Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Recovery plan for the community of native species dependent on natural discharge of groundwater from the Great Artesian Basin (Fensham, R.J., W.F. Ponder & R.J. Fairfax, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan for Predation, Habitat Degradation, Competition and Disease Transmission by Feral Pigs (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH), 2005p) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat Abatement Plan for Competition and Land Degradation by Feral Goats (Environment Australia (EA), 1999d) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NSW:Review of the Threatened Species Conservation Act Flora Schedules: Recommendations to the Scientific Committee: Final Summary Report December 2002 (Hogbin, P., 2002) [Report].
NSW:Salt Pipewort - profile (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2005dg) [Internet].
QLD:Eriocaulon carsonii (Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage Protection (Qld DEHP), 2013d) [Internet].
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Endangered (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): December 2013 list)
QLD: Listed as Endangered (Nature Conservation Act 1992 (Queensland): May 2014 list)
SA: Listed as Endangered (National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (South Australia): June 2011 list)
Scientific name Eriocaulon carsonii [10584]
Family Eriocaulaceae:Eriocaulales:Liliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author F.Muell.
Infraspecies author  
Reference Mueller, F.J.H. von (1890) Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 15: 250
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Davies and colleagues (2007) determined that Eriocaulon carsonii consists of three subspecies:

  • Eriocaulon carsonii carsonii, which occurs in the Bourke, Lake Frome, Lake Eyre and Springvale spring super-groups. This subspecies is a small form with has individual rosettes that are up to 10 cm across and flowers that are less than 10 cm tall, and with glabrous (hairless) flower heads (Fensham et al. 2010).
  • E. c. euloense, which occurs in the Eulo spring super-group.
  • E. c. orientale, which occurs in the Springsure, Barcaldine and Mitchell/Staaten Rivers spring super-groups and springs in northern Queensland that are now excluded from the Great Artesian Basin. This subspecies has plants with a range of sizes (i.e. individual rosettes up to 20 cm across and the flowers up to 50 cm tall) with hairy flower heads (Fensham et al. 2010).

In one study, levels of genetic diversity within populations varied from moderately high on one central Queensland spring complex to very low in one South Australia spring complex, despite the latter containing one of the largest populations with high levels of seed set and germination (Davies et al. 2003).

The Salt Pipewort is a herbaceous, perennial, mat-forming herb that grows to 5-12 cm high. It has a basal rosette of leaves and clustered flowers forming a tight head (Fensham et al. 2010). Short rhizomes join the rosettes and the plant typically forms mat-like colonies (Fensham et al. 2010). Leaves are 10-75 mm long and 0.4-16 mm wide at 1 mm from the apex (Davies et al. 2007). The leaf shape is filiform to subulate apex broadening conspiciously to a flat base, with a obtuse to acute leaf tip angle and 3-8 leaf veins (Davies et al. 2007).

The Salt Pipewort currently inhabits nine spring complexes in South Australia, 12 in Queensland and one in New South Wales (Fensham et al. 2010). It is a "mound spring endemic" entirely restricted to flowing mound springs (Pickard 1992b). Such springs occur on all margins of the Great Artesian Basin and are associated with fractures or fault lines (Pickard 1992b; Sainty & Jacobs 1994). The Great Artesian Basin sustains the wetlands with salt pipewort populations, with the exception of two populations in the Einasleigh Uplands region of north Queensland, outside the basin (Fensham et al. 2010). A full list of populations is presented by Fensham and colleagues (2010).

Great Artesian Basin spring wetlands have been well surveyed (Fensham et al. 2010). There is a high level of certainty that no further complexes containing the salt pipewort will be found (Fensham et al. 2010). It is possible that the species was formerly more widespread; Fairfax and Fensham (2002) surveyed the northern portion of the Great Artesian Basin in Queensland and found that 81% of the springs surveyed by Griffiths in the late 1890's were now inactive. There are also reports that the species was present within the wetland of the now inactive Wiggera Spring in the Eulo group (Fairfax & Fensham 2002). In NSW, the species is now extinct at Wee Wattah Springs, the 1888 type locality for the species (Pickard 1992b, 1992c; NSW NPWS 2002n).

