In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Vulnerable|
|Listing and Conservation Advices||
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Solanum dunalianum (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008us) [Conservation Advice].
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
|Other EPBC Act Plans||
Threat Abatement Plan for Predation, Habitat Degradation, Competition and Disease Transmission by Feral Pigs (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH), 2005p) [Threat Abatement Plan].
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Solanum dunalianum |
|Reference||Voyage Autour du Monde ... sur les Corvettes de S.M. l'Uranie et la Physicienne. Botanique (23 Feb. 1828) t. 58, (28 Nov. 1829) 448.|
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
Scientific name: Solanum dunalianum
Conventionally accepted as Solanum dunalianum Gaudich (CHAH 2010).
A small tree or shrub growing to 24 m high (Purdie et al. 1982), with virtually hairless branches, leaves and inflorescences. In this species, unlike many others of the genus, prickles are absent (Bean 2004), though it is noted that in New Guinea, the species has been found to produce prickles (Symon 1986).
The adult leaves have short stalks, are elliptical to ovate, 1323 cm long, 4.37.5 mm wide, dark green on the upper surface, and paler below. Inflorescences (flower clusters) are two branched, with 1525 flowers. The calyx tube is smooth and cone-shaped, with the apex of the cone pointing down, and is 1.52 mm long.The corolla is mauve, deeply lobed, 79 mm long. There are five stamens surrounding the style. Fruits are globular, 89 mm in diameter and red. Seeds are pale yellow, flattened, and 22.7 mm long (Bean 2004).
In Australia, Solanum dunalianum is known only from the far north of Cape York Peninsula, near Weipa and from Thursday and Sabai Islands (Queensland Herbarium 2008; Purdie et al. 1982). Due to the terrain and accessibility of the area Solanum dunalianum is known from, it is highly likely that the species is much more widespread than currently known, and will be found in other closed forest pockets in Cape York Peninsula, especially in the areas of Weipa and north of the Wenlock River (Clarkson 2001b; Landsberg & Clarkson 2004).
Extent of occurrence
The extent of occurrence is estimated at 135 km² (Landsberg and Clarkson 2004).
Area of occupancy
The area of occupancy is estimated at approximately 42 km² (Landsberg and Clarkson 2004).
The species is found on islands throughout the South Pacific, extending from Malesia through Papua New Guinea to western Pacific islands (Levin et al. 2006; Purdie et al. 1982).
Solanum dunalianum is recorded growing in semi-evergreen notophyll vine forest on red lateritic ridges. Also recorded on edge of rainforest in an area cleared, burned and prepared for cultivation (Queensland Herbarium 2008).
Flowers are recorded from July and August and fruits in June to August (Queensland Herbarium 2008).
This species is most closely related to Solanum tetrandrum amongst the Australian Solanum species, but differs in its larger, elliptic, usually geminate leaves, glabrescence, sparse prickles, larger fruits and size (Symon 1981).
Land clearing and habitat destruction, especially from feral pigs (Sus scrofa), are considered threats to some populations of Solanum dunalianum (Landsberg & Clarkson, 2004).
The main potential threat to Solanum dunalianum is habitat destruction caused by strip mining (Landsberg & Clarkson 2004). Altered fire regimes and introduced weeds such as Hyptis suaveolens may also be threats (Clarkson 2001b; Landsberg & Clarkson 2004).
This species was included in the Conservation Management of Nationally Endangered Plant Species in Cape York Peninsula project (Landsberg & Clarkson 2004), which was funded by the Cape York Natural Heritage Trust.
The Commonwealth Threatened Species Scientific Committee have developed conservation advice for the species that includes the following regional and local priority recovery and threat abatement actions that may support the recovery of S. dunalianum (TSSC 2008us):
Habitat Loss, Disturbance and Modification
- Monitor known populations to identify key threats.
- Monitor the progress of recovery, including the effectiveness of management actions and the need to adapt them if necessary.
- Identify populations of high conservation priority.
- Minimise adverse impacts from land use at known sites, especially mining.
- Investigate formal conservation arrangements, management agreements and covenants on private land, and for crown and private land, investigate inclusion in reserve tenure if possible.
- Undertake targeted searches for this species prior to clearing (or allocation of lands for clearing) for strip-mining.
- Identify and remove weeds in the local area, which could become a threat to S. dunalianum, using appropriate methods.
- Manage sites to prevent introduction of invasive weeds, which could become a threat to the species, using appropriate methods.
- Ensure chemicals or other mechanisms used to eradicate weeds do not have a significant adverse impact on S. dunalianum.
Trampling, Browsing or Grazing
- Control introduced pests to manage threats at known sites.
Management documents for the Solanum dunalianum include:
- Threat Abatement Plan for Predation, Habitat Degradation, Competition and Disease Transmission by Feral Pigs (AGDEH 2005p).
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat modification through open cut mining/quarrying activities||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Solanum dunalianum (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008us) [Conservation Advice].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Solanum dunalianum (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008us) [Conservation Advice].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation||Sus scrofa (Pig)||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Solanum dunalianum (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008us) [Conservation Advice].|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity)|
|Residential and Commercial Development:Residential and Commercial Development:Habitat modification (clearance and degradation) due to urban development|
Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH) (2005p). Threat Abatement Plan for Predation, Habitat Degradation, Competition and Disease Transmission by Feral Pigs. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/pig.html.
Bean, A.R. (2004). The taxonomy and ecology of Solanum subg. Leptostemonum (Dunal) Bitter (Solanaceae) in Queensland and far north-eastern New South Wales. Austrobaileya. 6(4):639-816.
Clarkson, J.R. (2001b). BRI file No. 900S, email note in Queensland Herbarium files.
Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2010). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/.
Landsberg, J. & J. Clarkson (2004). Threatened Plants of the Cape York Peninsula: A report to the Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage. Brisbane: Queensland Parks & Wildlife Service.
Levin, R., N.R. Myers & L. Bohs (2006). Phylogenetic Reationships among the ''spiny solanums'' (Solanum Subgenus leptostemonium, Solanaceae). American Journal of Botany. 93(1):157-169.
Purdie, R.W., D.E. Symon & L. Haegi (1982). Flora of Australia vol. 29- Solanaceae. Australian Government Printer, Canberra.
Queensland Herbarium (2008). Specimen label information. Viewed 26 June 2008.
Symon, D.E. (1981). A Revision of the genus Solanum in Australia. Journal of the Adelaide Botanic Gardens. 4:1-367.
Symon, D.E. (1986). A Survey of Solanum Prickles and Marsupial Herbivory in Australia. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 73(4):745-754.
Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2008us). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Solanum dunalianum. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/13819-conservation-advice.pdf.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Solanum dunalianum in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 29 Aug 2014 12:12:13 +1000.