In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||
Listed migratory - JAMBA
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
|Policy Statements and Guidelines||
Marine bioregional plan for the Temperate East Marine Region (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012aa) [Admin Guideline].
Federal Register of
List of Migratory Species (13/07/2000) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000b) [Legislative Instrument].
Declaration under section 248 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of Marine Species (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000c) [Legislative Instrument].
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Non-statutory Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Oceanites oceanicus |
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
Scientific name: Oceanites oceanicus
Common name: Wilson's Storm-Petrel
Other names: Flat-clawed or Yellow-webbed Storm-Petrel, Mother Carey's Chicken.
Conventionally accepted as Oceanites oceanicus (Christidis & Boles 2008).
Three subspecies are recognised (Marchant & Higgins 1990); Oceanites oceanicus oceanicus breeding on subantarctic islands; O. o. exasperatus breeding on the Antarctic mainland and Scotia Sea islands; and O. o. maorianus which was described from only three specimens from New Zealand waters in the 1800s, and has not been recorded since (Marchant & Higgins 1990).
Wilson's Storm-Petrel is one of the world's most abundant seabirds and the smallest endotherm (generating its own heat for warmth) that breeds in Antarctic waters (Büßer et al. 2004; Quillfeldt & Möstl 2003).
Adults are almost entirely sooty-brown in colour except for the rump (white) and the flanks, thighs and the secondary coverts (feathers) on the upperwings (greyish-brown). The iris is brown and the bill is black. The long, thin legs, feet and toes are black with yellow webbing to the feet. There is no seasonal variation in plumage. Sexes are similar in plumage, and there is negligible sexual size dimorphism (Copestake & Croxall 1985; Gladbach et al. 2009).
The average size of individuals is 15–19 cm in length, with a wingspan of 38–42 cm. Each wing is 14–15 cm long, and the tail is 5.7–6.2 cm long. The average weight of a Wilson's Storm-Petrel is approximately 34–50 grams (Lindsay 1986; Marchant & Higgins 1990). Wilson's Storm-Petrels are gregarious; congregating when feeding and migrating and breeding colonially. At sea they are found singularly or in small flocks. Historically, groups of hundreds to thousands were recorded at whaling stations (Marchant & Higgins 1990).
In Australia, most reports of the Wilson's Storm-Petrel are from the edge of the continental shelf and during autumn. The species is known to breed on Heard Island, where it is described as abundant (Woehler & Johnstone 1991).
The species is common off the coast of Queensland during May to September, but are scarce off south-east Queensland during the north and southwards migrations (Storr 1984b). During this time, the species is recorded more regularly off New South Wales (NSW), Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia; with maximum abundances in March to June and October to November (Reid et al. 2002).
Off Western Australia and the Northern Territory, Wilson's Storm-Petrels are mainly observed along the coast during migration (Marchant & Higgins 1990).
The Wilson's Storm-Petrel is a pelagic (marine) species distributed throughout most of the world's oceans. Its distribution stretches north through the mid-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere and south through the oceans surrounding Australia and the Australian Antarctic Territory (AAT) (Marchant & Higgins 1990).
The breeding range of Wilson's Storm-Petrel includes subantarctic islands from Cape Horn, Chile, east to the Kerguelen Islands, the French Southern Territories and also includes coastal Antarctica (Marchant & Higgins 1990).
The species undertakes a trans-equatorial migration in autumn, spending the non-breeding season in the Northern Hemisphere. Northernmost records include the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans, the Persian Gulf, Japan and Washington, and north-western United States of America (Birdlife International 2010b; Marchant & Higgins 1990). The species is rare in the south-east Pacific Ocean and off western and southern Africa and south-east Arabia. Individuals are rarely observed in New Zealand waters, though occasionally seen in the Southern Ocean in winter (Marchant & Higgins 1990). On the Antarctic continent, the species breeds from Bertrab Nunatak (77°52' S 34°37' W) and surrounding islands (Velez 1995) in the south, to the Subantarctic Zone (including the AAT and Heard Island) in the north.
