In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Endangered|
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans||
Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010o) [Recovery Plan].
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Randia moorei |
|Reference||Flora Australiensis 3: 411 (5 Jan. 1867).|
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
The current conservation status of the Spiny Gardenia, Randia moorei, under Australian and State Government legislation, is as follows:
National: Listed as Endangered under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999
NSW: Listed as Endangered under the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995
Queensland: Listed as Endangered under the Nature Conservation Act 1992
Scientific name: Randia moorei
Common name: Spiny Gardenia
The genus Randia s. lat. in Australia has been revised (Puttock 1999; Puttock & Quinn 1999). Of the three species of Randia in NSW, R. chartaceus and R. sessilis have now been transferred to the New Caledonia genus Atractocarpus. However, the transfer of Randia moorei to another genus has not been taken up, hence the name Randia moorei is still recognised, in line with Harden (1992) (which shows Xeromphis sp. as a synonym). Randia moorei was listed as a synonym under Xeromphis sp. in Floyd (1989).
Spiny Gardenia is a shrub or small tree growing up to 10 m in height with flowers that are cream to yellow (Floyd 1989; NSW DEC 2004b). The outer bark is smooth or scaly and live bark is green and brown with short vertical pale stripes (Barry & Thomas 1994; Floyd 1989). Flowers are borne in the axils singly or in pairs on 2–6 mm long stalks. The fruits are yellow urn-shaped berries, 6–8 mm long, which later become black when dry (Floyd 1989; Quinn et al. 1995).
Spiny Gardenia is endemic to eastern Australia where it is known from Lismore, north-east NSW, and northwards to the Logan River in the Moreton District of south-east Queensland (Briggs & Leigh 1995; Floyd 1989; Quinn et al 1995; Stanley & Ross 1986). However, the current distribution of the species within this range is poorly understood (NSW DEC 2004b).
Spiny Gardenia is established in cultivation at the Australian National Botanic Gardens (Australian Network for Plant Conservation cited in Quinn et al. 1995).
There are 33 verified sites in NSW, known to support 121 mature plants and 98 juvenile plants. In 2004, there were 11 sites recorded in Queensland that supported a total of 15 plants (NSW DEC 2004b). More recent reports show there are additional sites in Queensland supporting approximately 1500 plants in total (GCCC 2007).
NSW:In NSW the species is known from four Nature Reserves: Brunswick Heads Nature Reserve, Broken Head Nature Reserve, Stotts Island Nature Reserve and Wilson Park Nature Reserve. It has also been found in the Mooball State Forest (DEC NSW 2004b; Quinn et al. 1995). Only historic records exist for the latter three Nature Reserves and are yet to be reconfirmed. The species also occurs within Birds Bay Council Reserve (NSW DEC 2004b).
Other sites in NSW include Mt Chincogan, Terranora, Barneys Point, Old Ferry Road, Brunswick River and Tony's Island. The species has also been recorded on private land, a school property and on a roadside reserve (Old Lismore Road) managed by the Tweed Shire Council (NSW DEC 2004b).
The largest known population is at Brunswick Heads Nature Reserve with more than 60 individuals occurring over 0.4 ha. Seedlings and/or small suckers are present around several mature trees. The Tony's Island site has large to medium trees and smaller plants present. Large trees have also been recorded from Stotts Island Nature Reserve (J. Hunter pers. comm. cited in NSW DEC 2004b), however, no detailed census data is available for this site (NSW DEC 2004b).
Queensland:In Queensland the species is recorded within two small National Parks: Nicoll Scrub National Park and Burleigh Head National Park (Barry & Thomas 1994; Briggs & Leigh 1995; NSW DEC 2004b) and three conservation areas: Wilkies Scrub Conservation Area (CA), Upper Mudgeeraba CA and Darlington Reserve (NSW DEC 2004b; Quinn et al. 1995). The species is also known from Upper Tallebudgera Creek and the Darlington Range-Ormeau-Wongawallen area (Barry & Thomas 1994; NSW DEC 2004b). Additional Queensland sites have been found at Currumbin Valley, consisting of one mature shrub, and Mudgeeraba, consisting of three mature shrubs. The topography of the Currumbin site probably restricts clearing (Searle 2001). The species has been recorded recently in several sub-populations around Hinze Dam with an approximate overall population size of 1500 plants (GCCC 2007).
