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Greenbank Military Training Area (part), Middle Rd, Greenbank, QLD, Australia

Photographs None
List Register of the National Estate (Non-statutory archive)
Class Natural
Legal Status Registered (28/05/1996)
Place ID 19567
Place File No 4/01/071/0024
Statement of Significance
The Greenbank Military Training Area (GBTA) is a large area of eucalypt forest and woodland with patches of closed vine forest, that is important for maintaining a range of old growth forest types in south-east Queensland. Three 'endangered' regional ecosystems, and one 'of concern' Queensland listed regional ecosystem occur in the place. This vegetation was once far more prevalent in south-east Queensland but has been severely reduced in area due to past clearing for agriculture, forest plantation establishment and urbanisation of coastal regions between the Gold Coast and Noosa.

As a large area of intact lowland forest in the greater Brisbane region, with close proximity to more extensive bushland, the area is an important contemporary refuge for species threatened by land clearing in the Brisbane region. Species dependent on this significant habitat resource area include the plant PLECTRANTHUS HABROPHYLLUS, which is listed as endangered both nationally and in Queensland, and two fauna species the greater glider (PETAUROIDES VOLANS) and the koala (PHASCOARCTOS CINEREUS).

The place may contain Aboriginal heritage values that are possibly of National Estate significance but these have not been identified by the appropriate Aboriginal community or documented and assessed by the Australian Heritage Commission.

The place may also contain historic values of National Estate Significance. As yet, the Commission has not identified, documented or assessed these values.
Official Values Not Available
The topography is gentle with some broad ridge crests and flat, low expanses (30m-40m), especially around the floodplains of Oxley Creek and a small tributary in the south-eastern corner of the area. Blunder Creek drains much of the remainder of the area and has its headwaters within the area at altitudes of no more than about 80m. The area remains contiguous with mostly higher altitude forested terrain that extends for many kilometres to the south-west past Spring Mountain and Flinders Peak.

A systematic vegetation review of the conservation status of regional ecosystems in the South East Queensland biogeographic region has identified eight regional ecosystems as occurring in the place, including four threatened regional ecosystems (RE's). Three of these RE's are 'endangered' in the bioregion with less than 10% of pre-European extent remaining, and include: Gallery vine forest (notophyll vine forest) on alluvial plains (RE 12.3.1); EUCALYPTUS TERETICORNIS woodland to open forest on alluvial plains (RE 12.3.3); and also areas of semi- evergreen vine thicket with BRACHYCHITON RUPESTRIS on sedimentary rocks (RE 12.9/ 10.15). In addition a 'of concern' regional ecosystem of swamps with CYPERUS spp., SCHOENOPLECTUS spp. and ELEOCHARIS spp. (RE 12.3.8) occurs in the place, and classed as such as it has 10-30 % of its pre-European extent remaining. Four non-threatened regional ecosystems also occur in the place and include the following RE's: CORYMBIA CITIODORA - EUCALYPTUS CREBRA open forest on sedimentary rocks (RE 12.9/ 10.2); EUCALYPTUS RACEMOSA on sedimentary rocks (RE 12.9/ 10.4); areas of mixed open-forest including CORYMBIA TRACHYPHLOIA and E. CREBRA on quartzose sandstone (RE 12.9/ 10.5); and also mixed forest including C. CITIODORA and E.SIDEROPHLOIA.

Open eucalypt forest occurs on ridges and gentle slopes with mostly grassy understorey. The open forest characteristically contains a mixture of at least four tree species with one species dominant. The most common species present are spotted gum (E. MACULATA), narrow leaved red ironbark (E. CREBRA), broad leaved white mahogany (E. UMBRA), (E. PHAEOTRICHA), tallowwood (E. MICROCORYS), and pink bloodwood (E. INTERMEDIA). Smooth barked apple (ANGOPHORA COSTATA) does in some instances become a major part of the communities. Brush box (LOPHOSTEMON CONFERTUS) is very widespread in the tree and shrub layers within the region, due to its ability to tolerate a wide range of conditions. Narrow leaved red gum (E. SEEANA) is prevalent over parts of the area in association with scribbly gum (E. SIGNATA) open forests.
Open melaleuca forests are predominant on the floodplains with grassy or scattered shrub understorey. Mixed open (sometimes closed) forest predominates along creeksides with variable (sometimes dense) understorey of heath species, banksia and sedge spp. Additional habitat features include grassed open spaces, at least one patch of treeless heath, small patches of woodland with heath understorey and an earth wall dam that is the habitat of a number of waterbirds.

The flowering of canopy trees attracts high numbers of honeyeaters and lorikeets, such as the fuscous honeyeater (LICHENOSTOMUS FUSCUS) and the scaly breasted lorikeet (TRICHOGLOSSUS CHLOROLEPIDOTUS), and is a major feature of bird activity in the area. The high diversity of flowering tree species within the area helps to maintain a source of nectar throughout the year and helps to sustain populations of birds that migrate through low altitude coastal areas of southern Queensland. Migratory insectivorous birds also utilise the place and include the black-faced monarch (MONARCHA MELANOPSIS) and rufous fantail (RHIPIDURA RUFIFRONS). At least three petaurid gliders, the squirrel glider (PETAURUS NORFOLCENSIS), sugar glider (PETAURUS BREVICEPS), and the yellow bellied glider (PETAURUS AUSTRALIS) are similarly attracted to the sap, nectar and pollen resources provided by the flowering eucalypts of the place. These eucalypts also provide food and habitat for the greater glider (PETAUROIDES VOLANS) and the koala (PHASCOARCTOS CINEREUS). The koalas have been found in scribbly gum (E. SIGNATA) and forest red gum (E. TERETICORNIS).

