Weeds in Australia

Search

Arundinaria spp.

Description
 

Arundinaria species are small to large bamboos (1-13 m tall) that can spread via rhizomes (underground stems) or can be non-rhizomatous and loosely clumped. The stems (culms) are semi-upright to drooping, and 0.5-6 cm thick. The internodes (section between two joints or nodes) are cylindrical to slightly flattened on one side. The lateral branches are always enclosed by a sheath formed by the leaves. The culm leaf-blades are linear to spear-head shaped or triangular, and are narrower than the sheath. The leaf blades in some species can have a short petiole-like (leaf stalk) connection to the sheath (e.g. A. simonii f. variegata) [as A. simonii], that can vary in shape among species. The flower-heads (inflorescence) can be compound (comprising many branches) or less often simple (comprising only a few spikelets). The spikelets are several to many-flowered, and slender (Clayton et al. 2008; Zheng-de et al. 2006).

The only Arundinaria species known to be naturalised and problematic in Australia is Arundinaria Reed (A. simonii f. variegata) [as A. simonii], which is currently naturalised on Lord Howe Island. This species is a long-lived (perennial) plant growing to 6 m in height, and spreads via creeping underground stems (rhizomes). Its leaves are relatively narrow linear spear shaped to narrow-oblong, and have a short petiole-like structure at the base (Navie 2004).

For further information and assistance with identification of Arundinaria species, contact the herbarium in your state or territory.

Distribution:

Arundinaria Reed (Arundinaria simonii f. variegata) is only known to be naturalised on Lord Howe Island (Navie 2004).

Habit:Grass
Key points:
  • Arundinaria

species are small to larger bamboos that can spread via underground rhizomes.

  • They are potential weeds of urban bushland, roadsides, and open woodland, in sub-tropical and warmer temperate climates.
  • Arundinaria Reed (A. simonii f. variegata) is the only species known to be naturalised in Australia.
  • On Lord Howe Island, Arundinaria Reed can form dense stands that out-compete native plants and can disrupt the nesting and burrowing of native bird species.
How it spreads:

Dispersal in Arundinaria species can occur by the spread of seeds, and in some species by creeping underground stems (rhizomes). In Arundinaria Reed (A. simonii f. variegata) [as A. simonii], seed production is rare, and spread usually occurs via the rhizomes spreading outwards from plantings or from dumped garden waste (Navie 2004).

Where it grows:

Arundinaria species are potential weeds of urban bushland, roadsides, and open woodland, in sub-tropical and warmer temperate climates (Navie 2004).

Flower colour:

Yellow, Red, Orange, Green

Distribution map: Unknown
Impacts:

On Lord Howe Island, Arundinaria Reed (A. simonii f. variegata) forms dense stands that displace native plant species, prevent understorey regeneration, and can disrupt the nesting and burrowing of native bird species (The Norman Wettenhall Foundation 2004).

Origin:

Arundinaria species are native to mainland China and the Ryukyus (Clayton et al. 2008).

History:

Arundinaria and Semiarundinaria species are widely cultivated as ornamental plants, for example Semiarundinaria japonica [as Arundinaria japonica], S. fastuosa [as A. fastuosa and A. viridis] are commonly cultivated in some areas of Australia (Jacobs & Hastings 2007; Richardson et al. 2006). Beyond cultivation, it is unknown if any of these species have become naturalised anywhere on mainland Australia. Arundinaria Reed (A. simonii f. variegata) [as A. simonii] is naturalised on Lord Howe Island (Navie 2004).

Photograph
 


More photos

Top

Disclaimer
This database is designed to provide information, including biological and ecological, on invasive plant species that are on a national weed list, or are legislated against in a state or territory. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. For further information on the images contained in the database please contact the copyright owner. All images in the weed identification tool are managed by the Australian Plant Image Index (APII). Various copyright conditions apply for these images. For further information on the copyright conditions of images contained in the database please contact the APII at: photo@anbg.gov.au.