The Darlington Range population, part of which is now within Darlington Reserve, consists of approximately 60 plants (Quinn et al. 1995).
Populations in Tallebudgera Creek valley consist of only one or a few remnant trees and their habitat is largely unsecured (Barry & Thomas 1994).
The site referred to as Ormeau (Barry & Thomas 1994) was, in part, acquired by Gold Coast City Council in 2000 and is now managed as Wilkies Scrub Conservation Area (approximately 20 ha). The protected population consists of at least 10 individuals (Searle 2001).
Spiny Gardenia grows in subtropical, riverine, littoral and dry stunted rainforests (NSW DEC 2004b; Floyd 1989; Quinn et al 1995; Stanley & Ross 1986) along moist scrubby water courses at altitudes up to 360 m asl, with most records made from below 100 m asl (NSW DEC 2004b).
Soils: Spiny Gardenia occurs on soils derived from basalt, shales, slate or alluvium (NSW DEC 2004b).
Associated species: Barry and Thomas (1994) provide lists of associated species for Nicoll Scrub National Park, Burleigh Head National Park, upper Tallebudgera Creek valley and Darlington Range-Ormeau-Wongawallan. Forster and colleagues (1991) list associated rare and endangered species for six Queensland sites: Nicoll Scrub National Park, Burleigh Head National Park, Upper Ormeau-Pimpama River, Cliff Barron Rd, Ormeau and Wongawallan.
Currumbin Creek Road: At Currumbin Creek Road, Spiny Gardenia occurs on a raised terrace adjacent to the Currumbin Creek riparian corridor (about 40 m from the creekbank) in drier subtropical rainforest. Other rare and endangered species at the site include Black Walnut (Endiandra globosa), Fine-leaved Tuckeroo (Lepiderema pulchella), Long-leaved Tuckeroo (Cupaniopsis newmanii), Rhodamnia maideniana and Cordyline congesta (Searle 2001).
Upper Mudgeeraba Conservation Area: At Upper Mudgeeraba Conservation Area the species occurs in drier subtropical rainforest along gully lines of a tributary of Mudgeeraba Creek. Other rare and endangered species at the site are Rusty Rose Walnut (Endiandra hayesii), Long-leaved Tuckeroo, Silver Leaf (Argophyllum nullumense) and Cordyline congesta (Searle 2001).
Wilkies Scrub: At Wilkies Scrub, Spiny Gardenia occurs with several other rare and endangered species including Floyd's Walnut (Endiandra floydii), Native Jute (Corchorus cunninghamii), Marbled Balogia (Baloghia marmorata), Stinking Cryptocarya (Cryptocarya foetida), Macadamia Nut (Macadamia integrifolia), Long-leaved Tuckeroo and Cordyline congesta (Searle 2001).
Flowering: Spiny Gardenia has been recorded flowering from July to October with flower buds recorded in May at Tony's Island NSW (A. McKinley & B. Stewart pers. obs., cited in NSW DEC 2004b).
Fruiting: The fruiting period for the Spiny Gardenia appears to be irregular. Fruits are ripe from July to August and in December (Barry & Thomas 1994; Floyd 1989).
Seeds: The seeds take approximately three months to germinate and cuttings strike readily (G. Leiper cited in Barry & Thomas 1994).
Vegetative reproduction: Spiny Gardenia coppices and produces root suckers readily, with suckers evident on many plants (A. McKinley & B. Stewart pers. obs., cited in NSW DEC 2004b). Clumps of shrubs and small trees occurring at many sites may represent single genetic individuals (NSW DEC 2004b).