In summer, Wilson's Storm-Petrels move in a circumpolar oceanic range, mostly restricted to the Southern Ocean (south of 50° S to 40° S in the south-west region of the range). In the Atlantic and south-west Indian Oceans, the species is found to approximately 30° S off western South America (Marchant & Higgins 1990).
In the breeding season, the species is seen foraging near to breeding sites. Their range extends a few degrees into the Subtropical Zone where breeding is on islands is close to the Subtropical Convergence. In the Ross Sea in summer, most birds are within 500 km of nesting grounds, and individuals are mainly found in open water north of pack ice. Within pack-ice, the Wilson's Storm-Petrel frequents light pack. However, the species is more often seen over wide leads and pools rather than near ice-floes or brash-ice. Concentrations of the Wilson's Storm-Petrel have been observed at the edge of pack ice. On the Antarctic Continent, birds are occasionally seen well inland (Marchant & Higgins 1990).
The global population of the Wilson's Storm-Petrel is estimated to be in the order of 12 000 000–30 000 000 birds (Birdlife International 2010b).
The population is considered to be stable (Marchant & Higgins 1990). However, populations have not been adequately surveyed to determine whether or not they are decreasing (Woehler & Johnstone 1991).
Within the Antarctic area, certain sites have been designated Specially Protected Areas (ASPA) (ATS 2008) to preserve historical, scientific and environmental values. Some of these include sites of breeding importance to the Wilson's Storm-Petrel, namely:
- Ardery Island and Odbert Island, Budd Coast (ASPA 103)
- Southern Powell Island and adjacent islands, South Orkney Islands (ASPA 15)
- Coppermine Peninsula, Robert Island, South Shetland Islands (ASPA 112)
- Northern Coronation Island, South Orkney Islands (ASPA 114)
- Avian Island, Marguerite Bay, Antarctic Peninsula (ASPA 117)
- and Pointe-Geologie Archipelago, Terre Adélie (ASPA 120).
Wilson's Storm-Petrel spends much of its life at sea (Marchant & Higgins 1990).
On migration in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, the species remains far out to sea; although first-year birds may follow the coasts of southern continents. Birds often congregate and feed at ocean fronts, and are occasionally sighted inshore (Marchant & Higgins 1990). In south-east Australia, Wilson's Storm-Petrels are found over waters of surface temperatures between 9.4–22.0 °C (Reid et al. 2002).
In the non-breeding season, the birds are mainly seen in tropical and subtropical waters (Marchant & Higgins 1990). In pack-ice, the species rests on ice-floes and flies in the shelter of floes during gales. Outside of the breeding season, the Wilson's Storm-Petrel roosts on the sea surface (Marchant & Higgins 1990).
Breeding habitat for the species is on the Antarctic Continent and Peninsula, and peri-Antarctic and Subantarctic islands. The birds are found in snow and ice-free areas utilising cliffs, scree slopes, moraines, rocky headlands, hills, and broken or boulder-strewn low-lying ground, fissures or crevices. Breeding distribution in high latitudes may be limited by the extent of ice-free land (Marchant & Higgins 1990).
The life expectancy of a Wilson's Storm-Petrel is approximately 10 years and four months (Quillfeldt & Möstl 2003).
Birds do not become sexually mature until they are approximately four to six years of age, and show strong monogamous bonds which are formed in the years pre-sexual maturity (Bretagnolle 1996).
The breeding season for the Wilson's Storm-Petrel is from November to December and March to May (Marchant & Higgins 1990).
The species usually nests in holes and crevices in cliffs, screes, rocky banks, outcrops and also under overhanging rocks. Burrows are sometimes found in volcanic ash, crevices in turf, among roots of Nothofagus and in moss banks and in tussock grassland. Occasionally nests are exposed (Marchant & Higgins 1990).
In the southern parts of its range, most nest chambers are within 15–30 cm of the surface at end of tunnels 20–50 cm long. Farther north, chambers may be up to one metre from the surface and tunnels equally as long. The same nesting site is used year after year (Marchant & Higgins 1990).
At Graham Land and Signy Island, breeding areas face mostly north or north-west to shelter from prevailing winds (Marchant & Higgins 1990). Males will actively defend breeding burrows but do not protect a specific territory during the breeding season (Bretagnolle 1996).
