Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National Recovery Plan for the Clover Glycine Glycine latrobeana (Carter, O. and Sutter, G., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
TAS:Threatened Flora of Tasmania: Glycine latrobeana (Tasmanian Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment (Tas DPI), 2003) [Information Sheet].
TAS:Glycine latrobeana (Clover Glycine, Purple Clover): Species Management Profile for Tasmania's Threatened Species Link (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2014gd) [State Action Plan].
State Listing Status
SA: Listed as Vulnerable (National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (South Australia): June 2011 list)
TAS: Listed as Vulnerable (Threatened Species Protection Act 1995 (Tasmania): September 2012 list)
VIC: Listed as Threatened (Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 (Victoria): February 2014 list)
Non-statutory Listing Status
VIC: Listed as Vulnerable (Advisory List of Rare or Threatened Plants in Victoria: 2005)
Scientific name Glycine latrobeana [13910]
Family Fabaceae:Fabales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author (Meissner) Benth.
Infraspecies author  
Reference Bentham, G. (1864), Flora Australiensis 2: 244 [comb. nov.]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Other illustrations Google Images
http://www.anbg.gov.au/images/photo_cd/717332712441/092.html

The current conservation status of Clover Glycine, Glycine latrobeana, under Australian and State Government legislation, is as follows:

National: Listed as Vulnerable under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.

South Australia: Listed as Vulnerable under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972.

Tasmania: Listed as Vulnerable under the Threatened Species Protection Act 1995.

Victoria: Listed as Threatened under the Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988.

The suggestion has been made that the status of Clover Glycine (Glycine latrobeana) should be reviewed in South Australia (Duval & Brewer 2008, pers. comm.). One suggestion is that Clover Glycine should be considered Rare, as opposed to Vulnerable, especially when viewed comparatively with other Glycine species in South Australia such as Glycine Pea (G. tabacina) or G. microphylla (Duval & Brewer 2008, pers. comm.).

Scientific name: Glycine latrobeana

Common name: Clover Glycine

Other names: Purple Clover, Purple Glycine, Variable Glycine

History: Australia has been referred to as a centre of diversity for Glycine species with Clover Glycine just one of 25 Australian Glycine species (Pfeil et al. 2006; Scarlett & Parsons 1993). China has two annual species of Glycine including the better known, cultivated Soy Bean (G. max) (Scarlett & Parsons 1993).

Clover Glycine is conventionally accepted and confirmed with molecular work (Brown 2008, pers. comm.; Pfeil et al. 2006). Previous taxonomic confusion between Clover Glycine and Twining Glycine (G. clandestina) could be attributed to the morphological changes within Twining Glycine populations in mountainous areas (Brown 2008, pers. comm.).

Clover Glycine is a small perennial herb with leaves that look similar to common pasture clover (Tas DPI 2003; Vic DSE 2005). Low growing, it first spreads horizontally then becomes erect (ascending) or continues horizontally with the ends growing upwards (decumbent). The leaves are round and grouped into three leaflets (trifoliate), similar to clover; the leaflets can be up to 20 mm long and 12 mm wide (Vic DSE 2005; Walsh & Entwisle 1996). A distinguishing feature is the stipules (pair of outgrowths occurring at base of leaf stalk) that are egg or kidney shaped and wrap around the stem (Tas DPI 2003). The flowers are purple to pink, pea like, and up to 6 mm long (Tas DPI 2003; Vic DSE 2005). The fruit are small pods which contain three to five ovoid seeds approximately 3 mm long. The pods are between 15 to 25 mm long and covered with short hairs (Tas DPI 2003; Walsh & Entwisle 1996).

The distribution of Clover Glycine is sporadic but widespread across south-eastern Australia (EBS 2006; Lynch 1994b). In South Australia, Clover Glycine has been found in the Mt Lofty Ranges and the south-east of the state (Lynch 1994b). In Tasmania, it is known in the north-west, Midlands and extending southwards to Runnymede and the Derwent Valley regions (Lynch 1994b). In Victoria it is widespread in the north-east, Gippsland, central Victoria and western Victoria regions but not the north-west quarter or the districts of Shepparton or Albury/Wodonga (Lynch, 1994b; Vic DSE 2005). In NSW, current known populations are in the south-east at Delegate near the Victorian border (CHAH 2008a).