Spiny Gardenia can be distinguished from other small trees and shrubs that share its habitat by the combination of the following characters: thin, dull surfaced, opposite leaves with hollow domatia at some lateral vein angles; axillary spines on new growth; deciduous interpetiolar stipules; flowers with a strong sweet scent and tubular corolla, 5 mm long, cream at first, turning yellow (Floyd 1989; Quinn et al. 1995).
The main threats to Spiny Gardenia include habitat loss and habitat fragmentation due to land clearing for urban development and agriculture; habitat degradation due to weed infestation; roadside maintenance and road widening; and loss of genetic diversity due to small population size (NSW DEC 2004b).
Habitat Loss: Most of the original habitat of Spiny Gardenia has been cleared and most of the recorded sites have only one or few remnant trees. The populations within Queensland National Parks are small and available habitat is limited. Other threats faced by unprotected Queensland populations include road widening, cattle grazing and trampling (Barry & Thomas 1994).
Small population size: Some of the reserved NSW populations are threatened in the long term by small population sizes. This increases the threat of edge effects (e.g. weed invasion) and may also result in a loss of genetic diversity.
Weeds: Weed invasion causes habitat modification and increases competition. Exotic species identified within Burleigh Head National Park include Umbrella Tree (Schefflera actinophylla), Lantana (Lantana camara), Asparagus Fern (Asparagus aethiopicus cv. Sprengeri and A. plumosus), Groundsel (Baccharis halimifolia), Bryophyllum sp., Fleabane (Conyza canadensis), Crofton Weed (Ageratina adenophora), Mistflower (Ageratina riparia), Ochna (Ochna serrulata), Stinking Passionflower (Passiflora foetida), Corky Passionflower (Passiflora suberosa var. suberosa), Passiflora subpeltata, Rivina (Rivina humilis), Easter Cassia (Senna pendula var. glabrata) and Brazilian Nightshade (Solanum seaforthianum) (Barry & Thomas 1994). Weed encroachment is a problem at both Queensland National Parks (Barry & Thomas 1994).
The NSW Recovery Plan(NSW DEC 2004b) specifies objectives and the actions to be taken to ensure the recovery and long-term viability of Spiny Gardenia:
- Co-ordinate the recovery of the Spiny Gardenia.
- Determine the size and extent of the Spiny Gardenia population.
- Conduct monitoring and research into the biology, ecology and genetics of the Spiny Gardenia relevant to the management of the species.
- Manage and protect the Spiny Gardenia population and associated habitat.
- Expand the population size of the Spiny Gardenia.
- Gain an understanding of the cultural importance of the Spiny Gardenia to Local Aboriginal Land Councils, Elders and other groups representing indigenous people.
- Develop and implement a contingency plan to assist the long-term survival of the Spiny Gardenia.
Barry and Thomas (1994) recommend a combination of further habitat protection, research and monitoring, with a view to increasing population sizes above minimum viable population levels. To increase long-term viability of this species, Barry and Thomas (1994) recommend in situ conservation measures integrated with a planned program of ex situ establishment within recognised regional botanic gardens and arboreta with the aim of re-establishing the species at suitable sites within its original distribution range.
Further details of the management requirements of Spiny Gardenia are addressed in Barry and Thomas (1994) and include:
- Habitat Protection: Burleigh Head National Park and Nicholls Scrub National Park provide secure habitat for Spiny Gardenia, although the populations are small and weed intrusion is a issue at both parks. The implementation of a weed control program in these parks is of high priority.
- Research: Research should take into account the distribution of Spiny Gardenia in Queensland and NSW, especially in regard to genetic studies which should consider variability between and within known populations. Relevant research could include reproductive strategies, regeneration, dispersal mechanisms, plant growth requirements and habitat preferences.
