Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan for Predation, Habitat Degradation, Competition and Disease Transmission by Feral Pigs (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH), 2005p) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat Abatement Plan for predation by feral cats (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzp) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat Abatement Plan for Predation by the European Red Fox (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzq) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Draft Referral guidelines for the nationally listed Brigalow Belt reptiles (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011e) [Admin Guideline].
 
Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened reptiles. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.6 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011m) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
QLD:Brigalow Belt bioregion: a biodiversity jewel (Threatened Species Network (TSN), 2008b) [Information Sheet].
State Listing Status
QLD: Listed as Vulnerable (Nature Conservation Act 1992 (Queensland): July 2012)
Non-statutory Listing Status
IUCN: Listed as Vulnerable (IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: 2011.2)
Scientific name Denisonia maculata [1193]
Family Elapidae:Squamata:Reptilia:Chordata:Animalia
Species author (Steindachner,1867)
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Denisonia maculata (Steindachner 1867)

Common name: Ornamental Snake

The Ornamental Snake is a brown, grey-brown or black snake growing up to 50 cm in length with lighter coloured body scales, often with darker streaks/flecks. The crown of the head is darker brown/black with lighter flecks, it has distinctly barred lips, a white/cream belly with dark spots/flecks on the outer edges, and smooth scales (Cogger 2000).

The species is known only from the Brigalow Belt North and parts of the Brigalow Belt South biogeographical regions. The core of the species' distribution occurs within the drainage system of the Fitzroy and Dawson Rivers (McDonald et al. 1991; Cogger et al. 1993). Known localities occur in the following regions (Agnew 2010 pers. comm.; Cogger et al. 1993; Covacevich et al. 1996a; Melzer 2001 pers. comm.):

  • Blackwater
  • Dysart
  • Peak Downs
  • Moranbah
  • Coppabella
  • Rockhampton region
  • east of Midgee
  • Yeppoon Crossing
  • Emerald
  • near Moura
  • the Dawson Valley
  • Charters Towers
  • Biloela
  • Duaringa
  • St Lawrence
  • St George
  • Goondiwindi
  • Dipperu National Park
  • adjacent to South Walker Creek near Nebo.

Important populations

Important populations occur in remnant vegetation on, or surrounding, gilgai mounds and depressions. Maintaining the quality of these habitats, and potentially suitable habitats that provide for landscape connectivity between gilgai environments, is important for the long-term persistence and recovery of the species (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010).

Preferred Habitat

The Ornamental Snake's preferred habitat is within, or close to, habitat that is favoured by its prey - frogs. The species is known to prefer woodlands and open forests associated with moist areas, particularly gilgai (melon-hole) mounds and depressions in Queensland Regional Ecosystem Land Zone 4, but also lake margins and wetlands (Agnew 2010 pers. comm.; Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010;Wilson & Knowles 1988). Gilgai formations are found where deep-cracking alluvial soils with high clay contents occur (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010).

For more information on Queensland Regional Ecosystems, please visit the Queensland Department of Environment and Resource Management website at http://www.derm.qld.gov.au/wildlife-ecosystems/biodiversity/regional_ecosystems/.

Vegetation types

Ornamental Snake habitat is likely to be found in Brigalow (Acacia harpophylla), Gidgee (Acacia cambagei), Blackwood (Acacia argyrodendron) or Coolibah (Eucalyptus coolabah)-dominated vegetation communities, or pure grassland associated with gilgais (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010). Whilst the species shows a preference for moist areas, and there are records from riparian areas, the species' presumed preference for riparian habitat is questionable (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010).