Egg Laying and Parental Care
Wilson's Storm-Petrels lay single egg clutches. Both parents incubate the chick, rotating approximately every two days, and attend to the provisioning of chicks. Hatching mainly takes place in the first half of February and chicks stay in the nest burrows for about 60 days. During the day, the chick is left unattended and is fed by adults on nocturnal visits until fledging. Fledging starts in the second half of March (Gladbach et al. 2009; Marchant & Higgins 1990).
Chicks can reach 145% of adult body weight by fledging, and adult Wilson's Storm-Petrels may also increase their body weight during chick raising. This is due to the provisioning of krill in February to March when it is at its peak density in waters surrounding breeding sites (Copestake & Croxall 1985). This ability to gain sufficient weight will impact the success of the individual.
Chick and Fledgling Success
Chick success is highly variable. High failure rates are caused by food shortages and entombment of chicks due to snowstorms, as burrow entrances become blocked (Büßer et al. 2004; Gladbach et al. 2009). Losses due to entombment are reported as an important cause of nesting failure in all studies of the species from South Orkney Island southwards (Marchant & Higgins 1990).
Fledging success is also varied. A study on various islands found the average rate of fledging success to be 46% (0–73%; n=35) at South Orkney Island and 28% (n=50) at South Shetland Island. Argentine Island fledging success was 35% (n=20) and Terre Adélie 40% (n=5) and 52% (n=23) in separate studies (Marchant & Higgins 1990). Total breeding success may be much lower than this, with the loss of fledged chicks high. At South Shetland Island, total breeding success was reported to be 10.3% and at Terre Adélie 20–31% (Gladbach et al. 2009; Marchant & Higgins 1990).
Known breeding sites are listed below, with population estimates stated where available (Marchant & Higgins 1990; Woehler & Johnstone 1991; Woehler 1993b):
- Queen Maud Land: Shirmacher Hills; Ongul Island; Proclamation Island
- Mac. Robertson Land: Scullin Monolith
- Princess Elizabeth Land: Rauer Group; Vestfold Hills (approximately 40 000 pairs)
- Davis Sea area: Gaussberg; Haswell Island (500 pairs)
- Wilkes Land & Queen Mary Land (1600 pairs)
- George V Land (20 pairs)
- Terre Adélie: Cape Hunter; Cape Denison (2355 pairs)
- Ross Sea Sector: Scott Island; Cape Adare; Cape Hallett; Maubray Bay/Edisto Inlet; Felsite Isand; Greater Cirque; Franklin Island; Inexpressible Island; possibly Balleny Island (total population approximately 128 000 pairs)
- Marie Byrd Land: Peter Island
- Antarctic Peninsula: Hope Bay; Tower Island; Base Gabriel Gonzalez Videla; Wiencke Island; Cormorant, Anvers, Dream Islands; Booth Island, Petermann Island; Argentine Island; Detaille, Horseshoe Islands; Leonie, Jenny Islands; Dion Island; Avian Island (total population approximately 100 000–1 000 000 pairs)
- South Shetland Island (approximately 1 000 000 pairs)
- South Orkney Island (10 000 pairs)
- South Georgia (600 000 pairs)
- S. Sandwich Island (10 000–100 000 pairs)
- Iles Crozet (approximately 10 000 pairs)
- Iles Kerguelen (200 000–500 000 pairs)
- Heard Island
- Cape Horn area
- Falkland Island.
Wilson's Storm-Petrels are diurnal feeders, consuming mainly pelagic (marine) crustaceans and fish with some cephalopods, polychaetes, gastropods and carrion.
In Antarctic waters, the species mainly eats euphausiid crustaceans (krill, especially Euphausia superba and Thysanoessa sp.) and to a lesser extent, juvenile and larval fish, amphipods (such as Themisto gaudichaudii) and small quantities of copepods and isopods (Marchant & Higgins 1990).