- Monitoring: Permanent survey plots should be established and the total population of plants tagged.
The population at Upper Burringbar (Tweed Valley) has benefited from the amelioration of the threats of invasion by Lantana and fire at the site (Quinn et al. 1995).
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation||Randia moorei in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006wm) [Internet].|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes||Randia moorei in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006wm) [Internet].|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Habitat alteration (vegetation, soil, hydrology) due to trampling and grazing by livestock||Randia moorei in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006wm) [Internet].|
|Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation||Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].|
|Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem Degradation:Decline in habitat quality||Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].|
|Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations||Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].|
|Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat destruction, disturbance and/or modification due to mining activities|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation||Ageratina riparia (Mistflower, Mist Flower, Creeping Croftonweed, River Eupatorium, Spreading Mistflower)|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation||Ageratina adenophora (Crofton Weed, Catweed, Hemp Agrimony, Mexican Devil, Sticky Agrimony, Sticky Eupatorium)|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation||Bryophyllum tubiflorum (Mother-of-millions)|
|Lantana camara (Lantana, Common Lantana, Kamara Lantana, Large-leaf Lantana, Pink Flowered Lantana, Red Flowered Lantana, Red-Flowered Sage, White Sage, Wild Sage)|
|Ochna serrulata (Ochna, Mickey Mouse Bush, Mickey Mouse Plant, Birds Eye Bush)|
|Passiflora suberosa (Corky Passion Flower, Corky Passionfruit, Small Passion Flower, Small Passionfruit)|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease|
|Protected status:Protected status:Lack of secure conservation land tenure|
|Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development|
|Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low genetic diversity and genetic inbreeding|
|Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals|
|Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads|
Barry, S.J. & G.T. Thomas (1994). Threatened Vascular Rainforest Plants of South-east Queensland: A Conservation Review. Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage.
Briggs, J.D. & Leigh, J.H. (1995). Rare or Threatened Australian Plants. Revised edition. Collingwood, Victoria: CSIRO Publishing.
Floyd, A.G. (1989). Rainforest Trees of Mainland South-eastern Australia. Melbourne: Inkata Press.
Floyd, A.G. (2004). Personal Communication.
Forster, P.I., P.D. Bostock, L.H. Bird & A.R. Bean (1991). Vineforest Plant Atlas for South-East Queensland with Assessment of Conservation Status. Indooroopilly: Queensland Herbarium.
Gold Coast City Council (GCCC) (2007). Hinze Dam Stage 3 EIS. [Online]. Available from: http://www.hinzedamstage3.com/public_notices_publications.php#5.
Harden, G.J. (Ed.) (1992). Flora of New South Wales Volume 3. Kensington, NSW: University of NSW Press.
NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC) (2004b). Recovery Plan for Randia moorei (Spiny Gardenia). [Online]. Sydney: Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW). Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/nature/recoveryplanSpinygardeniaDec04.pdf.
NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW) (2010o). Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland. [Online]. Sydney South, New South Wales: Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/resource/border-ranges-rainforest-biodiversity-management-plan.
Puttock, C.F. (1999). Revision of Atractocarpus (Rubiaceae: Gardenieae) in Australia and new combinations of some extra-Australian taxa. Australian Systematic Botany. 12:271-309.
Puttock, C.F. & C.J. Quinn (1999). Generic concepts in Australian Gardenieae (Rubiaceae). Australian Systematic Botany. 12:181-199.
Quinn, F., J.B. Williams, C.L. Gross & J. Bruhl (1995). Report on rare and threatened plants of north-eastern New South Wales. Armidale: University of New England.
Searle, J, (2001). BRI file No. 900D. Email letter to B. Markwell regarding populations of Diploglottis moorei and Randia moorei.
Stanley, T.D. & E.M. Ross (1986). Flora of south-eastern Queensland. Volume Two. Brisbane, Queensland: Department of Primary Industries.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Randia moorei in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 19 Sep 2014 04:15:44 +1000.