Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Recovery Plan for the Peep Hill hop-bush Dodonaea subglandulifera 2010 (Moritz, K.N. & D.C Bickerton, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Listing Status
SA: Listed as Endangered (National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (South Australia): June 2011 list)
Scientific name Dodonaea subglandulifera [11956]
Family Sapindaceae:Sapindales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author J.West
Infraspecies author  
Reference Brunonia 7 (12 Sep. 1984) 105.
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Dodonaea subglandulifera

Common name: Peep Hill Hop-bush

Conventionally accepted as Dodonaea subglandulifera (CHAH 2010).

The Peep Hill Hop-bush is an erect, perennial shrub growing 1–2 m high. It has short pinnate (feather-like) leaves approximately 1.5 cm long with 9–17 viscous (sticky) leaflets with raised glands on their lower surface (Jessop & Toelken 1986; Jusaitis & Sorensen 1994). Flowers occur in groups of two or three. The plant is dioecious (individual male and female plants) and female plants are readily identifiable when in fruit with capsules varying in colour from greenish-yellow to deep maroon. Capsules are 3- or 4-winged (Jessop & Toelken 1986).

The Peep Hill Hop-bush occurs in isolated localities in semi-arid areas of south-east SA. Locations include Peep Hill (north of Eudunda), Black and White Hill, Robertson, Wallaroo (northern Yorke Peninsula), Walker Flat, Scrubby Flats, Notts Well, Yookamurra Sanctuary and Brookfield Conservation Park (CP), Port Wakefield (north of St Vincents Gulf), Robertson (eastern side of the Lofty Ranges), Peterborough (northern Mt Lofty Ranges) and Vulkathunha-Gammon Ranges National Park (NP) (Moritz & Bickerton 2010). 

The Peep Hill Hop-bush was extensively surveyed by Smith (2000 cited in Moritz & Bickerton 2010) and by Moritz and Bickerton (2010), which increased the number of known sites and the number of known plants. Moritz and Bickerton (2010) propose that more populations may be found if searches of suitable habitat were undertaken between Morgan and Eudunda, the area around Peterborough and Terowie, east of Burra Creek Gorge, in the Scrubby Range to the east of Terowie, and between Waikerie and Morgan and south to Walker Flat.

There are 45 Peep Hill Hop-bush sites, comprising 11 subpopulations and over 45 700 individual plants (Moritz & Bickerton 2010). The following table presents subpopulation data on the Peep Hill Hop-bush (Moritz & Bickerton 2010):

Subpopulation Site number Number of plants Vegetation quality
Peep Hill 1a–1j >20 200 High
Peep Hill 1k–1m >5040  
Peep Hill 1n Hundreds  
Peep Hill 1o–1q >5100  
Black and White Hill 2a 3040 Low
Black and White Hill 2c Several thousand  
Black and White Hill 2e Many hundreds High
Black and White Hill 2d 500 Low
Eagle Hawke Gate Road 3a–3d >5000 High
Wallaroo 4 360 Low
Walker Flat 5c–5g 200 Low
Neales Flat 6 50–60 Grazed
Blackpoint Hill 5a 35  
Yookamurra Sanctuary 10a–10c 16 High
Brookfield CP 11a-11b 30 High
Notts Well   50-60  
Scrubby Flats   15  
Point Wakefiled   >6  
Flinders Ranges NP   Unknown  
Vulkathunha-Gammon Ranges NP   Unknown  
Canegrass   Extinct  
Peterborough   Extinct  

Peep Hill Hop-bush occurs in the Brookfield CP, Yookamurra Sanctuary (a privately owned wildlife sanctuary) and the Flinders Ranges NP (Moritz & Bickerton 2010).

Populations of the Peep Hill Hop-bush occur primarily on low hills on loamy soils associated with rocky (limestone, slate, shale) outcrops (Jusaitis & Sorensen 1994; Moritz & Bickerton 2010). These low hills occur to the east of the range country, just before the vegetation changes to mallee flats (Smith 2000 cited in Moritz & Bickerton 2010). The species has also been recorded from plains country in sandy soils over limestone (Moritz & Bickerton 2010).

