Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Cynanchum elegans (White-flowered Wax Plant) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008bd) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan for Predation, Habitat Degradation, Competition and Disease Transmission by Feral Pigs (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH), 2005p) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat Abatement Plan for Competition and Land Degradation by Feral Rabbits (Environment Australia (EA), 1999c) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat Abatement Plan for Competition and Land Degradation by Feral Goats (Environment Australia (EA), 1999d) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NSW:NSW Threatened Species - White flowered Wax Plant - profile (NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC), 2005h) [Internet].
NSW:Cynanchum elegans Threatened Species Information (NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS), 2002j) [Information Sheet].
NSW:Environmental Impact Assessment Guidelines - Cynanchum elegans (NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS), 2002k) [Internet].
NSW:Review of the Threatened Species Conservation Act Schedules 2007-2009 (NSW Scientific Committee (NSW SC), 2009b) [State Species Management Plan].
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Endangered (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): December 2013 list)
Scientific name Cynanchum elegans [12533]
Family Asclepiadaceae:Gentianales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author (Benth.) Domin
Infraspecies author  
Reference Beitr~uge zur Flora und Pflanzengeographie Australiens (Sep. 1928) 1085 [= Bibliotheca Botanica Heft 89 (Sep. 1928) 531].
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images
http://www.npws.nsw.gov.au/wildlife/thr_profiles/Celegans_profile.pdf ;
http://www.newcastle.edu.au/discipline/biology/kooragang/rainforest.htm

Scientific name: Cynanchum elegans

Common Name: White-flowered Wax Plant

White-flowered Wax Plant is a climber or twiner with a highly variable form. It is a clonal species with underground suckering stems, and is rarely stoloniferous. Mature stems have a fissured corky bark and can grow to 10 m high and 3.5 cm thick. Leaves are opposite, rarely in whorls of three, broadly ovate to ovate, 1.5–15 cm long, 1.5–7.5 cm wide and exude a milky sap when damaged. Juvenile leaves are lanceolate to narrow lanceolate.

Flowers are white, tubular, up to 4 mm long, 6–12 mm wide and occur in cymo-umbels, few flowered clusters or umbels on branched peduncles. The fruit is a narrow-ovoid pointed follicle, 4–8 cm long and contains up to 45 seeds. Seeds are 3–6 mm long with a long coma of silky hairs arising at one end. Fruit can take four to six months to mature following flowering (Beadle et al 1982; Harden 1992; Matthes & Nash 1993).

This species is restricted to Wollongong, NSW, north to southeast Queensland and west to Mt Danger (Copeland & Hunter 1999; Harden 1992). Locations include Cumberland Plain, the Forster area, Manning Valley, Hunter Valley, Yabbra State Forest, Brunswick Heads, Gerroa, Merriwa and northeast of Tenterfield (Matthes & Nash 1993; NSW NPWS 2002a). It has been recorded from 86 locations (NSW NPWS 2002a). It is most common in the Kempsey region (NSW NPWS 2002a).

Using data points from the Australian Virtual Herbarium (AVH) (CHAH 2008a), White-flowered Wax Plant has an estimated extent of occurrence is 44 000 km². This figure was calculated using AVH data points to form a minimum convex polygon.

Using data points from the AVH (CHAH 2008a), the extent of occupancy for White-flowered Wax Plant is 550–1000 ha. This figure was calculated by allocating each discrete area a 10 ha buffer.

White-flowered Wax Plant is cultivated at Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney, NSW; Australian National Botanic Gardens, ACT; Mt Annan Botanic Gardens, near Campbelltown, NSW; and Adelaide Botanic Gardens, SA (CHABG 1994).

Habitat associated with White-flowered Wax Plant has been fragmented by vegetation clearance, urban development and quarrying across its range. Pollen vectors and the distance that wind-dispersed seed is capable of travelling is unknown; thus, the level of fragmentation and population isolation that may lead to genetic depression is hard to quantify.

The clearing of interconnected or proximate areas of habitat for the species (or its pollen/seed vectors) is undesirable as this may expose populations to an increased risk of genetic isolation and subsequent decline (NSW NPWS 2002a).

Population estimates for White-flowered Wax Plant are disjunct or old. In 1993, the species was known from 31 sites with an estimated 1000 plants (Matthes & Nash 1993). A 1999 report on plants within the northern NSW Regional Forest Agreement (RFA) area (encompassing the Manning Valley, Forster, Hunter Valley and Tenterfield populations) lists eight populations with a total of about 290 individuals (Richards 1999). Bell (2001) stipulates that the majority of known populations generally contain less than 30 individuals.