Historical survey records indicate Clover Glycine has been found in the South Australian Botanical Districts of South East, Lofty South and only a few herbarium records in the Lofty North (CHAH 2008a). In Victoria, records are located in the Riverina, Wannon, Grampians, Wimmera, Snowfields, Midlands, Victorian Volcanic Plain, Otway Plain, Eastern Highland and Gippsland Plain Botanical Districts (CHAH 2008a). In Tasmania, Clover Glycine has been found in the Botanical Districts of Central Highlands, Ben Lomond, North East and East Coast (CHAH 2008a). There are also records of Clover Glycine extending up into the lower section of the Southern Tableland Botanical District in NSW (CHAH 2008a).

The extent of occurrence is calculated at 351 350 km², based on Australia's Virtual Herbarium (CHAH 2008a) data. The estimate is considered to be of low reliability, as recent ground truthing (on-site surveying to check remote sensing data) has not occurred at all populations.

The area of occupancy is estimated at 131 km², based on the number of 1 km² grid squares in which the species is thought to occur. The estimate is considered to be of low reliability, as recent ground truthing has not occurred at all populations.

This species may be naturally fragmented with populations possibly rare and patchy across Tasmania prior to European arrival (Vic DSE 2005).

Determining location counts for Clover Glycine was not possible as at 2008. Environment and Biodiversity Services (EBS) (2006) suggests searching for further sites as a recovery strategy for Clover Glycine. Lynch (1994b) has raised concerns that Clover Glycine populations may have been overestimated in Tasmania through incorrect identification. Clover Glycine is hard to locate and generally only detectable when in flower or fruit (Lynch 1994b; Tas DPI 2003). Historically, Australia's Virtual Herbarium (CHAH 2008a) data shows locations within highly urbanised areas of Melbourne. Attempting to relocate locations of Clover Glycine based on herbarium records has led researchers to sites of urban development (Brown 2008, pers. comm.). Current Australian Virtual Herbarium data has approximately 200 herbarium records for Clover Glycine although some of these are collected at the same location (CHAH 2008a).

Meredith and Richardson (1986) indicated that populations of Clover Glycine have been kept at the Botanic Gardens of Adelaide in South Australia and the Royal Tasmanian Botanical Gardens in Hobart. Clover Glycine has also been grown for studies and experimental trials at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) (Davies 1986; Grant et al. 1984).

This species may be naturally fragmented with populations possibly rare and patchy across Tasmania prior to European arrival (Vic DSE 2005).

With the available information it is not possible to calculate the generation length of Clover Glycine.

Kirkpatrick and colleagues (1988) studied the grassy woodlands, lowland and montane grasslands of Tasmania and identified 11 plant communities in which Clover Glycine could be found. Lynch (1994b) detailed nine populations in Tasmania's midlands, central plateau, the coastal far north-east and northern regions. Lynch (1994b) highlights that due to past misidentifications of all Glycine species that "the extent of [Clover Glycine] in Tasmania has been overestimated."

Survey work carried on in Victoria by Broue (1977 cited in Scarlett & Parsons 1993) found that searching in past known distribution areas proved fruitless and raised fears that the species may have become extinct in Victoria. Work carried out after 1979 found at least 35 Clover Glycine localities across Victoria after an absence in field surveys of 30 to 40 years (Scarlett & Parsons 1993).

Clover Glycine was identified at two sites in South Australia during the Southern Mount Lofty Ranges Biological Survey (Croft & Brandle 2000–2001). These were Mount Bold Reservoir and Tammar Creek Belair Recreational Park.

There is no published information on the total number of individuals at present. Cropper (1993) considers this species to be rare because it is found in small populations over a very large area.

Generally populations of Clover Glycine are widespread but extremely restricted (Lynch 1994b). Populations are locally rare as the species does not occur in large numbers and is often in populations as small as one to ten individuals (Brown 2008, pers. comm.), or covering areas only tens of metres across with less than 60 plants per site (Lynch 1994b). Scarlett and Parsons (1993) suggest that individual populations of Clover Glycine are considerably different in genetic makeup due to the fact the species often self-pollinates.

In Victoria, populations of Clover Glycine were found at the Puckapunyal Military Area (Anderson et al. 2007). These populations were originally in decline but after weed and rabbit control programs these populations recovered from 1 plant/m² to 9 plants/m² (Anderson et al. 2007). Anderson and colleagues (2007) quote "some of these populations are now massive and occupy areas of 1 km²". Australia's Virtual Herbarium (2008) data indicates a number of populations within metropolitan areas. In Melbourne (Victoria) local council species lists indicate Clover Glycine is located within the City of Wyndham, Brimbank City Council, Hume City Council and Moyne Shire Council (Brimbank City Council 2008; City of Wyndham 2004; Hume City Council 2008; Moyne Shire 2005). Clover Glycine is found in Belair National Park, Scott Creek Conservation Park and Mount George Conservation Park near the metropolitan areas of Adelaide, South Australia (SAUFBP 2008).

