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Gmelina elliptica

Description
 

Badhara Bush (Gmelina elliptica) is a highly variable thorny shrub or small tree, 2 to 4 m high but occasionally reaching 10 m. The stems are usually yellowish or brownish white, and branches are armed with pairs of spines. Leaves are dark green above, paler below, in opposite pairs, usually with one of the pair smaller than its companion, generally ovate (egg shaped), 1 to 10 cm long, 1.5 to 6 cm wide and pointed at the apex. Younger leaves are 3-lobed while older leaves are entire (without lobes), with sparse hairs on the underside. Flowers are yellow and tubular, generally around 5 cm long. The fruit is yellow when ripe, pear-shaped and about 1.5 cm across (Department of Natural Resources and Water 2006)

For further information and assistance with identification of Badhara Bush contact the herbarium in your state or territory.

Distribution:

Badhara Bush occurs in central Queensland around the coastal areas near Yeppoon and Rockhampton. Although this infestation is currently the target of an extensive eradication program, it is possible this plant has become established elsewhere (Department of Natural Resources and Water 2006).

Habit:Tree, Shrub
Key points:
  • Badhara Bush (Gmelina elliptica) is a thorny shrub which forms dense impenetrable thickets.
  • It shades out useful pasture species and prevents stock movement. It also has significant impacts on natural areas, decreasing the biodiversity.
  • Badhara Bush is currently the target of an extensive eradication program.
How it spreads:

Badhara Bush spreads mainly by the bitter but edible seeds which birds and other animals spread in their droppings. Its woody taproot can also produce suckers, particularly after disturbance, allowing colonies of the shrub to spread along their perimeter (Parson & Cuthbertson 2001; Department of Natural Resources and Water 2006).

Where it grows:

Badhara Bush grows in open deciduous or wet scrubby forests of subtropical regions, principally occurring on sandy or sandy clay soils in the 1500 to 2000 mm annual rainfall belt at altitudes between sea level and 950 metres. It often occurs as a weed in dry, intermittently flowing water-courses (Parsons & Cuthbertson 2001).

Flower colour:Yellow
Distribution map:

Munir, A.A. (1984). A Taxonomic Revision of the Genus Gmelina L. (Verbenaceae) in Australia. Journal of the Adelaide Botanic Gardens 7 (1) 95-99.

Impacts:

Badhara Bush is one of seventeen sleeper weeds identified by the Bureau of Rural Sciences (following consultation with the Australian Weeds Committee) which could have nationally significant impacts on agriculture if allowed to spread.

Badhara Bush is a thorny shrub which forms dense impenetrable thickets, shading-out useful pasture species and preventing stock movement. It also has significant impacts on natural areas, decreasing biodiversity and causing lasting environmental effects (Parsons & Cuthbertson 2001; Department of Natural Resources and Water 2006).

Origin:

Badhara Bush occurs naturally throughout much of Asia, although it has been introduced to warmer regions of the world, particularly as a cultivated ornamental (Department of Natural Resources and Water 2006).

History:

When and how Badhara Bush was introduced to Australia is not known with certainty. However, as it was first found near Rockhampton where a large military hospital was sited during World War II, it is thought to have been introduced accidentally by troops during that period (Parsons & Cuthbertson 2001).

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This database is designed to provide information, including biological and ecological, on invasive plant species that are on a national weed list, or are legislated against in a state or territory. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. For further information on the images contained in the database please contact the copyright owner. All images in the weed identification tool are managed by the Australian Plant Image Index (APII). Various copyright conditions apply for these images. For further information on the copyright conditions of images contained in the database please contact the APII at: photo@anbg.gov.au.