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Misgolas mascordi (Family Idiopidae)

Southern Tube Spider

Distribution:

Tube spiders are found sporadically in moist forest habitats, especially in rainforests and their margins. Northern Tube Spiders range from the Dorrigo region of New South Wales into south-eastern Queensland (NSW, QLD)

Features:

Nothern Tube Spiders are large brown, burrowing spiders (body length 15 to 25 millimetres). They are unexceptional apart from their remarkable habit of building aerial tubes that extend their burrows well above the ground. Their numerous relatives in the genus Misgolas build burrows with ground-level openings that are commonly seen in bushland and gardens in eastern Australia.

Ecology/Way of Life:

The aerial tubes, open at the top, are supported against rocks, stems, tree trunks or buttress roots. Sometimes they occur in clusters "like miniature organ pipes". Each tube is attached to its supporting structure only by the silk collar at the tube's mouth - the rest simply lies alongside the support or even hangs free of it. Tubes can reach 30 centimetres in height, although one older report has a tube extending "up to three feet" (about 90 centimetres). The tubes are made of thin, parchment-like silk, often admixed with soil particles and adorned with moss. The tube wall thickens at ground level but it is only weakly attached to the finer silk of the burrow below, which descends 15 to 20 centimetres to a sock-like, silken retreat chamber. When hunting, the spider usually sits in the tube mouth waiting to ambush any prey passing nearby.

Why build these curious aerial tubes? Tube spiders are found in moist forest habitats that may be prone to waterlogging or flooding, such as rainforest creek banks and gullys. Consequently, one function of the aerial tube may be to provide an above ground retreat for the spider during rainfall-induced sheet flooding or creek overflows. In addition, the tube elevates the spider into a feeding niche above the forest floor. This would allow these spiders to intercept insect and other prey moving across rocks or between ground and foliage along stems, so avoiding direct feeding competition with ground dwelling spiders. Prey animals can even use the tube itself as an aerial walkway. The tube may then act as an early warning system that alerts the spider to the presence of prey, as well as a means of delivering prey directly to the spider waiting above.

Preferred Image

Interaction with Humans/Threats:

No threats are known for these spiders.

Other Comments:

Graham Wishart described Misgolas mascordi in 1992, naming it after Ramon Mascord, an Australian amateur arachnologist. The origin of Misgolas has not been established as yet.

Further Reading:

McKeown, K.C. (1963). Australian Spiders. Sirius Books: Angus & Robertson.

Main, B.Y. & Mascord, R. (1974). Description and natural history of a "tube building" species of Dyarcyops from New South Wales and Queensland (Mygalomorphae: Ctenizidae). Journal of the Entomological Society of Australia (NSW) 8: 15-21.

Wishart, G. (1992). New species of the trapdoor spider genus Misgolas Karsch (Mygalomorphae: Idiopidae) with a review of the tube building species. Records of the Australian Museum 44: 263-278.

Topics:

Spider webs Silk Prey capture

Acknowledgments:

Text & map by Mike Gray; photograph by Mike Gray, courtesy of the Australian Museum.

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image/jpeg 66127 bytes Misgolas masgordi

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