White-flowered Wax Plant has been recorded from the following conservation reserves (NSW NPWS 2002):

  • Illawarra Escarpment State Recreation Area (SRA) and Berkeley Islands Nature Reserve (NR) in the Illawarra area
  • Wollemi National Park (NP) and Goulburn River NP to the northwest of Sydney
  • Booti Booti NP, Brunswick Heads NR, Camels Hump NR, Hat Head NP, Torrington SRA, Glenrock SRA, Green Point Reserve, and Woko NP in northern NSW.

Berkeley Islands NR, Wollemi NP, Goulburn River NP, Booti Booti NP, Brunswick Heads NR, Hat Head NP and Torrington SRA each have provisions to manage threatened native flora (NSW DECC 2008). It is unclear what conservation areas have targeted protection of White-flowered Wax Plant. This species also occurs in Singleton Military Area which does afford it some form of habitat protection (Thomas 1998 cited in Bell 2001)

White-flowered Wax Plant occurs on a variety of lithologies and soil types, usually on steep slopes with varying degrees of soil fertility (Quinn et al. 1995). Geology is not a limiting factor for this species and associated substrate varies at different locations. This species occurs from near sea level to about 600 m above sea level and experiences hot humid summers with high summer-autumn rainfall, and cool winters with low spring rainfall. Annual average rainfall ranges from 700–1450 mm (Matthes & Nash 1993; Quinn et al. 1995).

White-flowered Wax Plant occurs mainly at the ecotone between dry subtropical rainforest and sclerophyll forest/woodland communities (NSW NPWS 2002a). In the Illawarra region and Cumberland Plain, the majority of the populations of White-flowered Wax Plant are found in small isolated remnant patches of dry rainforest. In the Manning Valley and at Cape Hawke, the populations occur in rainforest and open rainforest types, with the surrounding vegetation acting as a buffer. The population adjacent to Camels Hump NR occurs in a remnant patch of dry rainforest (Matthes & Nash 1993; Quinn et al. 1995).

Vegetation communities where the species has been recorded include (NSW NPWS 2002e):

  • dry subtropical rainforest
  • littoral rainforest
  • Coastal Tea-tree (Leptospermum laevigatum)-Coastal Banksia(Banksia integrifolia subsp integrifolia ) coastal scrub
  • Forest Red Gum (Corymbia tereticornis) aligned open forest and woodland
  • scrub or woodland on steep basalt scree-slopes at some inland sites
  • Spotted Gum (Corymbia maculata) aligned open forest and woodland
  • Bracelet Honey myrtle (Melaleuca armillaris) scrub to open scrub (Matthes pers. comm. cited in NSW NPWS 2002e).

Associated species at inland sites include: Wilga (Geijera parviflora), Small-fruited Mock-olive (Notelaea microcarpa), and Acacia spp. Associated species at coastal and sub-coastal sites include: Smooth Ramboutan (Alectryon subcinereus), Coast Banksia (Banksia integrifolia), Red Olive-plum (Cassine australis subsp. australis), Native Cascarilla Bark (Croton insularis), Moreton Bay Fig (Ficus macrophylla), Deciduous Fig (F. superba), Geijera latifolia, Guioa (Guioa semiglauca), Coast Tea-tree (Leptospermum laevigatum), White Cedar (Melia azedarach), Rough-fruit Pittosporum (Pittosporum revolutum), Yellow Acronychia (Sarcomelicope simplicifolia), Flintwood (Scolopia braunii) and White Handlewood (Streblus brunonianus) (Quinn et al. 1995).

Matthes and Nash (1993) describe vegetation and landform associations at 25 sites throughout this species range.



Hill Zieria (Zieria granulata), listed as Endangered under the EPBC Act, occurs in similar habitat to White-flowered Wax Plant in the Illawarra.

The distribution of this species overlaps with the following EPBC Act-listed threatened ecological communities:

  • Shale/Sandstone Transition Forest
  • White Box-Yellow Box-Blakely's Red Gum Grassy Woodland and Derived Native Grassland
  • Cumberland Plain Woodland
  • Upland Wetlands of the New England Tableland and the Monaro Plateau
  • Turpentine-Ironbark Forest in the Sydney Basin Bioregion.


