Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered as Caladenia behrii
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan] as Caladenia behrii.
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Draft survey guidelines for Australia's threatened orchids (Department of the Environment, 2013b) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Caladenia behrii.
 
State Listing Status
SA: Listed as Endangered (National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (South Australia): June 2011 list) as Caladenia behrii
Scientific name Caladenia behrii [11161]
Family Orchidaceae:Orchidales:Liliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author Schldl.
Infraspecies author  
Reference Linnaea 20: 569 (1847).
Other names Arachnorchis behrii [76220]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Caladenia behrii

Common name: Pink-lipped Spider-orchid

The Pink-lipped Spider-orchid is conventionally accepted as Caladenia behrii (CHAH 2005). The species has previously been referred to as Arachnorchis behrii and Caladenia patersonii. Sometimes, genus Caladenia is referred to as Arachnorchis.

The Pink-lipped Spider-orchid is a terrestrial herbaceous orchid with a slender, rigid and hairy flowering stem that grows to 50 cm in height (Bates 2011; Bickerton 1999). Leaves are narrow and also hairy, growing to 20 cm in length and 1 cm in width. There are usually one to two flowers produced by the species, and these are greenish, fading to creamy white. The flowers usually have a deep pink labellum (lip) apex and dark segment tips. Segments are all similar, being linear-lanceolate with glandular, filamentous tips. The labellum itself is oblong, slightly trilobed, has a red apex that curls under and side lobes that are fringed and a lamina with four to six rows of flat-topped calli, often red in colour. The dorsal sepal is erect (often with a drooping apex), lateral sepals are spreading at the base then drooping at the front of the flower, and petals are similar but behind the flower. The flowers have a distinctive scent, of a candle-wick that has been recently snuffed (burnt spice) (Bates 2011).

It is believed that prior to European settlement, the Pink-lipped Spider-orchid was widespread and relatively common throughout the Mount Lofty Ranges (Bates 1994b; Bickerton 1999). In 1999, the distribution was known to be limited to two small disjunct areas at least 25 km apart; approximately 60 km² in the Kersbrook/Williamstown region, and approximately 35 km² in the Belair/Clarendon region, giving a total estimated extent of occurrence of 95 km². The total area of occupancy in 1998, calculated using 100 m x 100 m grid cells, was approximately 1.5 km² (Bickerton 1999).

The species is currently known to be confined to the higher parts of the Mount Lofty Ranges (Bates 2011).

Prior to 1994, detailed surveys located 10 populations, the largest of which was at Mt Gawler Woods & Forest Reserve where about 500 plants were located. Parra Wirra Recreation Park had about 100 plants. Other populations where known, but not in detail (Bates 1994b).

An extensive survey conducted in 1998 (Bickerton 1999b) found 1980 mature plants of this species existing in 19 populations; 13 in the Kersbrook/Williamstown region, and six in the Belair/Clarendon region (Bickerton 1999). Four of the outlying populations were thought to be close to extinction, with very irregular sightings of mature plants. Ten populations were found to have less than 20 mature plants, and another five had less than 70. Only four populations were thought to be viable; Para Wirra Recreation Park (estimated 580 mature plants), Mt. Gawler Forest (461 located at nine separate sites), Warren CP (4276) and Kersbrook Forest (142).

While more recent population estimates are unavailable, it was considered a matter of some concern that more than 70% of all known the Pink-lipped Spider-orchid plants are found in only three populations (Bickerton 1999).

The following table summarises the known subpopulation details for the Pink-lipped Spider-orchid (Quarmby 2010):