Native vegetation in these areas include low open woodland, open shrubland and mallee with variable understorey that may include Black Mallee (Eucalyptus porosa), Southern Cypress (Callitris gracilis), Wallowa (Acacia calamifolia), Water Mallee (E. dumosa), Drooping She-oak (Allocasuarina verticillata), Red Mallee (E. oleosa), Kangaroo Island Mallee (E. phenax) with Pale Turpentine Bush (Beyeria lechenaultii), Bonaree (Alectryon oleifolius), Silver Mulga (Acacia argyrophylla), Western Black Wattle (Acacia hakeoides), Black Cypress Pine (Callitris preissii), and Sweet Bursaria (Bursaria spinosa). The species occurs along roadsides at Wallaroo in association with Sheep Bush (Geijera linearifolia) and Common Emu Bush (Eremophila glabra) (Jusaitis & Sorensen 1994; Moritz & Bickerton 2010).

The average annual rainfall of the range of the Peep Hill Hop-bush is greater than 100 mm and less than 400 mm (Moritz & Bickerton 2010).

Flowering is recorded on female Peep Hill Hop-bush plants from February to June. Seed capsules mature between August and December, and seeds dehisce (break open) during the warmer months of December and January (Jusaitis & Sorensen 1994).

Due to its dioecious nature, the Peep Hill Hop-bush requires a pollinator to transport pollen from the anthers of the male plant to the stigmas of the female plant (Jusaitis & Sorensen 1994). The natural pollinators for the species have not been determined (Moritz & Bickerton 2010), however, Honeybees (Apis mellifera) and ants have been observed on flowers, and an anther of the species has been seen attached to the leg of a Honeybee (Jusaitis & Sorensen 1994).

Dodonaea species are known to colonise areas quickly in response to disturbances with some considered as woody weeds in pastoral country due to their ease of regeneration. It is not known whether the Peep Hill Hop-bush is stimulated by disturbance to reproduce and recruit, although plants have been observed growing in gravel transported into the Port Vincent area, which supports the idea that the species germinates following disturbance (Moritz & Bickerton 2010).

No bisexual flowers have been observed for this species, but the presence of a very small number of fruit on predominantly male plants indicates that it is rarely polygamodioecious (where both male and female flowers are borne on the same tree) (West 1984).

Inappropriate grazing

Grazing by domestic stock, as well as feral and native animals have been noted at several populations, including Notts Well, Brookfield CP, Black and White Hill and Walker Flat. A Peep Hill site with a history of very light grazing experienced strong regeneration and recruitment of the hop-bush after stock were removed (Goulder 2010 pers. comm. cited in Moritz & Bickerton 2010). Grazing pressure is greatest in drier periods, with stock often grazed along road edges during these periods. Grazing potentially threatens growth, reproduction, survival and recruitment. Grazing may also have secondary impacts in the form of weed dispersal and disturbance encouraging weed establishment and growth (Moritz & Bickerton 2010).

Roadside activities

Whilst roadside populations are often smaller in numbers and mostly isolated, often in narrow remnant vegetation, they constitute more than 50% of known sites of the Peep Hill Hop-bush and are of significance to the survival of the species. Roadside sites are subject to threats related to maintenance works, vegetation clearing or slashing, dumping of rubbish and road building materials, burning for fire management, infrastructure construction and maintenance (i.e. power lines and cables), herbicide drift from adjoining land, stock droving and damage from vehicles and heavy machinery (Moritz & Bickerton 2010).

Invasion by exotic weeds

Weeds, mostly agricultural, have been identified at four sites, however African Boxthorn (Lycium ferocissimum), Galenia secunda, Cotton-bush (Gomphocarpus sp.), Horehound (Marrubium vulgare), and Iceplant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum), which have been recorded at one site near Peep Hill, are particularly invasive and potentially a threat to the species at these sites (Moritz & Bickerton 2010). A population at Wallaroo is severely infested with Wild Oat (Avena fatua), Soursob (Oxalis pes-caprae), Salvation Jane (Echium plantagineum), Horehound (Marrubium vulgare), False Caper (Euphorbia terracina) and Lincoln Weed (Diplotaxis tenuifolia) (Jusaitis & Sorensen 1994; Steed pers. comm., 2004, cited in Moritz & Bickerton 2010).

Habitat fragmentation and declining genetic viability

As a result of past fragmentation of habitat and clearance, the Peep Hill Hop-bush is now found in mostly small and isolated populations. Small populations are often unable to effectively exchange genetic material with other populations, posing a risk from the effects of inbreeding, or declining genetic viability (Cropper 1993 cited in Moritz & Bickerton 2010).