There is evidence of recent colonisation and successful deliberate introduction. The Salt Pipewort has dispersed to Gosse Spring in the last 10 years and to Northwest Spring between 1983 and 1988 (Fatchen & Fatchen 1993). The Salt Pipewort was deliberately introduced to Sulphuric Spring some time in the 1980s, where the population has spread and persisted. Fatchen and Fatchen (1993) and NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (2002) describe instances of both colonisation and loss from individual spring wetlands within spring complexes. Further examples of local extinction and colonisation are provided by the monitoring data presented in WMC (2004 cited in Fensham et al. 2010).

The Salt Pipewort is entirely restricted to vents and tails of mound spring wetlands (Davies et al. 2007), particularly springs with shallow standing water with slow flow (Fatchen & Fatchen 1993). It is generally associated with vegetated mounds that, over considerable time, have formed organic fen soils (alkaline equivalent of the acidic peat bog) (NSW NPWS 2002n).

It does occur on floodplains subject to infrequent inundation (Fensham et al. 2010). All populations are in relatively flat landscapes with the exception of one site, where the species occurs in a spring-fed area on the side of a gentle range (Fensham et al. 2010). See Davies (2000b) for details on water chemistry (e.g. conductivity, pH) of the artesian springs.

In New South Wales and South Australia (as E. c. carsonii) the Salt Pipewort is confined to plant species poor sedgeland/grassland most commonly dominated by Cyperus laevigatus with or without Common Reed (Phragmites australis) and Common Fringe-rush (Fimbristylis dichotoma). In western Queensland (as E. c. carsonii) it is associated with sedgeland/grassland vegetation that is slightly more species rich and also contains other sedges (e.g. Fimbristylis spp., Schoenus falcatus), grasses (e.g. couch (Cynodon dactylon), Brown Beetle-grass (Diplachne fusca), Swamp Foxtail (Pennisetum alopecuroides), Eragrostis sp.) and forbs (e.g. Myriophyllum sp., Utricularia spp.) (Davies et al. 2007).

In the Eulo spring super-group in Queensland (as E. c. euloense), the Salt Pipewort occurs in sedgeland/grassland dominated by grasses (Sporobolus pamelae, Swamp Foxtail, Eragrostis sp.), sedges (Fimbristylis spp.) and forbs (e.g. Myriophyllum artesium) (Davies et al. 2007).

In eastern Queensland (as E. c. orientale), the Salt Pipewort occurs in vegetation dominated by grasses (Sporobolus pamelae, Swamp Foxtail), sedges (Common Fringe-rush, Cyperus laevigatus) and forbs (Myriophyllum sp.) (Davies et al. 2007). Communities on springs near Taroom in Queensland have considerable internal heterogeneity and include emergents such as Prickly Tea-tree (Leptospermum juniperinum), Wild May (L. polygalifolium) and the Common Reed (Fensham 1998).

Habitat critical to the survival of the species

Habitat critical to the survival of the Salt Pipewort is all permanent spring-fed wetlands with a groundwater source from the Great Artesian Basin within a 5 km radius of the Edgbaston-Myross spring (145.43° E 22.75° S) and the Moses/Doongma-bulla spring (146.24° E 22.08° S) (Fensham et al. 2010).

The Salt Pipewort produces abundant tiny seeds that germinate readily (Fensham et al. 2010) and flowers all year round, most prolifically in spring (Davies 2001b pers. comm.). The species is capable of colonising suitable habitat within complexes where it is known to occur and also to disperse over considerable distances. However, it has not been recorded on the artificial wetlands habitat created around flowing bores (Fensham et al. 2010). The Salt Pipewort is also capable of vegetative spread and will form substantial mats (Fensham et al. 2010).

Ex situ studies of inflorescences have shown that female Salt Pipewort flowers emerge first for one to four days followed by male flowers whose emergence is staggered over a period of up to 19 days (Davies 2000b). This lack of overlap may be a mechanism to promote outcrossing, however the species' ability to readily reproduce asexually by budding increases the probability that adjacent inflorescences are genetically identical (Davies 2000b).

Davies (2001a) conducted trial burns on mound springs and found that mature Salt Pipewort plants can survive fires due to the insulating properties of the spring water in which they were largely submerged. Plants were still vigorous six months following the fire in three sampled burnt quadrats (Davies 2001a).