White-flowered Wax Plant is a clonal species and is capable of suckering in response to occasional physical disturbance including slashing and grazing (NPWS 1993 cited in NSW NPWS 2002e). The response of the species to different fire regimes is unknown although it was observed to reshoot in response to a fire at Picnic Island (NPWS 1995 cited in NSW NPWS 2002e). Fire may play an important role in maintaining the ecotonal habitat of the species although appropriate fire regimes have not been determined (NPWS 1995 cited in NSW NPWS 2002e). At least one population has declined due to annual fires (Quinn et al. 1995).

Little is known of the reproductive biology of White-flowered Wax Plant although an individual cultivated at Wollongong Botanic Gardens was capable of flowering and producing fruit within two years of germination (NPWS 1993 cited in NSW NPWS 2002e). Flowering occurs primarily between August and May, with the peak in November depending on the condition of the site and weather anomalies (NPWS 1993 cited in NSW NPWS 2002e). Flower abundance can vary from sparse to prolific and seed production is variable and unreliable (NPWS 1996 cited in NSW NPWS 2002e). NSW NPWS and Wollongong University are undertaking research into the pollination mechanisms of the species to determine the cause of low levels of seed production (NSW NPWS 2002e).

The fruit is a pointed follicle, 4–6 cm long, containing up to 25 seeds. The fruit matures 4–6 months after flowering. Few fruit seem to develop (Matthes & Nash 1993). Pre-dispersal seed predation by unidentified moth larvae (Lepidoptera) has been observed at a number of sites and may affect the fecundity of some sub-populations (NPWS 1994 cited in NSW NPWS 2002e). Defoliation of plants by Dichromia quinqualis moth-larvae has also been observed at a number of sites (NPWS 1995 cited in NSW NPWS 2002e). The seeds of White-flowered Wax Plant are wind dispersed. Studies have shown that they are viable and released in a non-dormant state and hence are unlikely to persist in the soil seedbank (NPWS 1994 cited in NSW NPWS 2002e).

Surveys for White-flowered Wax Plant may be undertaken at any time of the year. Mature individuals can be readily identified by the deeply fissured, corky bark present on mature stems (NSW NPWS 2002). Care must be taken when identifying juvenile plants as leaf morphology is highly variable and the species can be easily confused with other vines in the Asclepiadaceae family (especially the invasive Moth Vine, Araujia hortorum) (NSW NPWS 2002). Low stem numbers and/or highly localised distributions are characteristic of White-flowered Wax Plant sites and, consequently, the search effort required confirming presence or absence of the species is high. Surveyors should not exclude previously disturbed areas, particularly areas overgrown with weeds (Murray et al. 2002). Where new sites are located, population details regarding habitat and location should be recorded and forwarded to NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change.

There are five key threatening processes listed under Schedule 3 of the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (NSW) that are potentially relevant to White-flowered Wax Plant (NSW NPWS 2002a). The level at which these threats affect this species is different for each location. These listed threats include:

  • Alteration to the natural flow regimes of rivers and streams and their floodplains and wetlands (through earth work).
  • Anthropogenic climate change (changes to sea levels).
  • Clearing of native vegetation.
  • High frequency fire resulting in the disruption of life cycle processes in plants and animals and loss of vegetation structure and composition.
  • Competition and grazing by the feral European Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

Threats to White-flowered Wax Plant that may impact a number of sites include stochastic events leading to localised extinction (due to low population numbers, isolation and limited potential for colonisation and expansion); grazing; housing development and associated activities; and weed invasion. Significant threats affecting some sites include changed hydrology associated with urban runoff; vandalism; erosion; land fill; expansion of coal tailings dump; rubbish dumping; pollution; quarrying; human disturbance; tourist associated disturbance; and road/track widening (Matthes & Nash 1993; NSW DECC 2005h; NSW NPWS 2002).

Inappropriate fire management is a major threat to White-flowered Wax Plant, especially to the Woko NP, Camels Hump NR and Cape Hawke populations. Many of the remnant patches in the Illawarra region and Cumberland Plain are subject to frequent burning through arson. Site details and exact threats for each location, are detailed in the appendices of Matthes and Nash (1993).

Grazing by cattle (Bos taurus), goats (Capra hircus), pigs (Sus scrofa), horses (Equus caballus), sheep (Ovis aries) and deer (Dama dama, Cervus spp.) is affecting 14 of the remnant patches, causing rapid deterioration of White-flowered Wax Plant habitat. The species is susceptible to predation by insect larvae of Dichromia quinqualis (Qld DNR 2000): this moth is the only representative of that genus in Australia.