Lack of formal protection

Few populations of the Peep Hill Hop-bush occur in formal reserve. Two artificially planted populations at Brookfield Conservation Park and at Yookamurra Sanctuary are protected, however of the known sites of this species, 17 occur on private land, including the largest population at Peep Hill, estimated to contain over 20 000 individual plants (Moritz & Bickerton 2010).

Potential recovery of the Peep Hill Hop-bush include (Moritz & Bickerton 2010):

  • Survey and monitor existing populations recording details of location, area of occupancy, number of plants, life history structure, survival rates, sex ratios and habitat type.
  • Assess major threats to each population.
  • Identify further priority sites to conserve by evaluating information gained in Action 1.
  • Liaise with appropriate stakeholders including landowners, councils, the Department of Transport, Energy and Infrastructure.
  • Negotiate Heritage Agreements or binding conservation covenants if appropriate.

Management documents relevant to the Peep Hill Hop-bush are at the start of the profile.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Dodonaea subglandulifera in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006il) [Internet].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Dodonaea subglandulifera in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006il) [Internet].
Recovery Plan for the Peep Hill hop-bush Dodonaea subglandulifera 2010 (Moritz, K.N. & D.C Bickerton, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Dodonaea subglandulifera in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006il) [Internet].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Small isolated populations Recovery Plan for the Peep Hill hop-bush Dodonaea subglandulifera 2010 (Moritz, K.N. & D.C Bickerton, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat modification through open cut mining/quarrying activities Recovery Plan for the Peep Hill hop-bush Dodonaea subglandulifera 2010 (Moritz, K.N. & D.C Bickerton, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Inappropriate disturbance regimes Recovery Plan for the Peep Hill hop-bush Dodonaea subglandulifera 2010 (Moritz, K.N. & D.C Bickerton, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Mechanical disturbance during construction, maintanance or recreational activities Dodonaea subglandulifera in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006il) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Marrubium vulgare (Horehound, White Horehound, Hoarhound, Marrube, Houndsbane) Recovery Plan for the Peep Hill hop-bush Dodonaea subglandulifera 2010 (Moritz, K.N. & D.C Bickerton, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Lycium ferocissimum (African Boxthorn, Boxthorn) Recovery Plan for the Peep Hill hop-bush Dodonaea subglandulifera 2010 (Moritz, K.N. & D.C Bickerton, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Gomphocarpus fruticosus (Narrow Leaf Cotton Bush, Narrow-Leaved Cotton Bush, Narrowleaf Cottonbush, Swan Plant, Swanplant, Milk Weed, Milkweed, Cape Cotton, Duck Bush, Swan Bush, Wild Cotton) Recovery Plan for the Peep Hill hop-bush Dodonaea subglandulifera 2010 (Moritz, K.N. & D.C Bickerton, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Dodonaea subglandulifera in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006il) [Internet].
Recovery Plan for the Peep Hill hop-bush Dodonaea subglandulifera 2010 (Moritz, K.N. & D.C Bickerton, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Mesembryanthemum crystallinum Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (Iceplant, Common Iceplant) Recovery Plan for the Peep Hill hop-bush Dodonaea subglandulifera 2010 (Moritz, K.N. & D.C Bickerton, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Declining genetic diversity Recovery Plan for the Peep Hill hop-bush Dodonaea subglandulifera 2010 (Moritz, K.N. & D.C Bickerton, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads Recovery Plan for the Peep Hill hop-bush Dodonaea subglandulifera 2010 (Moritz, K.N. & D.C Bickerton, 2010) [Recovery Plan].

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2010). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/.

Jessop, J.P. & H.R. Toelken, eds. (1986). Flora of South Australia. Adelaide, South Australia: SA Government Printing Division.

Jusaitis, M. & B. Sorensen (1994). Conservation Studies on Endangered Plant Species from South Australia's Agricultural Regions. Adelaide, South Australia: Black Hill Flora Centre.

Moritz, K.N. & D.C Bickerton (2010). Recovery Plan for the Peep Hill hop-bush Dodonaea subglandulifera 2010. [Online]. Adelaide, South Australia: Department for Environment and Heritage. SA. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/dodonaea-subglandulifera.html.

West, J.G. (1984). A Revision of Dodonaea Miller (Sapindaceae) in Australia. Brunonia. 7(1):1-194.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Dodonaea subglandulifera in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 1 Aug 2014 12:46:44 +1000.