The most common Queensland Regional Ecosystems (RE) in which the species has been recorded is RE 11.4.3. Other common RE types where the species has been recorded are (Agnew 2010 pers. comm.; Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010):

  • 11.4.3 - Open forest dominated by Brigalow and/or Belah clay soils not associated with current alluvium.
  • 11.4.6 - Gidgee woodland clay soils not associated with current alluvium.
  • 11.4.8 - Woodland to open forest dominated by Dawson Gum (Eucalyptus cambageana) and Brigalow or, sometimes in the north of the species' range, Blackwood/Black Gidgee. Yapunyah (E. thozetiana) is sometimes present on shallower clay soils not associated with current alluvium.
  • 11.4.9 - Open forest, occasionally woodland, dominated by Brigalow on clay soils not associated with current alluvium. A low tree mid-storey of Yellow-wood (Terminalia oblongata) and False Sandalwood (Eremophila mitchellii) is usually present. Belah sometimes dominates in place of Brigalow in the overstory and Bauhinia (Lysiphyllum cunninghamii) sometimes co-dominates.

Other Queensland Regional Ecosystems where the species has been recorded (Agnew 2010 pers. comm.) are:

  • 11.3.3 - Coolibah woodland adjacent to a large, treeless, ephemeral wetland on alluvium (river and creek flats).
  • 11.5.16 - Brigalow and/or Belah open-forest in depressions in Cainozoic old loamy and sandy plains. Associated with gilgai with one-metre local relief and 5–6 m in diameter.

Note: Whilst several of the above RE descriptions make reference to Belah, it has tended to be absent or rare where the Ornamental Snake has been recorded in surveys conducted by Agnew (Agnew 2010 pers. comm.).

Microhabitat

The Ornamental Snake shelters in logs and under coarse woody debris and ground litter (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010).

Sites where Ornamental Snakes have been recorded in abundance share the following habitat characteristics (Agnew 2010 pers. comm.):

  • They are located within the lowest part of the catchment. The Ornamental Snake has been found in greatest numbers in shallow water where some aquatic vegetation is present, or where fringing groundcover vegetation has been inundated, especially in flooded gilgais where the dominant aquatic macrophyte is Bog Hyacinth (Monochoria cyanea) (Agnew 2010 pers. comm.).
  • They have diversity of gilgai size and depth (if deep, then broad with gently sloping gradients at the sides).
  • There are soils of high clay content and deep-cracking characteristics. Water retention capacity increases with an increase in the fine clay particle fraction of soils. This, in turn, influences certain habitat conditions that are important for the Ornamental Snake and the frog species it preys upon. Cracking clays with higher sand and more sodic cracking clays, often associated with Brigalow / Belah-dominated communities, have a lower fine clay particle fraction and are likely to have lesser water retention capacity.
  • Ground timber is usually relatively common (especially piles adjacent to or close by to gilgais).
  • Where burrowing frogs (Cyclorana species) are abundant (see information on the feeding behaviour of the species).
  • Habitat patches are typically greater than 10 hectares in area and are within, or connected, to larger areas of remnant vegetation.

One site in Brigalow woodland near Nebo had ample ground cover in the form of fallen timber, thickets of Currant Bush (Carissa spinarum) and small tussock grasses. Snakes at this site were only found in the vicinity of a complex of flooded gilgai, and were not located in nearby riparian and floodplain woodland. The gilgai had an abundance of frog prey (Melzer 2001 pers. comm.).

During surveys in the Brigalow Belt near Coppabella in 2009, an Ornamental Snake was caught in a small dry sandy creek bed, fringed by scattered River Red Gums (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) within a Poplar Box (Eucalyptus populnea) and Poplar Gum (Eucalyptus platyphylla) woodland, with very small (less than one hectare) pockets of Brigalow and Belah woodland some distance from the creek on cracking clays. The snake was caught on sand, which is generally considered not suitable for this species (Marston 2010 pers. comm.). The specimen was likely, however, to be moving between preferred habitats in the surrounding area (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010).

Refuge habitat

During dry periods, the species typically seeks refuge within soil cracks on gilgai mounds within the habitat area (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010).