The national recovery plan for the 'the community of native species dependent on natural discharge of groundwater from the Great Artesian Basin' (Fensham et al. 2010), an ecological community listed as endangered under the EPBC Act, has been adopted for the Salt Pipewort. The plan aims to maintain or enhance groundwater supplies to discharge spring wetlands, maintain or increase habitat area and health, and increase all populations of endemic organisms. This plan identifies threats to the species, actions that have been undertaken to mitigate these threats and future mitigation actions, which are presented in the following table:

Threat Undertaken actions Future actions
Aquifer draw-down Implementation of Great Artesian Basin Sustainability Initiative (GABSI) (e.g. Department of the Environment 2014). Completion of GABSI. Sustainable use of the aquifer at levels ensuring survival of remaining Salt Pipewort populations.
Excavation of springs (to improve access to water) In some cases landholders/managers have been made aware of the threats to the target species and relevance of the EPBC Act. Perpetual arrangements that prohibit excavation.
Ponded pastures In some cases landholder/managers have been made aware of the threats to the target species and relevance of the EPBC Act. Eradicate all known populations of ponded pasture species.
Stock and feral animal disturbance (grazing and trampling) Some springs have been fenced. There is some monitoring and research being conducted to document the effects of fencing and stock removal. Fence certain springs. Provide alternative water sources. Regulate stock use. Monitor effects.
Pig disturbance Pig control is conducted on the properties of some salt pipewort populations. Repair and maintain existing pig fences and continue pig control program.
Managing woody vegetation around springs None

Actively remove and control rubber vine.

Draw-down

The Eulo spring super-group is an area of significant drawdown in the Great Artesian Basin, which constitutes a threat to the subspecies E. c. euloense which is endemic to that area (Davies 2003 pers. comm.).

Stock and feral animal degradation

Springs are a perennial water supply in arid and semi-arid environments and are a focus for animals seeking water (Pickard 1992b). The trampling of the wet ground on the mounds and digging for roots by feral pigs degrade the mounds to churned-up mud, killing any plants on the mounds (Pickard 1992b). The population at Peery Lake in NSW has been significantly damaged by rooting from feral pigs (Davies 2001b pers. comm.). Other springs in NSW are no longer flowing and the original habitat has been destroyed by a century of grazing by domestic and feral animals (Pickard 1992b).

In the early 1980s, the South Australian government implemented a program to fence ten springs and each year the springs have been monitored. See Lewis (2001) for more details on the monitoring program and the results of fencing the springs.

Weeds

Threatening ponded pasture species include Para Grass (Brachiaria mutica), Olive Hymenachne (Hymenachne amplexicaulis) and Amity Aleman (Echinochloa polystachya) that have been introduced for fodder. Where introduced, these species are likely to out-compete the native mound species (Fensham 2001 pers. comm.). Invasive species such as Common Reed (Phragmites australis) and Bare Twigrush (Baumea juncea) have excluded the Salt Pipewort from some mound springs (Davies 2001a).

In the Hermit Hills region, the removal of stock from the springs created a shift in habitat of the Salt Pipewort from the vents of the springs to the tails of the springs and an increase in density of Common Reed in the vents of the mound springs. Accompanying the habitat shift was a significant decrease in the distribution and abundance of the Salt Pipewort. Trial burning of Common Reed dominated mound springs may enable the Salt Pipewort to recolonise spring vents from their presently highly vulnerable position on the spring tails (Fatchen & Fatchen 1993; Davies 2001a]