Subpopulation Number Location Land Holder and Reservation Status Number of Flowering Plants in Most Recent Census (Year) Subpopulation Trend
1 Belair Private (unreserved) 0 (2005) Decline
2 Belair National Park (NP) Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) (reserved) 10 (2006) Increase
3 Belair NP DENR (reserved) 0 (2006) Decline
4 Cromer Private (reserved) 5 (2002) Unknown
5 Hale Conservation Park (CP) DENR (reserved) 1 (2006) Decline
6 Ironbank Private (unreserved) 15 (2006) Fluctuating
7 Ironbank Private (reserved) 23 (2006) Fluctuating
8 Kersbrook Department for Energy, Transport and Infrastructure, South Australia
(DTEI) (reserved)
0 (2006) Decline
9 Kersbrook Native Forest Reserve (NFR) Forestry South Australia (FSA) (reserved) 275 (2004) Steady
10 Kersbrook NFR FSA (reserved) 35 (2004) Decline
11 Kersbrook NFR FSA (reserved) 15 (2005) Decline
12 Kersbrook NFR FSA (reserved) 1 (2005) Decline
13 Kersbrook NFR FSA (reserved) 0 (2005) Decline
14 Mt Gawler NFR FSA (reserved) 15 (2005) Decline
15 Mt Gawler NFR FSA (reserved) 20 (2005) Decline
16 Mt Gawler NFR FSA (reserved) 33 (2005) Unknown
17 Mt Gawler NFR FSA (reserved) 8 (2002) Unknown
18 Mt Gawler NFR FSA (reserved) 15 (2004) Decline
19 Para Wirra Private (unreserved) 14 (2000) Unknown
20 Para Wirra Recreation Park (RP)/Bassnet Rd DENR (reserved) / Adelaide Hills Council (AHC), City of Playford (CYP) (unreserved) 700 (2005) Fluctuating
21 Para Wirra RP/Bassnet Rd DENR (reserved) /CYP (unreserved) 11 (2006) Fluctuating
22 Para Wirra RP/Blackham DENR (reserved) /Private (unreserved) 563 (2005) Fluctuating
23 Roachdale National Trust of South Australia (NTSA) (reserved) 220 (2006) Increase
24 Scott Creek Private (unreserved) 7 (2006) Decline
25 Scott Creek CP DENR (reserved) 0 (2006) Unknown
26 Tower Hill NFR FSA (reserved) 58 (2005) Unknown
27 Tower Hill NFR FSA (reserved) 55 (2001) Fluctuating
28 Warren CP DENR (reserved) 461 (2004) Fluctuating
29 Warren CP DENR (reserved) 15 (2004) Unknown
30 Warren CP DENR (reserved) 27 (1999) Unknown
31 Warren Reservoir South Australia Water (SAW) (unreserved) 1 (2001) Decline
32 Wongalere/ Para Wirra Rd Private (reserved) /AHC (unreserved) 11 (2006) Decline

 

The populations of this species have been known to occur in fertile, shallow loams, amongst Long-leaved Box (Eucalyptus goniocalyx)/Pink Gum (E. fasciculosa) woodland and amongst Messmate (E. obliqua)/Grey Box (E. microcarpa)/Yellow Gum (E. laucoxlyon) woodland. The understorey is usually open and shrubby, with typical plants including Large-leaf Bush-pea (Pultenaea daphnoides), Twiggy Bush-pea (P. largiflorens), Dusty Miller (Spyridium parvifolium), Golden Wattle (Acacia pycnantha), Beaked Hakea (Hakea rostrata) and Erect Hakea (H. carinata). The Pink-lipped Spider-orchid has also been recorded amongst Pink Gum and Yaccas (Xanthorrhoea semiplana) (Bates 1994b).

The Pink-lipped spider-orchid is generally found in quartzite-derived soils on steep south facing slopes, but also on ridge tops and occasionally near creek beds, often growing alongside bushwalking paths, vehicle tracks or roads due to the openness of these locations (Bates 2011; Bickerton 1999).

The Pink-lipped Spider-orchid flowers in August to early October and is pollinated by male wasps of the Thynninae family. The flower exudes a kairomone (a pheromone stimulant) from the tips of its sepals. This kairomone imitates the pheromone produced by a female Thynnid wasp, and may even be specific to one species of wasp. Any male wasps of the species that are foraging nearby will fly to the flower and attempt to copulate with the labellum, inadvertently removing pollen in the process (Bickerton 1999). If the flower is pollinated, an oblong fruit is formed, which dehisces in late October/November, releasing hundreds of minute seeds (Bickerton 1999).

Generally, the Pink-lipped Spider-orchid is distinguishable by its creamy coloured flowers on tall stems, crimson labellum mid-lobe and burnt spice scent (Bates 2011).

There are two similar species. The Coloured Spider-orchid (Caladenia colorata) is sometimes confused with the Pink-lipped Spider-orchid, but is from a lower altitude and has less distinctive and more varied colouring (Bates 2011). The White-beauty Spider-orchid (C. argocalla) is also confused with the Pink-lipped Spider orchid, as it is known to produce flowers with a pink coloured labellum. However, the flowers have broader lips, linear calli and are not scented (Bates 2011).

Habitat Loss and Modification

Fragmentation and Genetic Viability

The main reason for the decline of the species is the loss of habitat due to land clearance. Clearance of land for housing and agriculture has led to habitat fragmentation, and, as a consequence, some populations have become extinct whilst others are in decline. Currently, populations are small and highly fragmented. In 1999, ten populations were known to be so small (with less than 20 mature plants in each) that they were considered likely to become extinct, due to low genetic viability, unless immediate and appropriate action was taken.

Pollinator Numbers

In addition, fragmentation of suitable remnant vegetation has led to a diminution of habitat quality and it is thought that pollinator numbers have been reduced as a result (Bickerton 1999). The Thynnid wasps, that pollinate this species, neither search for, nor receive food from orchids (Stoutamire 1974), instead they forage from nectar-producing flowers such as Hakea spp., Leptospermum spp. and Eucalyptus spp. (Armstrong 1979). Therefore, the survival of the orchid depends on healthy remnant vegetation which contains a diversity of these food sources for the pollinator (Bickerton 1999).