In 1993, the habitat of 21 populations of White-flowered Wax Plant was affected by a variety of weed species. These are: Moth Vine, Lantana (Lantana camara), Cape Ivy (Delairea odorata), Bitou Bush (Chrysanthemoides monilifera), and African Olive (Olea europaea var. africana). The weed species present at the sites are in such abundance that they are altering the natural habitat, including potential changes to nutrient levels, and probably reducing capacity for regeneration (Matthes & Nash 1993).

Poorly supervised bush regeneration activities are a potential threat at some locations as White-flowered Wax Plant can be mistaken for the common exotic climber, Moth Vine. Bush regenerators sometimes remove native climbers where they are thought to be suppressing natural regeneration (NSW NPWS 2002e).

White-flowered Wax Plant is not considered to be adequately represented in conservation reserves. Critical habitat has not been declared for this species (NSW NPWS 2002).

In regard to land development, the NSW government deem actions that impact upon the life cycle of White-flowered Wax Plant include actions that contribute to the following (NSW NPWS 2002a):

  • Loss of individuals: especially when there is a potential for genetic depression.
  • Fragmentation of habitat: especially when local populations are at risk of extinction.
  • Modification of habitat: including urban development, road construction, quarrying, slashing, or grazing, that is likely to cause altered hydrology, soil pH, soil nutrification, weed invasion, potential introduction of plant pathogens, increased pedestrian and vehicle traffic, altered fire frequency, trampling, soil compaction, soil erosion and the dumping of fill material and rubbish.
  • Altered fire regimes: appropriate fire regimes for this species are undetermined but too infrequent and too frequent fire is considered undesirable. White-flowered Wax Plant appears to prefer the very edge of the ecotone between rainforest and sclerophyll forest (NPWS 1994 cited in NSW NPWS 2002a): occasional fire (or other disturbance) is required to maintain such habitat.

The management of sites containing White-flowered Wax Plant must aim to prevent further loss, fragmentation and degradation of habitat (NSW NPWS 2002e). Threat and habitat management activities including bush regeneration and fencing to exclude livestock are required at many sites. Continued research into aspects of the species reproductive biology and fire ecology is required to guide future management. In the interim, fire should be excluded from sites containing White-flowered Wax Plant for a minimum of 50 years (NSW NPWS 2002e).

Priority recovery actions are available in the Threatened Species Scientific Committee's Conservation Advice (TSSC 2008bd). NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change list a number of recovery actions for White-flowered Wax Plant (NSW DECC 2005h):

  • Determine and implement appropriate fire management practices.
  • Consider off-site impacts in the assessment of nearby developments.
  • Prevent inappropriate water run-off entering sites.
  • Install fencing to exclude livestock and machinery, and control access where required.
  • Protect areas of known and potential habitat from clearing and further fragmentation.
  • Restore degraded habitat using bush regeneration techniques (note that it is crucial that workers are able to distinguish the species from the exotic Moth Vine).
  • Undertake weed control.
  • Monitor the health of known populations.
  • Mark sites and potential habitat onto maps used for planning maintenance work.
  • Map known sites and conduct searches of potential habitat for new sites.
  • Include this species in regional information packages on rainforest communities and management.
  • Undertake genetics and pollinator studies directed to improving management of the species.
  • Undertake habitat restoration and ecotone maintenance.

Halliday's Point Landcare Group has been acting to save two endangered rainforest plants within that Group's area: White-flowered Wax Plant and Senna acclinis. The Group's project focuses on developing information on the plants' distribution, biology, ecology, habitat requirements and response to habitat restoration (NSW NPWS 2000). The information they collected was distributed, by NSW NPWS, to other Landcare groups where these species may occur. Biological aspects that they researched included flower and fruit production, seed biology, monitoring of seedling establishment, adult mortality, growth rates and surveying of potential habitat for new populations (NSW NPWS 2000). They also developed keys to help differentiate these two species from similar plants.

Similar recovery actions have been implemented in the Sydney region and in northern NSW up until 2003 (NSW NPWS 2003). In northern NSW, habitat restoration and community awareness was implemented. In the Sydney region, surveying, mapping, biological research, weed control, habitat protection, fencing and restoration were conducted, as well as increasing community awareness, developing a recovery plan and developing Environmental Impact Assessment guidelines (NSW NPWS 2002, 2003).