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Recovery plan for the community of native species dependent on natural discharge of groundwater from the Great Artesian Basin (Fensham, R.J., W.F. Ponder & R.J. Fairfax, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Recovery Plan for the Salt Pipewort (Eriocaulon carsonii) - December 2002 (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, 2002n) [State Recovery Plan].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Habitat alteration (vegetation, soil, hydrology) due to trampling and grazing by livestock Recovery plan for the community of native species dependent on natural discharge of groundwater from the Great Artesian Basin (Fensham, R.J., W.F. Ponder & R.J. Fairfax, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Recovery plan for the community of native species dependent on natural discharge of groundwater from the Great Artesian Basin (Fensham, R.J., W.F. Ponder & R.J. Fairfax, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Recovery Plan for the Salt Pipewort (Eriocaulon carsonii) - December 2002 (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, 2002n) [State Recovery Plan].
Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat modification through open cut mining/quarrying activities Recovery plan for the community of native species dependent on natural discharge of groundwater from the Great Artesian Basin (Fensham, R.J., W.F. Ponder & R.J. Fairfax, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat modification through underground mining Recovery plan for the community of native species dependent on natural discharge of groundwater from the Great Artesian Basin (Fensham, R.J., W.F. Ponder & R.J. Fairfax, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Mechanical disturbance during construction, maintanance or recreational activities Recovery plan for the community of native species dependent on natural discharge of groundwater from the Great Artesian Basin (Fensham, R.J., W.F. Ponder & R.J. Fairfax, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Soil disturbance and/or trampling due to bushwalking Recovery plan for the community of native species dependent on natural discharge of groundwater from the Great Artesian Basin (Fensham, R.J., W.F. Ponder & R.J. Fairfax, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Acacia nilotica subsp. indica (Prickly Acacia) Recovery plan for the community of native species dependent on natural discharge of groundwater from the Great Artesian Basin (Fensham, R.J., W.F. Ponder & R.J. Fairfax, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Parkinsonia aculeata (Parkinsonia, Jerusalem Thorn, Jelly Bean Tree, Horse Bean) Recovery plan for the community of native species dependent on natural discharge of groundwater from the Great Artesian Basin (Fensham, R.J., W.F. Ponder & R.J. Fairfax, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Urochloa mutica (Para Grass) Recovery plan for the community of native species dependent on natural discharge of groundwater from the Great Artesian Basin (Fensham, R.J., W.F. Ponder & R.J. Fairfax, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Tamarix aphylla (Athel Pine, Athel Tree, Tamarisk, Athel Tamarisk, Athel Tamarix, Desert Tamarisk, Flowering Cypress, Salt Cedar) Recovery plan for the community of native species dependent on natural discharge of groundwater from the Great Artesian Basin (Fensham, R.J., W.F. Ponder & R.J. Fairfax, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Phoenix dactylifera (Date Palm) Recovery plan for the community of native species dependent on natural discharge of groundwater from the Great Artesian Basin (Fensham, R.J., W.F. Ponder & R.J. Fairfax, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Hymenachne amplexicaulis (Hymenachne, Olive Hymenachne, Water Stargrass, West Indian Grass, West Indian Marsh Grass) Recovery plan for the community of native species dependent on natural discharge of groundwater from the Great Artesian Basin (Fensham, R.J., W.F. Ponder & R.J. Fairfax, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation caused by bamboo Recovery plan for the community of native species dependent on natural discharge of groundwater from the Great Artesian Basin (Fensham, R.J., W.F. Ponder & R.J. Fairfax, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Capra hircus (Goat) The threat posed by pest animals to biodiversity in New South Wales (Coutts-Smith, A.J., P.S. Mahon, M. Letnic & P.O. Downey, 2007) [Management Plan].
Conservation Research Statement - Eriocaulon carsonii (Pickard, J., 1992a) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Ovis aries (Sheep) Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Sus scrofa (Pig) Recovery plan for the community of native species dependent on natural discharge of groundwater from the Great Artesian Basin (Fensham, R.J., W.F. Ponder & R.J. Fairfax, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Recovery Plan for the Salt Pipewort (Eriocaulon carsonii) - December 2002 (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, 2002n) [State Recovery Plan].
Summary of conservation recovery plan Eriocaulon carsonii (Pickard, J., 1992b) [State Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Predation, Habitat Degradation, Competition and Disease Transmission by Feral Pigs (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2001ab) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation caused by Phragmites spp. Recovery plan for the community of native species dependent on natural discharge of groundwater from the Great Artesian Basin (Fensham, R.J., W.F. Ponder & R.J. Fairfax, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or predation by birds Recovery Plan for the Salt Pipewort (Eriocaulon carsonii) - December 2002 (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, 2002n) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by kangaroos and wallabies Recovery Plan for the Salt Pipewort (Eriocaulon carsonii) - December 2002 (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, 2002n) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:plant Recovery Plan for the Salt Pipewort (Eriocaulon carsonii) - December 2002 (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, 2002n) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Activities that lead to swamp degradation Recovery plan for the community of native species dependent on natural discharge of groundwater from the Great Artesian Basin (Fensham, R.J., W.F. Ponder & R.J. Fairfax, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes including flooding Recovery plan for the community of native species dependent on natural discharge of groundwater from the Great Artesian Basin (Fensham, R.J., W.F. Ponder & R.J. Fairfax, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Recovery Plan for the Salt Pipewort (Eriocaulon carsonii) - December 2002 (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, 2002n) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Drawdown of aquifer, artesian and/or groundwater system Recovery plan for the community of native species dependent on natural discharge of groundwater from the Great Artesian Basin (Fensham, R.J., W.F. Ponder & R.J. Fairfax, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Extraction of artesian water resources Recovery plan for the community of native species dependent on natural discharge of groundwater from the Great Artesian Basin (Fensham, R.J., W.F. Ponder & R.J. Fairfax, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Summary of conservation recovery plan Eriocaulon carsonii (Pickard, J., 1992b) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Extraction of ground water Recovery plan for the community of native species dependent on natural discharge of groundwater from the Great Artesian Basin (Fensham, R.J., W.F. Ponder & R.J. Fairfax, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Recovery Plan for the Salt Pipewort (Eriocaulon carsonii) - December 2002 (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, 2002n) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Habitat disturbance caused by underground mining Recovery plan for the community of native species dependent on natural discharge of groundwater from the Great Artesian Basin (Fensham, R.J., W.F. Ponder & R.J. Fairfax, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Recovery Plan for the Salt Pipewort (Eriocaulon carsonii) - December 2002 (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, 2002n) [State Recovery Plan].

