 7711344 N, 468786 E 7711385 N, 468768 E 7711413 N, 468694 E 7711411 N, 468676 E 7711494 N, 468636 E 7711553 N, 468611 E 7711569 N, 468584 E 7711559 N, 468554 E 7711567 N, 468531 E 7711553 N, 468494 E 7711517 N, 468491 E 7711493 N, 468418 E 7711465 N, 468387 E 7711411 N, 468338 E 7711352 N, 468244 E 7711264 N, 468310 E 7711231 N, 468283 E 7711222 N, 468158 E 7711170 N, 468065 E 7711183 N, 468022 E 7711135 N, 467967 E 7711121 N, 467846 E 7711167 N, 467811 E 7711102 N, 467799 E 7711054 N, 467706 E 7710974 N, 467603 E 7710969 N, 467566 E 7711010 N, 467481 E 7710938 N, 467360 E 7710959 N, 467243 E 7710949 N, 467206 E 7710965 N, 467162 E 7710961 N, 467122 E 7710923 N, 467080 E 7710862 N, 467093 E 7710845 N, 467123 E 7710865 N, 467183 E 7710920 N, 467214 E 7710904 N, 467229 E 7710861 N, 467173 E 7710815 N, 467124 E 7710784 N, 467084 E 7710752 N, 467046 E 7710711 N, 466954 E 7710607 N, 466897 E 7710588 N, 466801 E 7710568 N, 466507 E 7710521 N, 466420 E 7710514 N, 466316 E 7710520 N, 466247 E 7710538 N, 465981 E 7710678 N, 465861 E 7710803 N, 465833 E 7710895 N, 465838 E 7710977 N, 465752 E 7710970 N, 465734 E 7710794 N, 465711 E 7710755 N, 465671 E 7710734 N, 465602 E 7710721 N, 465555 E 7710679 N, 465534 E 7710627 N, 465373 E 7710665 N, 465309 E 7710672 N, 465250 E 7710662 N, 465133 E 7710672 N, 464859 E 7710646 N, 464810 E 7710628 N, 464654 E 7710616 N, 464437 E 7710549 N, 464273 E 7710485 N, 464223 E 7710475 N, 464153 E 7710432 N, 463928 E 7710365 N, 463711 E 7710299 N, 463502 E 7710224 N, 463350 E 7710223 N, 463306 E 7710275 N, 463263 E 7710240 N, 463219 E 7710240 N, 463174 E 7710225 N, 463122 E 7710259 N, 462974 E 7710233 N, 462846 E 7710187 N, 462741 E 7710161 N, 462687E 7710154N, then directly to the intersection of MGA easting 462671E with the northern boundary of UCL (approximate MGA point 462671E 7710158N), then north easterly via the northern boundary of UCL to the point of commencement.
Comprises an area bounded by a line commencing at MGA point 452364E 7701191N, then via straight lines joining the following MGA points consecutively: 450513E 7700412N, 450182E 7700512N, 451347E 7701819N, 452278E 7701988N, then directly to the point of commencement.
West Intercourse Island Area comprising the following Lots: Lot 457 P220574; Lot 458 P220574; Lot 459 P220574; Lot 461 P220574; Lot 466 P220574; all that part of Lot 467 P220574 to the west of MGA easting 459800E; all Unallocated Crown Land (UCL) adjoining the listed Lots.
West Mid Intercourse Island Area being Lot 456 P220574 and all adjoining UCL.
Enderby Island Area comprising Lot 301 P091521.
Goodwin Island Area comprising Lot 304 P240237.
West Lewis Island and East Lewis Island Area comprising Nature Reserves R36909 and R36907.
Rosemary Island, Brigadier Island, Miller Rocks, Lady Nora Island and
Elphick Nob Area, comprising Nature Reserve R36915, Lot 307 P240237, Lot 22 P093417, Lot 46 P176228 and Lot 219 P187702.
Malus Islands Area comprising Lot 311 P240237, DEWIT Location 121 and DEWIT Location 142.
Angel Island, Gidley Island, Cohen Island, Keast Island and Collier Rocks Area, comprising Lot 321 P091561, UCL just south of Lot 321, and all that part of Lot 314 P240237 to the south of a line connecting the following MGA points: 479864E 7747389N, 483248E 7747053N, 484632E 7745303N, 487549E 7743394N.
Tozer Island Area comprising Lot 315 P240237.
Dolphin Island Nature Reserve comprising the whole of Lot 322 P240057.
Unnamed Island, comprising Unallocated Crown Land, centred on MGA point 484570E 7731240N.