Seasonality of Diet
The diet of the Wilson's Storm-Petrel shifts from mainly crustaceans during egg formation to an increased proportion of fish during chick-rearing and moulting (Quillfeldt et al. 2005). Fish prey includes Antarctic Silverside (Pleuragramma antarcticum), Lanternfish (Protomyctophum bolini) and Norman's Lanternfish (P. normani). Squid are usually taken in higher proportions outside the breeding season. Species consumed include the Glacial Squid (Psychroteuthis glacialis) and Orchomene sp. Other items eaten include cirriped larvae, gastropods and nereid worms (Marchant & Higgins 1990).
Feeding is mainly carried out in cold waters over continental shelves or inshore (del Hoyo et al. 1992). It is accomplished by 'pattering', with birds hovering over the water with feet skimming or running over the surface. The species take prey from the sea surface or from depths shallower than 10–15 cm. Food is also taken by dipping, surface-seizing, shallow-plunging and, rarely, surface-diving (Marchant & Higgins 1990). Birds are also known to scavenge offal, particularly on the oil slicks of E. superba (Marchant & Higgins 1990) and readily follow ships, trawlers or cetaceans in order to scavenge for 'left-overs' (AAD 2010). Wilson's Storm-Petrels rarely alights on the water to feed (Marchant & Higgins 1990).
Around Antarctica, 72.9% of observations of the feeding systems of Wilson's Storm-Petrel were of pattering with 27.1% of observations being of dipping (n=284) (Harper 1987). Comparatively, in the Ross Sea, 74% of observations were of pattering, 23% were of dipping and 3% were of surface-seizing (n=35) (Harper 1987).
Most food is taken in small pieces by seemingly sucking up particles of floating oil but they will readily feed at larger pieces of offal and carcasses. The species appears to locate food partly by scent, being attracted to sponges soaked with cod liver oil but not those soaked with mineral oil (Marchant & Higgins 1990).
The species departs breeding colonies from mid-February to late May, though timing varies greatly among sites and between years. Birds migrate to overwinter in tropical or subtropical waters in the Indian Ocean, Gulf of Aden in south-east Arabia and the Red Sea, Andaman Sea and Malacca Strait, northern Australia and Indonesia, and possibly as far west as the Torres Strait between September and November (Marchant & Higgins 1990).
The species is reported (anecdotally) to range continuously from the Torres Strait to the Kimberley region of Australia during July to August, including the Arafura Sea. A report of up to 1200 birds apparently migrating east in the Gulf of Carpentaria between Irian Jaya and Aru and Kai Islands was recorded in July to August 1984 (Marchant & Higgins 1990). There is also a possible clockwise movement from Arabian seas moving to waters south-west of India and Sri Lanka, where large concentrations of birds are seen in August, with departure beginning in September and mass departures reported early November. Large concentrations of Wilson's Storm-Petrels have also been observed off Cape Gardafui, Somalia, in early November (Marchant & Higgins 1990).
Australian and Pacific Ocean Movements
In Australian waters, and surrounding areas, most observations of the species are during autumn months. Both north and south migrations move birds along the coast of NSW, Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia. There are also records of the species from the Great Barrier Reef in late May (Marchant & Higgins 1990).
In the south-west Pacific Ocean, Wilson's Storm-Petrels are observed on passage off New Caledonia in March to June; off Vanuatu in October; the Solomon Islands in April; and Papua New Guinea (PNG) in May and September to November. Winter records from southern PNG, Solomon Island and the Coral Sea suggest a possible extension of wintering areas off northern Australia to the northern Coral Sea (Marchant & Higgins 1990).
In the central Pacific Ocean, migrants are observed off Phoenix Island in April and October to November, and Marshall Island from April to May, to September and possibly November. Wintering areas are possibly in waters off Japan, where birds are caught in April, July, August and November (Marchant & Higgins 1990).
Wilson's Storm-Petrels return to breeding sites in late October to early December. During summer, some immatures remain in tropic areas but adults may be distributed within 750 km of breeding sites. The maximum foraging range of breeding birds at South Georgia is estimated at 189–250 km and at the Antarctic Peninsula, 744 km (Marchant & Higgins 1990).
The white band across the rump and the yellow webbing is diagnostic but the Wilson's Storm-Petrel is hard to identify, especially in flight. The square tail, brownish wingbar (usually best seen on worn plumage) and feet slightly extending beyond tail are useful identifiers (Lindsay 1986).