In South Australia recent field work has documented Clover Glycine population sizes for nine of the known sites (Table 1).

Table 1. Nine South Australian Clover Glycine populations and size (Duval & Brewer 2008, pers. comm.).

Locality Date Population size
Mt George Conservation Park   1000+ plants
Belair National Park   5 to 6 populations
Heath Native Forest Reserve, near Mt Gambier 2006 400+ plants
Dry Creek Native Forest Reserve near Glenelg River 2006 large patches
Mt Bold Reservoir, Thomas Gully 2007 100s of plants but localised
Montacute Conservation Park 2007 numerous plants
Big Heath Native Forest Reserve, near Naracoorte 2007 Good patches
Topperwein Native Forest Reserve 2007 small patches (a few dozen)
Billy Goat Hill   1000+ plants
Honand Native Forest Reserve 2007 2 sites

Previously, researchers have been unable to find Clover Glycine using historical herbarium record localities, indicating that populations/distribution has changed, often in association with urban development (Broue 1977 cited in Scarlett & Parsons 1993; Brown 2008 pers. comm.).

Populations may naturally fluctuate after fire events, as Duval and Brewer (pers. comm. 2008) mention that they were able to collect a large amount of seed at the Thomas Gully Mt Bold Reservoir location due to Clover Glycine's higher abundance post fire.

With the available information it is not possible to calculate the generation length of Clover Glycine.

In Tasmania, five populations of Clover Glycine have been identified as important by the Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment (Tas DPI 2003). They include Pointville (Commonwealth land), Remarkable Rock Forest Reserve, Cape Portland (Private Property), north of Campbelltown (Private Property) and Lagoon Islands (HEC Water Reserve) (Tas DPI 2003).

Clover Glycine is not generally associated with cross breeding in the wild, but in a greenhouse environment it has been hybridised with other Glycine species (Grant et al. 1984). There has also been research into introducing rust resistant and cold tolerance traits from native Glycine species into commercial Soy Bean crops (Davies 1986; Lynch 1993).

Tasmania
The Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment identified several reserves with populations of Clover Glycine in Tasmania. These include: Cape Portland Conservation Area, Cape Portland Private Sanctuary, Epping Forest Nature Reserve, Franklin-Gordon Wild Rivers National Park, Freycinet National Park, Remarkable Rock Forest Reserve, Roaring Magg Hill Forest Reserve, Steppes State Reserve, the Nut State Reserve, Tom Gibson Nature Reserve and the Wayatinah Conservation Area (Tas DPI 2003).

Remarkable Rock Forest Reserve and Wayatinah Conservation Area are both included in the Derwent Forest District Forest Management Plan (Forestry Tasmania 1999). No active management strategies for Clover Glycine were mentioned in this plan. While the plan indicates there is the potential for Clover Glycine to be around and in the plan area, only Remarkable Rock Forest Reserve is identified as having Clover Glycine populations (Forestry Tasmania 1999). Tom Gibson Nature Reserve incorporates land at Epping Forest in the Tasmanian Midlands (Tas PWS 2006). Clover Glycine is a plant species that is significant and either poorly reserved or rare in Tasmania (Tas PWS 2006). Tom Gibson Nature Reserve use, and monitor, sheep grazing that replicates historic grazing regimes to maintain plant diversity (Tas PWS 2006). Clover Glycine is not listed in the Freycinet National Park species list and is also not listed at The Nut State Reserve although Twining Glycine is present (Tas PWS 2000, 2003).

South Australia
In South Australia, Duval and Brewer (2008, pers. comm.) indicated Clover Glycine could be found in Belair National Park, Big Heath Conservation Park, Black Hill Conservation Park, Dry Creek Native Forest Reserve, Heath Native Forest Reserve, Honan Native Forest Reserve, Montacute Conservation Park, Mount George Conservation Park, Porter Scrub Conservation Park and Topperwein Native Forest Reserve. Populations have also been found in Kalamunda and Watts Gully Native Forest Reserves (ForestrySA 2006a; 2006b). Davies (1986) also mentions that populations of Clover Glycine have been found in Piccaninnie Ponds Conservation Park, and there is also a herbarium record from this locality (CHAH 2008a). Princess Margaret Rose Caves, Mount Crawford Forest Reserve, Mary Seymour Conservation Park, Scott Creek Conservation Park and Padthaway Conservation Park are all listed as location information on Herbarium records for Clover Glycine (CHAH 2008a). Additionally Clover Glycine appears on species lists for Warren Conservation Park and Cudlee Creek Conservation Park (SA DEH 2004a; 2004b).