2003. Rights for Aborigines. Allen and Unwin, Crows
Australian Heritage Commission 1978a, Register of the National Estate place report: Pearling Relics, Blackhawk bay. Australian Heritage Commission, Canberra.
Australian Heritage Commission 1978b, Register of the National Estate place report: Malus Island Whaling Station. Australian Heritage Commission, Canberra.
Australian Heritage Commission 1978c, Register of the National Estate place report: Dolphin Island Graves. Australian Heritage Commission, Canberra.
Australian Heritage Commission 1978d, Register of the National Estate place report: West Lewis Island Pastoral Settlement. Australian Heritage Commission, Canberra.
Australian Heritage Commission 1998, Register of the National Estate place report: Hamersley Range National Park. Australian Heritage Commission, Canberra.
Australian Heritage Commission 2001, Register of the National Estate place report: Cossack Historic Town, Australian Heritage Commission, Canberra.
Bednarik, R. 1977, A survey of prehistoric sites in the Tom Price Region, north western Australia. APAO XII (I): 51-76.
Bednarik, R. 1994, Dampier Rock art under siege. AURA Newsletter 11(2): 14-15.
Bednarik, R. 2002, The survival of the Murujuga (Burrup) petroglphs. Rock Art Research 19 (1): 29-40.
Bednarik, R. 2006, Australian Apocalypse: the story of Australia’s greatest cultural monument. Occasional AURA Publication No. 14. Australian Rock Art Research Association, Inc. Melbourne.
Beesley PL, Ross GJB, and Wells A (eds) 1998, Mollusca: the southern synthesis: Fauna of Australia. Volume 5, Part A, CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.
Bevacqua, R. 1974, The Skew valley midden site: an Aboriginal shell mound on Dampier Island, Western Australia. Unpublished report. Department of Aboriginal Sites, Perth.
Bradshaw, E. 1995. Dates from archaeological excavations on the Pilbara coastline and islands of the Dampier Archipelago, Western Australia. Australian Archaeology 41: 37-38.
Burbidge AA, and Prince RIT 1972, The fauna, flora and planned usage of the Dampier Archipelago Report No. 11, Department of Fisheries and Fauna Western Australia, Director of Fisheries and Fauna, Perth.
Connor, J. 2002. The Australian Frontier Wars, 1788-1838. University of New South Wales Press, Sydney.
Crocker, R. 2005. Identifying inspirational Landscapes Report 2: initial listing and assessment of places. Unpublished report for the Department of the Environment and Heritage, Canberra.
Crocker, R. & Davies, B. 2005, Identifying Inspirational Landscapes – Stage 2 Volume 1: Main project report. Draft report for the Department of Environment and Heritage, Robin Crocker and Associates, April 2005.
Cronin, L. 1991. Key Guide to Australian Mammals. Balgowlah: Reed Books.
Daniel, D. 1990. Thalu sites of the Western Pilbara. Department of Aboriginal Sites, Perth.
Department of Aboriginal Sites 1980. A proposal for the archaeological investigation of and preservation of Aboriginal sites in the Dampier Archipelago. Unpublished report. Western Australian. Museum, Perth.
Department of the Environment and Heritage 2001, A directory of important wetlands in Australia, Department of the Environment and Heritage, Canberra.
Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories 1996, Refugia for biological diversity on arid and semi-arid Australia, Biodiversity Series: Paper No. 4, Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories, Canberra.
Department of Conservation and Land Management 2004, Indicative Management Plan for the proposed Montebello / Barrow Islands Marine Conservation Reserves 2004, Department of Conservation and Land Management, Fremantle.
Department of Conservation and Land Management 2003, Draft Indicative Management Plan for the proposed Dampier Archipelago Marine Park and Cape Preston Marine Management Area, Department of Conservation and Land Management, Fremantle.
Department of Conservation and Land Management 2002. Dampier Archipelago and Island Nature Reserves and section 5(g) Reserves management plan: issues paper. http://www.calm.wa.gov.au/national_parks/management/pdf_files/dampier_issues.pdf accessed 20 April 2005.
Department of Conservation and Land Management 1999, Karijini National Park: Management Plan 1999-2009, Department of Conservation and Land Management, Fremantle.
Department of Conservation and Land Management 1994a, A representative marine reserve system for Western Australia: report of the Marine Parks and Reserves Selection Working Group, Department of Conservation and Land Management, Fremantle.
Department of Conservation and Land Management 1994b, New horizons in marine management: Policy document, Department of Conservation and Land Management, Fremantle.
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Report Produced Sun Mar 9 16:13:20 2014