Halliday's Point Landcare Group has been acting to save two endangered rainforest plants within that Group's area: White-flowered Wax Plant and Senna acclinis. The Group's project focuses on developing information on the plants' distribution, biology, ecology, habitat requirements, and response to habitat restoration (NSW NPWS 2000). The information they collected was distributed, by NPWS, to other Landcare groups where these species may occur. Biological aspects that they researched included flower and fruit production, seed biology, monitoring of seedling establishment, adult mortality, growth rates, and surveying of potential habitat for new populations (NSW NPWS 2000). They also developed keys to help differentiate these two species from similar plants.

Similar recovery actions have been implemented in the Sydney region and in northern NSW up until 2003 (NSW NPWS 2003). In northern NSW, habitat restoration and community awareness was implemented. In the Sydney region, surveying, mapping, biological research, weed control, habitat protection, fencing and restoration were conducted, as well as increasing community awareness, developing a recovery plan and developing Environmental Impact Assessment guidelines (NSW NPWS 2002, 2003).

There are two key management documents:


This species occurs in a number of National Parks. The Plans of Management and Fire Management Strategy for these areas may be helpful in the management of applicable populations (NSW DECC 2008).

The Lower Hunter Central Coast area (under Cessnock City Council) makes reference to this species in their Flora and Fauna Survey Guidelines (Bell et al. 2001).

The following Threat Abatement Plans may be appropriate for the management of some locations:

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Cynanchum elegans in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006gd) [Internet].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Cynanchum elegans in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006gd) [Internet].
Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Global warming and associated sea level changes Cynanchum elegans in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006gd) [Internet].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat modification with associated erosion Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Cynanchum elegans in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006gd) [Internet].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations Cynanchum elegans in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006gd) [Internet].
Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat destruction, disturbance and/or modification due to mining activities Cynanchum elegans in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006gd) [Internet].
Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat modification through open cut mining/quarrying activities Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities Cynanchum elegans in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006gd) [Internet].
Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:inappropriate conservation measures Cynanchum elegans in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006gd) [Internet].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) Conservation Research Statement and Species Recovery Plan. Cynanchum elegans (Matthes, M. & Nash, S., 1993) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Delairea odorata (Cape Ivy, German Ivy, Parlor Ivy, Italian Ivy, Ivy Groundsel Mile-a-minute) Cynanchum elegans in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006gd) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Lantana camara (Lantana, Common Lantana, Kamara Lantana, Large-leaf Lantana, Pink Flowered Lantana, Red Flowered Lantana, Red-Flowered Sage, White Sage, Wild Sage) Cynanchum elegans in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006gd) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Chrysanthemoides monilifera (Bitou Bush, Boneseed) Weeds of National Significance Bitou Bush and Boneseed (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. rotundata and monilifera) Strategic Plan (Agriculture & Resources Management Council of Australia & New Zealand, Australian & New Zealand Environment & Conservation Council and Forestry Ministers, 2000b) [Threat Abatement Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Cynanchum elegans in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006gd) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Capra hircus (Goat) Cynanchum elegans in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006gd) [Internet].
Conservation Research Statement and Species Recovery Plan. Cynanchum elegans (Matthes, M. & Nash, S., 1993) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Ovis aries (Sheep) Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Equus caballus (Horse) Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Sus scrofa (Pig) Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Cynanchum elegans in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006gd) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Bos taurus (Domestic Cattle) Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation by deer Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Cynanchum elegans in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006gd) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by insects Cynanchum elegans in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006gd) [Internet].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes and water quality Cynanchum elegans in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006gd) [Internet].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Cynanchum elegans in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006gd) [Internet].
Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Dumping of household and industrial waste Cynanchum elegans in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006gd) [Internet].
Pollution:Pollution:Deterioration of water and soil quality (contamination and pollution) Cynanchum elegans in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006gd) [Internet].
Pollution:Pollution:Pollution due to oil spills and other chemical pollutants Cynanchum elegans in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006gd) [Internet].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:unspecified Cynanchum elegans in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006gd) [Internet].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Cynanchum elegans in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006gd) [Internet].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads Cynanchum elegans in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006gd) [Internet].

Agriculture and Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand (ARMCANZ), Australia and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council and Forestry Ministers (2001a). Weeds of National Significance: Lantana (Lantana camara) Strategic Plan. [Online]. Available from: http://www.dpi.qld.gov.au/cps/rde/xbcr/dpi/IPA-Lantana-Nsplan.pdf.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Cynanchum elegans in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 10 Jul 2014 15:39:35 +1000.