Reproduction

The Ornamental Snake is a viviparous species with a mean litter size of 6.8 (range of 3–11, n = 4). Minimum snout-vent length of sexually mature animals is 24.7 cm for females and 23.0 cm for males (Shine 1983).

The diet of this species consists predominantly of frogs (Cogger et al. 1993). The most commonly recorded frog species present where Ornamental Snakes occur (Agnew 2010 pers. comm.; Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010; Veary 2010 pers. comm.) are the:

  • Striped Burrowing Frog (Cyclorana alboguttata formerly Litoria alboguttata)
  • Short-footed Frog (Cyclorana breviceps)
  • Wide-mouthed Frog (Cyclorana novaehollandiae)
  • Water-holding Frog (Cyclorana platycephala)
  • Spotted Marsh Frog (Limnodynastes tasmaniensis)
  • Green Tree Frog (Litoria caerulea)
  • Flooplain Frog (Litoria inermis)
  • Broad-palmed Frog (Litoria latopalmata)
  • Desert Tree Frog (Litoria rubella)
  • Ornate Burrowing Frog (Opisthodon ornatus formerly Limnodynastes ornatus or Platypectron ornatus).

Other frog species where Ornamental Snakes have been found are (Agnew 2010 pers. comm.; Shine 1983):

  • Knife-footed Frog (Cyclorana cultripes)
  • Rough Frog (Cyclorana verrucosa)
  • Dwarf Eastern Tree Frog/Green Reed Frog (Litoria fallax)
  • Roth's Tree Frog (Litoria rothii).

A high abundance of snakes at a site near Nebo was observed to coincide with an abundance of young frogs emerging from an ephemeral pool. Many frogs (Cyclorana breviceps, C. novaehollandia, Limnodynastes ornatus and Litoria alboguttata) and Cane Toads (Bufo marinus) found in and around the trap site each morning showed signs of snakebite suggesting repeated striking, but not immediate consumption, by the trapped Ornamental Snake. Some very large Cane Toads were killed or near death. Most bitten animals appeared to have undergone extensive cell breakdown and were reminiscent of "bags of fluid". Desert Tree Frogs and Floodplain Frogs were also present but none appeared to have been struck by the snake (Melzer 2001 pers. comm.).

Ornamental Snakes are nocturnally active, sheltering during the day under fallen timber, rocks, bark and in deep soil cracks. The species is probably active year round with the exception of the cooler months, with peak activity likely to be early summer through to the wet season. During dry times the snake can remain inactive in suitable shelter sites for months (Agnew 2010 pers. comm.; DSEWPaC 2011m; Shine 1983). The species has been recorded in a paddock dominated by Buffel Grass (Cenchrus ciliaris), about one kilometre from a gilgaied patch of Brigalow regrowth, during drought (Agnew 2010 pers. comm.). Ornamental Snakes were found moving downslope towards a flooded gilgai in the South Walker Creek floodplain, presumably to exploit the abundant food source created by the ephemeral pool (Melzer 2001 pers. comm.).

Detectability

The species is relatively easy to detect in suitable habitat, and under the right environmental conditions. For example, Ornamental Snakes were found in abundance during a vertebrate survey in heavily gilgaied Brigalow woodlands near the South Walker Creek flood plain (Melzer 2001 pers. comm.). Many animals were trapped overnight and were spotlighted during the night in the vicinity of the gilgai. However, intensive searches during the day failed to locate any individuals (Melzer 2001 pers. comm.).

Sampling and recording of observed specimens

Potential records of the Ornamental Snake should be supported by a good quality colour photograph. Photo vouchers or skin sloughs should be forwarded to the Queensland Museum for positive identification and data collation of the record (DSEWPaC 2011m). Tissue sampling should only be undertaken with appropriate training in tissue preservation, ethics approval and State permits to collect samples. Where possible photo vouchers should include close-up colour shots of the head, body and tail dorsally, ventrally and laterally. Dead specimens (e.g. roadkills) should be frozen and advice on preservation and lodgement sought from the Queensland Museum (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010; DSEWPaC 2011m).