In Australian territories, the dark morph of the White-bellied Storm-Petrel (Fregetta grallaria) may be confused with the Wilson's Storm-Petrel. Furthermore, the species is also superficially similar to Leach's Storm-Petrel (Oceanodroma leucorhoa) (Marchant & Higgins 1990).
Contact With Man-Made Materials
Ingestion of plastics is a primary threat to Wilson's Storm-Petrels, with a high proportion of adults and pre-fledged chicks reported to have plastic in stomachs (Moser & Lee 1992).
Entanglement of legs by fishing mesh or nylon line has occurred in the Northern Atlantic (Moore 1992).
Eggs and chicks are predated by sheathbills (Chionis sp.), Kelp Gulls (Larus dominicanus) and skuas (Catharacta sp.), and also by rats (Rattus rattus and R. norvegicu) and cats (Felis sp.) where they occur, such as on Iles Crozet and Iles Kerguelen (Marchant & Higgins 1990).
Adults are taken mostly by Great Skuas (C. skua) which take Wilson's Storm-Petrels from the ground and in flight. Remains of Wilson's Storm-Petrels are frequent in Skuas' middens (ground burrow used for food) at many sites. At South Georgia, some birds may be taken by Southern Giant-Petrels (Macronectes giganteus) and Northern Giant-Petrels (M. halli). There is one record of predation of a Wilson's Storm-Petrel by a shark (Marchant & Higgins 1990).
Habitat loss or modification and human disturbance around Antarctic scientific bases are potentially a threat, although difficult to quantify (Woehler 1993b).
Pesticide residues and traces of heavy metals are also potentially threatening (Marchant & Higgins 1990; Moser & Lee 1992; van Franeker & Bell 1988; Woehler 1993b), as is competition with fisheries (especially for krill) (del Hoyo et al. 1992).
Marine bioregional plans have been developed for four of Australia's marine regions - South-west, North-west, North and Temperate East. Marine Bioregional Plans will help improve the way decisions are made under the EPBC Act, particularly in relation to the protection of marine biodiversity and the sustainable use of our oceans and their resources by our marine-based industries. Marine Bioregional Plans improve our understanding of Australia's oceans by presenting a consolidated picture of the biophysical characteristics and diversity of marine life. They describe the marine environment and conservation values of each marine region, set out broad biodiversity objectives, identify regional priorities and outline strategies and actions to address these priorities. Click here for more information about marine bioregional plans.
The Wilson's Storm-petrel has been identified as a conservation value in the Temperate East (DSEWPaC 2012aa) Marine Region. See Schedule 2 of the Temperate East Marine Bioregional Plan (DSEWPaC 2012aa) for regional advice. Maps of Biologically Important Areas have been developed for Wilson's Storm-petrel in the Temperate East (DSEWPaC 2012aa) Marine Region and may provide additional relevant information. Go to the conservation values atlas to view the locations of these Biologically Important Areas. The "species group report card - seabirds" for the Temperate East (DSEWPaC 2012aa) Marine Region provides additional information.
Management documents for the Wilson's Storm-Petrel include:
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Overfishing, competition with fishing operations and overfishing of prey fishing||Oceanites oceanicus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006rq) [Internet].|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities||Oceanites oceanicus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006rq) [Internet].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation||Rattus norvegicus (Brown Rat, Norway Rat)||Oceanites oceanicus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006rq) [Internet].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation||Rattus rattus (Black Rat, Ship Rat)|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or predation by birds|
|Natural System Modifications:Natural System Modifications:Indirect and direct habitat loss due to human activities|
|Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Ingestion and entanglement with marine debris|
|Pollution:Pollution:Pestitcide application and runoff|
|Pollution:Pollution:Pollution due to oil spills and other chemical pollutants|
Antarctic Treaty System (ATS) (2008). Antarctic Protected Areas database. [Online]. Available from: http://www.ats.aq/devPH/apa/ep_protected_search.aspx?type=2&lang=e. [Accessed: 02-Nov-2010].