Grazing and Weeds

This species is very sensitive to grazing by native and introduced verterbrates, and does not persist in weed infested areas. Results from monitoring surveys identify Boneseed (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera) is a potential threat to one of the populations in Belair National Park (SA DEHAA 1999).

Human Activites

Other threats to the Pink-lipped Spider-orchid include road works, vehicular activity, illegal collection, and trampling by mountain bike riders, horses and bushwalkers (Bickerton 1999).

Previous Recovery Actions

The following is a summary of recovery actions undertaken for the Pink-lipped Spider-orchid prior to 2007 (Quarmby 2010).

From 1993–1997 funding was made available from the Endangered Species Program to prepare and implement recovery plans for the species. Recovery plans were completed in 1995 (Bates 1995) and 1997 (Reynolds & Sorensen 1997), and the following recovery actions were implemented.

  • Surveys in Warren CP in 1993.
  • Monitoring of Warren, Wongalere and Para Wirra populations in 1996.
  • Weed control at Wongalere in 1996.
  • Seed collection and re-dispersal in subpopulations 22 and 23 from 1993 to 1994. Some seed was germinated in Paget's Nursery. Seed from Scott Creek CP was also germinated and seedlings were re-introduced into Scott Creek CP in 1994.

A national recovery plan was prepared and adopted for the Pink-lipped Spider-orchid (Bickerton 1999), and the following recovery actions were implemented between 1999 and 2006.

  • Wire cages have been placed around plants in subpopulations 2, 6, 8, 20, 23, 24, 25 and 28 since 2000.
  • Weed control has been undertaken at subpopulations 2, 3 and 28 since 1999.
  • Seed has been collected from subpopulations 2, 5, 6, 9, 17, 18, 19, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 29, 31, 32, 33 and 34 since 1999.
  • Plants have been artificially pollinated in subpopulations 2, 3, 5, 6, 17, 18, 21, 22, 24, 25, 27, 30, 31, 33 and 34 since 1998.
  • Seed has been collected and re-dispersed into subpopulations 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22, 23, 24, 26, 27, 28, 30, 31 and 32 since 1998.
  • Kangaroo proof exclosures were erected around subpopulations 9, 14, 22 and 23 in 2001 and 2002.
  • Extensive searches of known and potential habitat were undertaken in 2000, 2001 and 2005.
  • Weed control has been undertaken at subpopulations 2, 14 and 32 since 1999.
  • A site action plan was prepared for subpopulations 32 in 2003 (Bickerton 2003).
  • Annual surveys and monitoring of all subpopulations have been implemented since 1999.
  • Biannual recovery team meetings began in 1998.
  • A fact sheet was prepared for the species in 2001 (DEH 2001), and has been publicly disseminated.

Current Recovery Actions

A national recovery plan was prepared and adopted for twelve threatened orchid species in the Lofty Block region of South Australia (including the Pink-lipped Spider-orchid) (Quarmby 2010), and the following recovery actions were recommended. 