The GBTA provides habitat for at least seven frog species, including the tusked frog (ADELOTUS BREVIS), and at least sixteen reptiles, including the eastern water dragon (PHYSIGNATHUS LESEURII) and the frilled lizard (CHLAMYDOSAURUS KINGII).

Geological mapping indicates that the GBTA is underlain by claystone, sandstone and basalt of the late Jurassic period, and clay, sand, gravel and silt of the Quaternary/ Holocene period. The soil material overlying the bedrock is predominantly clay/ sandy clay. The soils of the GBTA have a thin topsoil layer of fine grained sandy loam which has been well leached of nutrients. Beneath the topsoil are layers of various clays extending to a depth of about 2m, and these lie on the bedrock, which includes sedimentary sandstone. Gley soils (dark clays) occur along minor water courses and are characteristically poorly drained. Alluvial sand has been deposited on the Oxley Creek floodplain, but generally the soils are infertile and acidic with little organic matter. Soggy ground conditions occur in many places, even in saddles on high ground.
History Not Available
Condition and Integrity
The GBTA is owned by the Department of Defence and used as an Army Training Area. Much of the GBTA area is undeveloped and well vegetated. The central portion of the training area is comprised of a number of ranges while the outer potions are used as general training areas.
Much of the land beyond the northern and south-western boundaries of the area is still forested, although a major residential development is occurring to the north (Forest Lake) and additional areas to the south and south-west are under consideration for development. Private residences currently occur alongside the area in various suburbs, ie, Camira to the west, Greenbank to the south and south-east, and Forestdale to the east and north-east. Where there is least housing (north and south-west), arterial roads lie alongside or within the Greenbank Army Reserve (Goodna-Brown's Plains Road and Goodna-Oxley Creek Road).
The closed forest understorey has in many areas been taken over by lantana (LANTANA CAMARA). Groundsel (BACCHARIS HALIMIFOLIA), is also scattered throughout the area, mostly in low lying areas and often beneath stands of melaleuca.
Four species of feral or domestic mammals (fox, cat, horse, pig) have been recorded for the area. Within the native vegetation of the area are four mature stands of exotic slash pine on ridges between Blunder and Oxley Creeks. There are also areas of open grassland maintained as firing ranges and as open space under radio masts. An earth wall dam is located in the south-eastern corner of the area and was once used as domestic water supply. It now represents an additional habitat feature that attracts a limited number of birds, reptiles and frogs. Water hyacinth (EICHHORNIA CRASSIPES) is present around the dam perimeter and was also noted in some of the billabongs of the floodplain. This growth potentially detracts from the value of these areas as fauna habitat. However, disturbance over the majority of the site is minimal and Army activities tend to be confined to specific sites.
About 4500ha, Middle Road corner Old Greenbank Road, Greenbank, comprising the whole of the area enclosed by the external boundaries of the training area except the southernmost part being an area bounded by a line commencing on the eastern boundary (Middle Road) at AMG northing: 9541-Beenleigh 6934300mN, then proceeding directly to the western side of the Brisbane-Sydney railway at AMG northing: 6934380mN (approximate AMG point: 99103438), then southerly via the western side of the railway reserve to the southern boundary of Training Area No 4, then westerly via that boundary to AMG easting: 498300mE (98303515), then directly to amg point: 981346, then directly to 97953460, then directly to 97803495, then directly to the eastern side of old Greenbank Road at amg northing: 6934870mN (97653487), then southerly via the eastern side of that road and the southern boundary of the Greenbank Training Area to the commencement point.
Anon 1991. Greenbank Training Area (GBTA) interim environmental
management plan, 1991-1995.Restricted Army document.

Anon 1999. Initial Environmental Review (Phase 1 EMP Development), Greenbank Training Area. Department of Defence. Restricted Army document.

Anon 2000. Environmental Assessment Report, Greenbank Training Area, Queensland. Department of Defence. Restricted Army document.

Catterall, CP., and Kingston, M. 1993. Human population, bushland
distribution in south-east Queensland and the implications for birds.
pp. 105-122 in Catterall et al. (eds). Birds and their Habitats:

Cogger, H. 2000. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia. Reed Books, Sydney

Status and Conservation in Queensland. Queensland Ornithological
Society Inc., P.O. Box 97, St Lucia, Qld 4067.
Davies, W. 1983. Wildlife of the Brisbane Area. Jacaranda Press,

Ingram, G J., and Raven, R. J., eds 1991. An Atlas of Queensland's
Frogs, Reptiles, Birds and Mammals. Board of Trustees, Queensland
Museum, Brisbane.

Low, T. 1993. The animals of Brisbane: a vertebrate status review. A
Report to the Brisbane City Council.

Pahl, L. 1990. Koala and bushlands survey of West and Central Logan
City. Report prepared for the Logan City Council.

Strahan, R. ed. 1995. The Mammals of Australia. Reed Books, Sydney.

Wilson, S.K., and Knowles, D. G. 1988. Australia's Reptiles: a
Photographic Reference to the Terrestrial Reptiles of Australia.
Collins, Sydney.

Young, P. A. R. 1988. National Estate Survey of Eucalyptus old growth
forests, Queensland. Stage 1. A report to the Australian Heritage

Young, P. A. R., and Cotterall, M. A. 1993. A conservation assessment
of the SEQ2001 region. Conservation Strategy Branch of Qld Department
of Environment and Heritage, technical draft report, December 1993.

Young, P.A.R., and Dillewaard,H.A. 1999. Southeast Queensland. In: Sattler, P.S and Williams R.D. (Eds) The Conservation Status of Queenslands Bioregional Ecosystems, Environmental Protection Agency, Brisbane.

Report Produced  Wed Oct 1 08:27:59 2014