Australian Antarctic Division (AAD) (2005). Heard Island and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management Plan. Kingston, Tasmania: Australian Antarctic Division.
Australian Antarctic Division (AAD) (2010). Wilson's Storm Petrel factsheet. [Online]. Available from: http://www.antarctica.gov.au/about-antarctica/fact-files/animals/flying-birds/wilsons-storm-petrel. [Accessed: 02-Nov-2010].
Büßer, C., A. Kahles & P. Quillfeldt (2004). Breeding success and chick provisioning in Wilson's storm-petrels Oceanites oceanicus over seven years: frequent failures due to food shortage and entombment. Polar Biology. 27:613-622.
BirdLife International (2010b). Species factsheet: Oceanites oceanicus. [Online]. Available from: http://www.birdlife.org. [Accessed: 20-Oct-2010].
Bretagnolle, V. (1996). Acoustic communication in a group of nonpasserine birds, the petrels. In: Kroodsma, DE & E.H. Miller, eds. Ecology and evolution of acoustic communication in birds. Page(s) 160-178. Comstock/Cornell Publishing, Ithaca, N.Y.
Christidis, L. & W.E. Boles (2008). Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. Collingwood, Victoria: CSIRO Publishing.
Copestake, PG & Croxall, JP (1985). Aspects of the breeding biology of Wilson's Storm Petrel Oceanites oceanicus at Bird Island, South Georgia. British Antarctica Survey Bulletin. 66:7-17.
del Hoyo, J., A. Elliot & J. Sargatal (1992). Ostrich to Ducks. In: Handbook of the Birds of the World. 1. Spain: Lynx Edicions.
Gladbach, A., C. Braun, A. Nordt, H.U. Peter & P. Quillfeldt (2009). Chick provisioning and nest attendance of male and female Wilson's storm petrels Oceanites oceanicus. Polar Biology. 32:1315-1321.
Harper, P.C. (1987). Feeding behaviour and other notes on 20 species of procellariiformes at sea. Notornis. 34:169-182.
International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) (2010). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. [Online]. Available from: http://www.iucnredlist.org.
Lindsay, T. (1986). The Seabirds of Australia. Angus and Robertson, Sydney.
Marchant, S. & P.J. Higgins (1990). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Volume One - Ratites to Ducks. Melbourne, Victoria: Oxford University Press.
Moore, C.C. (1992). Wilson's Petrel with legs ensnared in fishing mesh. British Birds. 85:556.
Moser, M.L. & D.S. Lee (1992). A fourteen-year survey of plastic ingestion by western North Atlantic birds. Colonial Waterbirds. 15:83-94.
Quillfeldt, P. & E. Möstl (2003). Resource allocation in Wilson's storm-petrels Oceanites oceanicus determined by measurement of glucocorticoid excretion. Acta Ethologica. 5(2):115-122.
Reid, T.A., M.A. Hindell, D.W. Eades & M. Newman (2002). Seabird Atlas of South-east Australian Waters. Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union Monograph 4. Melbourne, Victoria: Birds Australia (R.A.O.U.).
Storr, G.M. (1984b). Birds of the Pilbara Region, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum, Supplement No. 16, Perth, Western Australian Museum.
Van Franeker, J.A. & P.A. Bell (1988). Plastic ingestion by petrels breeding in Antarctica. Marine Pollution Bulletin . 19(12):672-674.
Velez, L.G. (1995). Wilson's Storm Petrels Oceanites oceanicus breeding at the Bertrab Nunatak, Filchner Iceshelf, Antarctica. Marine Ornithology. 23:67.
Woehler, E.J. (1993b). Antarctic seabirds: their status and conservation in the Australian Antarctic Territory. RAOU Conservation Statement No. 9. Wingspan. 12(4):Suppl.
Woehler, E.J. & G.W. Johnstone (1991). Status and conservation of the seabirds of the Australian Antarctic Territory. In: Croxall, J.P., ed. Seabird Status and Conservation: A Supplement. ICBP Technical Publication 11. Page(s) 279-308. Cambridge, UK, ICBP.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Oceanites oceanicus in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sat, 12 Jul 2014 02:40:26 +1000.