Survey methods

Habitat assessment

A habitat assessment is recommended to be undertaken as a preliminary step to designing and undertaking a targeted survey, including:

  • Determine the proximity of nearest records to the study area.
  • Search relevant databases such as Zoology Data Search (Queensland Museum) and Wildlife Online (Queensland Department of Environment and Resource Management).
  • Obtain State vegetation mapping for the study area to determine the extent of suitable habitat including the presence of associated vegetation communities.
  • Determine the presence of suitable microhabitat features in the study area.

Targeted survey

Targeted surveys to confirm the presence/absence of the Ornamental Snake are done by actively searching suitable habitats, especially during warm evenings. In addition, actively looking whilst driving along roads, especially following heavy rainfall events and/or on warm evenings, is recommended (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010).

Optimal conditions for active searching

The Ornamental Snake is most likely to be encountered by searching in and around suitable gilgai habitats during the evening wen frogs are most active (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010; DSEWPaC 2011m) approximately 1–3 days following heavy rainfall (greater than 5 mm), especially thunderstorms (Agnew 2010 pers. comm.). The species has also been found in abundance 3–4 weeks after such heavy rainfall when young frogs are emerging in and around gilgais /wetlands. The optimal climatic conditions for the Ornamental Snake occur with the combination of hot temperatures, humidity and electrical storms which typically occur from January to mid-March (Agnew 2010 pers. comm.).

Minimum survey effort

Sufficient time is required to thoroughly search the area by day and to spotlight by night. The minimum survey effort required includes (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010):

  • a minimum of three survey days and nights
  • at least one replicate survey employing all of the recommended techniques, if the species has not already been detected.

The Ornamental Snake has undergone a decline in abundance in the past few decades. There are a variety of factors that are possibly contributing to this decline, including (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010; Cogger et al. 1993):

  • Habitat loss through clearing (roads, ploughing, railways, mining-related activities, pipeline constructions)
  • Habitat fragmentation
  • Habitat degradation by overgrazing by stock, especially cattle, or grazing of gilgais during the wet season leads to soil compaction and compromising of soil structure
  • Alteration of landscape hydrology in and around gilgai environments
  • Alteration of water quality through chemical and sediment pollution of wet areas
  • Contact with the Cane Toad
  • Predation by feral species
  • Invasive weeds.

The species occurs in the Brigalow Belt bioregion, where the majority of natural vegetation has been cleared for agriculture, mining and urban development, and has been degraded by overgrazing by stock (Cogger et al. 1993; Covacevich 1995; Covacevich et al. 1998; McDonald et al. 1991).

As the Ornamental Snake has a diet almost exclusively of various frog species, the species is susceptible to being lethally poisoned by ingesting Cane Toads, which are abundant within its range (G. Ingram, cited in Cogger et al. 1993; Phillips et al. 2003). The two species have often been recorded in the same areas, though the Cane Toad is never found where the Ornamental Snake is in high numbers (Agnew 2010 pers. comm.). In addition, numerous intensive studies, in seemingly optimal Ornamental Snake habitats, have resulted in no snakes being found where Cane Toads were in abundance (Agnew 2010 pers. comm.).

Draft Recovery Plan for the Queensland Brigalow Belt Reptiles

A recovery plan for the Queensland Brigalow Belt Reptiles, including the Ornamental Snake, was drafted by WWF-Australia in 2006 (Richardson 2006). The recovery actions outlined in this plan, and in the species profile on the Queensland Department of Environment and Resource Management (Queensland DERM 2010b), are as follows:

  • Encourage involvement, provide incentives and adopt a collaborative approach with government agencies, NRM regional bodies, the Indigenous community, key industry stakeholders and local governments to deliver region-specific information and implement sustained, effective recovery actions.
  • Identify research priorities: develop and support the implementation of research projects undertaken by tertiary and research institutions.
  • Inspect and identify suitable habitat for conservation of the Ornamental Snake.
  • Identify key threats and develop management guidelines to protect key habitat.
  • Maximise the establishment of appropriate reserves to protect Ornamental Snake habitat and landscape connectivity over the long term; e.g. on stock route networks, road reserves and private lands.
  • Ensure Ornamental Snake conservation is incorporated into appropriate land management decisions made by all levels of government and industry.
  • Develop and provide land-management guidelines and incentives for landowners to reduce the impact of current land use practices on the species outside reserves; e.g. restricting the use and spread of agricultural weeds, such as Buffel Grass.
  • Negotiate management agreements and voluntary conservation agreements with landholders, on whose land the Ornamental Snake occurs, in line with the recommended management guidelines.
  • Facilitate on-ground projects to manage and protect habitats on a range of land tenures in line with recommended management guidelines; e.g. in integrated weed and feral predator management programs.
  • Develop community awareness within the species' known range through media campaigns and education material and provide incentives for wider community involvement; e.g. local governments and schools participating in reptile educational programs and adopting a local reptile species as their shire and/or school icon.
  • Implement recommended fire management guidelines in property and reserve designs.
  • Work with landholders and key stakeholders to undertake monitoring programs on selected sites.
  • Monitor and evaluate recovery actions applying an adaptive management approach.

The Action Plan for Australian Reptiles

This action plan states that knowledge of the Ornamental Snake is inadequate. More research into the species is needed, in order to define objectives and actions to assist in recovery (Cogger et al. 1993). The report identifies three crucial research areas:

  • Ground surveys to determine the full geographic range and habitat requirements of the species.
  • Research into basic biology and ecology of the species.
  • Research into the species decline and major factors behind the decline.

Six management actions were identified in the plan. These include:

1. Deferring of licences to clear remnant woodland within the species known range.

2. Surveying known habitat in reserves.

3. Surveying known habitat outside of reserves.

4. Developing and promoting guidelines for landowners to help reduce the impact of current land use.

5. Establishing appropriate reserves if the existing reserves are deemed inadequate.

6. Developing community awareness of the species (Cogger et al. 1993).

These actions are combined with three objectives also detailed in the plan. The objectives are as follows:

  • conducting the research required
  • ensuring existing populations are managed in reserve systems
  • implement land management practices which promote the maintenance of secure, viable populations outside of reserve systems (Cogger et al. 1993).

Mitigation measures or approaches that have been developed for the Ornamental Snake are (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010):

  • Alternative project locations.
  • Avoid clearing/ retain habitat.
  • Design proposed action to avoid habitat disturbance.
  • Establish adequate buffer zones to protect habitat.
  • Implement measures to exclude cattle from habitats.
  • Maintain habitat connectivity across the landscape, e.g., along roadside reserves, uncultivated lands between cropped and pasture-improved areas.
  • Retain shelter habitat features in place.
  • Devise and implement a habitat management plan specific to the Ornamental Snake.
  • Implement measures to reduce the risk of invasive and predatory species accessing reptile habitat.
  • Devise and implement an appropriate fire management plan.
  • Devise and implement water management, sediment erosion and pollution control plans.

Management documents for the Ornamental Snake include:

  • Threat Abatement Plan for predation by Feral Cats (DEWHA 2008zzp).
  • Threat Abatement Plan for predation by the European Red Fox (DEWHA 2008zzq).
  • Threat Abatement Plan for Predation, Habitat Degradation, Competition and Disease Transmission by Feral Pigs (AGDEH 2005p).
  • Draft National Recovery Plan for the Queensland Brigalow Belt Reptiles (Richardson 2006).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Reptile diversity at risk in the Brigalow Belt, Queensland. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum. 42(2):475-486. (Covacevich, J.A., P.J. Couper & K.R. McDonald, 1998) [Journal].
Denisonia maculata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006hr) [Internet].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Land clearance (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2001w) [Listing Advice].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Denisonia maculata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006hr) [Internet].
Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat destruction, disturbance and/or modification due to mining activities Denisonia maculata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006hr) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rhinella marina (Cane Toad) Denisonia maculata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006hr) [Internet].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development Denisonia maculata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006hr) [Internet].