Davies R.J.-P., A.I. Craigie, D.A. Mackay, M.A. Whalen, J.P.-E. Cheong & G.J. Leach (2007). Resolution of the taxonomy of Eriocaulon (Eriocaulaceae) taxa endemic to Australian mound springs, using morphometrics and AFLP markers. Australian Systematic Botany. 20:428-447.

Davies, R., D. Mackay & M. Whalen (2003). Conservation genetics of the nationally endangered mound spring endemic plant, salt pipewort (Eriocaulon carsonii) (Eriocaulonaceae). In: Oliver, I., P. Kristiansen & L. Silberbauer, eds. ESA Ecology 2003 Conference. Page(s) 51. School of Biological Sciences, Flinders University, SA. Armidale, Ecological Society of Australia.

Davies, R.J.P. (2000b). Conservation biology of the nationally endangered mound spring endemic, Eriocaulon carsonii (Eriocaulaceae). In: Proceedings of the Third Mound Spring Researchers Forum. Page(s) 37-42. Third Mound Spring Researchers Forum. Adelaide.

Davies, R.J.P. (2001a). Trial regeneration burns of the nationally endangered mound spring endemic, Eriocaulon carsonii (Eriocaulaceae). In: Proceedings of the Fourth Mound Spring Researchers Forum. Page(s) 31-34. Fourth Mound Spring Researchers Forum. Adelaide.

Davies, R.J.P. (2001b). Personal Communication.

Davies, R.J.P. (2003). Personal communication.

Department of the Environment (2014e). Great Artesian Basin Sustainability Initiative (GABSI). [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/node/24176.

Fairfax, R.J. & R.J. Fensham (2002). In the footsteps of J. Alfred Griffiths: a cataclysmic history of Great Artesian Basin springs in Queensland. Australian Geographical Studies. 40:210-230. Blackwell Publishing.

Fatchen, T.J. & D.H. Fatchen (1993). Dynamics of vegetation on mound springs in the Hermit Hill region, northern South Australia. T.J. Fatchen and Associates, Adelaide.

Fensham, R. (1998). Mound Springs in the Dawson River Valley, Queensland. Vegetation-environment relations and consequences of a proposed impoundment on botanical values. Pacific Conservation Biology. 4:42-54.

Fensham, R. (2001). Personal Communication.

Fensham, R.J., W.F. Ponder & R.J. Fairfax (2010). Recovery plan for the community of native species dependent on natural discharge of groundwater from the Great Artesian Basin. [Online]. City East, Queensland: Department of Environment and Resource Management. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/great-artesian-basin-ec.html.

Lewis, S. (2001). Department for Environment and Heritage Mound Springs Protection Program. In: Proceedings of the Fourth Mound Spring Researchers Forum. Fourth Mound Spring Researchers Forum. Adelaide.

NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service (2002n). Recovery Plan for the Salt Pipewort (Eriocaulon carsonii) - December 2002. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/e-carsonii/index.html.

Pickard, J. (1992b). Summary of conservation recovery plan Eriocaulon carsonii. ANPWS, Endangered Species Program.

Pickard, J. (1992c). Artesian Springs in the Western Division of New South Wales, Working Paper 9202.

Sainty, G.R. and Jacobs S.W. (1994). Waterplants in Australia. CSIRO publishing.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Eriocaulon carsonii in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 25 Jul 2014 20:42:45 +1000.