Recovery Objectives Performance Criteria 
 1. To increase the extent of occurrence of the species. 1.1 The extent of occurrence of the species is maintained, or increased by at least 10 percent within five years.
 2. To increase the number of extant sub-populations. 2.1 There are at least 35 extant sub-populations after five years.
 3. To increase the population size of the species.  3.1 The population size of the species is increased by at least 10 percent within five years.
3.2 At least 25 sub-populations contain >20 mature individuals after five years.
 4. To maintain or increase the area of occupancy of the species. 4.1 The area of occupancy of the species increased by at least 10 percent within five years.
 5. To maintain or improve the quality of habitat critical to survival. 5.1 At least 8 sub-populations are actively managed to improve habitat condition.
 6. To safeguard against the risk of sub-population extinctions. 6.1 Seed from each sub-population and mycorrhizal fungi are preserved in long-term storage within five years.
 7. To increase the knowledge of the biology and ecology of the species. 7.1 There is an increased number of research projects undertaken related to the biology and ecology of the species within five years.
 8. To maintain or increase the level of community participation in the recovery process.  8.1 At least 10 private landholders and 7 public land management authorities are involved in implementing recovery actions for the species during the term of this plan.
8.2 At least 5 community groups and 10 volunteers are involved in implementing recovery actions for the species during the term of this recovery plan.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Recovery Plan for Caladenia behrii (pink-lipped spider orchid) - 1999 -2003 (Bickerton, D., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Recovery Plan for Caladenia behrii (pink-lipped spider orchid) - 1999 -2003 (Bickerton, D., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Illegal collection Recovery Plan for Caladenia behrii (pink-lipped spider orchid) - 1999 -2003 (Bickerton, D., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Recreational harvest Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations Recovery Plan for Caladenia behrii (pink-lipped spider orchid) - 1999 -2003 (Bickerton, D., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Recovery Plan for Caladenia behrii (pink-lipped spider orchid) - 1999 -2003 (Bickerton, D., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Mechanical disturbance during construction, maintanance or recreational activities Recovery Plan for Caladenia behrii (pink-lipped spider orchid) - 1999 -2003 (Bickerton, D., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development Recovery Plan for Caladenia behrii (pink-lipped spider orchid) - 1999 -2003 (Bickerton, D., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Habitat degradation associated with recreational activities such as horse riding Recovery Plan for Caladenia behrii (pink-lipped spider orchid) - 1999 -2003 (Bickerton, D., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Habitat disturbance from recreational vehicle use Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Lepus capensis (Brown Hare) Recovery Plan for Caladenia behrii (pink-lipped spider orchid) - 1999 -2003 (Bickerton, D., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) Recovery Plan for Caladenia behrii (pink-lipped spider orchid) - 1999 -2003 (Bickerton, D., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Sparaxis bulbifera (Harlequin Flower) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Briza maxima (Quaking Grass, Blowfly Grass) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Chrysanthemoides monilifera (Bitou Bush, Boneseed) Recovery Plan for Caladenia behrii (pink-lipped spider orchid) - 1999 -2003 (Bickerton, D., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Senecio pterophorus (African Daisy, Rough Senecio, Winged Groundsel) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Genista monspessulana (Montpellier Broom, Cape Broom, Canary Broom, Common Broom, French Broom, Soft Broom) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Pinus radiata (Radiata Pine Monterey Pine, Insignis Pine, Wilding Pine) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Asparagus asparagoides (Bridal Creeper, Bridal Veil Creeper, Smilax, Florist's Smilax, Smilax Asparagus) Recovery Plan for Caladenia behrii (pink-lipped spider orchid) - 1999 -2003 (Bickerton, D., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Rubus fruticosus aggregate (Blackberry, European Blackberry) Recovery Plan for Caladenia behrii (pink-lipped spider orchid) - 1999 -2003 (Bickerton, D., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation caused by exotic pasture species Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Capra hircus (Goat) Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation by deer Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Negative impacts caused by insects Recovery Plan for Caladenia behrii (pink-lipped spider orchid) - 1999 -2003 (Bickerton, D., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback Phytophthora cinnamomi Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by insects Recovery Plan for Caladenia behrii (pink-lipped spider orchid) - 1999 -2003 (Bickerton, D., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by kangaroos and wallabies Recovery Plan for Caladenia behrii (pink-lipped spider orchid) - 1999 -2003 (Bickerton, D., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development Recovery Plan for Caladenia behrii (pink-lipped spider orchid) - 1999 -2003 (Bickerton, D., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Residential and Commercial Development:Residential and Commercial Development:Habitat modification (clearance and degradation) due to urban development Recovery Plan for Caladenia behrii (pink-lipped spider orchid) - 1999 -2003 (Bickerton, D., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Lack of pollination Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low genetic diversity and genetic inbreeding Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Recovery Plan for Caladenia behrii (pink-lipped spider orchid) - 1999 -2003 (Bickerton, D., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Poor recruitment (regeneration) and declining population numbers Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Transportation and Service Corridors:Road and rail maintenance works Recovery Plan for Caladenia behrii (pink-lipped spider orchid) - 1999 -2003 (Bickerton, D., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].

Armstrong, J.A. (1979). Biotic pollination mechanisms in the Australian flora - a review. New Zealand Journal of Botany. 17:467-508.

Bates, R.J (2011). South Australia's Native Orchids. Compact disc. Native Orchid Society of South Australia.

Bates, R.J. (1994b). Recovery plan for Pink lip Spider Orchid Caladenia behrii Schldl. Unpublished. Lodged with the Department of Environment, Heritage and Aboriginal Affairs.

Bickerton, D. (1999). Recovery Plan for Caladenia behrii (pink-lipped spider orchid) - 1999 -2003. [Online]. NP & W SA; Threatened Plant Action Group; NHT. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/archive/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/c-behri/index.html.

Bickerton, D.C. (1999b). A report on the 1998 survey and monitoring of Caladenia behrii.

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2005). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/.

South Australian Department of Environment, Heritage and Aboriginal Affairs (SA DEHAA) (1999). Annual Report. South Australia; DEHAA.

Stoutamire, W. (1974). Australian terrestrial orchids, Thynnine wasps, and pseudo-copulation. Orchadian. 6 (5):110-111.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Caladenia behrii in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 19 Sep 2014 07:05:29 +1000.