Agnew, L. (2010). Personal Communication. Consultant Biologist, Austecology.

Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH) (2005p). Threat Abatement Plan for Predation, Habitat Degradation, Competition and Disease Transmission by Feral Pigs. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/pig.html.

Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop (2010). Proceedings from the workshop for the nine listed reptiles of the Brigalow Belt bioregions. 18-19 August. Brisbane: Queensland Herbarium.

Cogger, H.G. (2000). Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia - 6th edition. Sydney, NSW: Reed New Holland.

Cogger, H.G., E.E. Cameron, R.A. Sadlier & P. Eggler (1993). The Action Plan for Australian Reptiles. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Australian Nature Conservation Agency. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/action/reptiles/index.html.

Covacevich, J.A. (1995). Realities in the Biodiversity Holy Grail: Prospects for Reptiles of Queensland's Brigalow Biogeographic Region. The Royal Society of Queensland. 106 (1):1-9.

Covacevich, J.A., P.J. Couper & K.R. McDonald (1996a). Reptiles of Queensland's Brigalow Biogeographic Region: Distributions, Status and Conservation. Page(s) 148. Canberra: Australian Nature Conservation Agency (ANCA).

Covacevich, J.A., P.J. Couper & K.R. McDonald (1998). Reptile diversity at risk in the Brigalow Belt, Queensland. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum. 42(2):475-486.

Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC) (2011m). Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened reptiles. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.6 . [Online]. Canberra, ACT: DSEWPaC. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/threatened-reptiles.html.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2008zzp). Threat Abatement Plan for predation by feral cats. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/cats08.html.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2008zzq). Threat Abatement Plan for Predation by the European Red Fox. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/foxes08.html.

International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) (2010). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. [Online]. Available from: http://www.iucnredlist.org.

Marston, S (2010). Personal Communication. Brendale, Queensland: Ecological Survey & Management.

McDonald, K.R., J.A. Covacevich, G.J. Ingram & P.J. Couper (1991). The status of frogs and reptiles. In: Ingram, G.J. & R.J. Raven, eds. An Atlas of Queensland's Frogs, Reptiles, Birds and Mammals. Page(s) 338-345. Brisbane: Queensland Museum.

Melzer, A. (2001). Personal Communication.

Phillips, B.L., G.P. Brown & R. Shine (2003). Assessing the potential impact of cane toads on Australian snakes. Conservation Biology. 17(6):1738-1747.

Queensland Department of Environment and Resource Management (Queensland DERM) (2010b). Ornamental snake. [Online]. Available from: http://www.derm.qld.gov.au/wildlife-ecosystems/wildlife/az_of_animals/ornamental_snake.html.

Richardson, R. (2006). Draft Queensland Brigalow Belt Reptile Recovery Plan 2008 - 2012. [Online]. Report to the Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Canberra. Brisbane, Queensland: WWF-Australia. Available from: http://www.qmdc.org.au/publications/download/52/fact-sheets-case-studies/reptile-recovery/draft-reptile-recovery-plan.pdf.

Shine, R. (1983). Food habits and reproductive biology of the Australian elapid snakes of the genus Denisonia. Journal of Herpetology. 17 (2):171-175.

Wilson, S.K. & D.G. Knowles (1988). Australia's Reptiles: A Photographic Reference to the Terrestrial Reptiles of Australia. Australia: Collins Publishers.

EPBC Act email updates can be received via the Communities for Communities newsletter and the EPBC Act newsletter.

This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Denisonia maculata in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 17 Apr 2014 16:49:48 +1000.