The plan of management for Mount George Conservation Park states that active management will be undertaken for threatened species when necessary (SA DEH 2006a). Mount George Conservation Park are complying with workplace standards as well as monitoring to prevent Root Rot fungus (Phytophthora cinnamomi) taking hold in the Park (SA DEH 2006a). Belair National Park is also actively managing Root Rot fungus through research, monitoring and development of management strategies (SA DEH 2003). Orienteering was identified as a risk to Clover Glycine populations in Porter Scrub Conservation Park (SA DEH 2007). To remove this risk factor, no orienteering events are permitted in the Park (SA DEH 2007).

Victoria
Scarlett and Parsons (1993) broadly mentioned that Clover Glycine has five known populations within biological reserves at that time. Robertson and Fitzsimons (2005b, 2005c) found populations in the two new reserves; Mount Mercer Nature Conservation Reserve and Ridge Paddock (which is part of Cobra Killuc Wildlife Reserve). There was no mention of active management for these populations (Robertson & Fitzsimons 2005b, 2005c). Clover Glycine has also been identified at Flaxmans Hill in the Bay of Islands Coastal Park (Parks Victoria 1998a). Management actions identified for protecting Clover Glycine in this Park state that populations should be protected from grazing by rabbits and that populations should be adaptively managed either using fire or slashing of vegetation (Parks Victoria 1998a). Clover Glycine is found in the Black Range State Park which aims to manage listed flora according to Action Statements, and to research fire responses and ecological based fire regimes (Parks Victoria 1998b). Reef Hills Park also contains populations of Clover Glycine with active management designed to investigate and research the use of protective fences to help reduce impacts from trampling, grazing and damage to several threatened species (Parks Victoria 2007). The Grampians National Park lists Clover Glycine as occurring within the Park, as does the Lower Glenelg National Park and Brisbane Ranges National Park (Vic DCE 1991; Friends of the Brisbane Ranges 2003; Parks Victoria 2003). Australia's Virtual Herbarium records indicate that populations of Clover Glycine may occur in the areas around Arthur's Seat State Park, Mount Alexander Conservation Park, You Yangs Regional Park, Nunniong Plains Reserve and Wilkin Flora and Fauna Reserve (CHAH 2008a).

Clover Glycine is found across south-eastern Australia in native grasslands, dry sclerophyll forests, woodlands and low open woodlands with a grassy ground layer (Lynch 1994b; Scarlett & Parsons 1993; Tas DPI 2003; Walsh & Entwisle 1996). Soils generally have a sandy component being either sand or loamy sand but Clover Glycine has also been found on clay soils (Davies 1986; Lynch 1994b; Tas DPI 2003). Soils with Clover Glycine populations in Tasmania are generally well draining, however the associated soils in South Australia are reported to have water retaining capacity (Davies 1986; Lynch 1994b; Tas DPI 2003).

In Tasmania, sites are often flat with well draining loose sandy soils or with a dolerite substrate (Lynch 1994b; Tas DPI 2003). Lynch (1994b) carried out detailed habitat and species association studies of Tasmanian Clover Glycine populations (Table 2). Kirkpatrick and colleagues (1988) characterized 11 plant communities in which Clover Glycine could be found during studies of the grassy woodlands, lowland and montane grasslands of Tasmania. These plant communities included:

  • Poa labillardieri - Acaena novae-zelandiae tussock grassland characteristically on river flats often in sandstone country
  • Eucalyptus amygadalina - Caesia parviflora var. vittata grassy woodland found on sandy soils with low rainfall and dependent on disturbance to maintain the grassy understory
  • Eucalyptus viminalis/E. amygdalina - Dianella revolute grassy woodland found on fine grained sedimentary rocks with some moisture
  • Eucalyptus pulchella - Bossiaea prostrate/Gonocarpus tetragynus grassy woodland that usually occurs on slopping ground rather than flats in the south-east, mainly along the coast
  • Eucalyptus amygdalina - Centrolepis strigosa grassy woodland that is strongly linked with sandy soils from erosion surfaces of the Midlands with Tertiary laterites
  • Eucalyptus viminalis - Acaena ovina grassy woodland which typically is on the north facing slopes of dolerite hills
  • Eucalyptus viminalis/E. amygdalina - Acaena echinata/Dichondra repends grassy woodland occurring on the north facing slopes of dolerite hills
  • Eucalyptus viminalis - Pteridium esculentum grassy woodland found on well drained dolerite soils in inland Tasmania
  • Eucalyptus viminalis/E. ovata/E. pauciflora - Convolvulus erubescens grassy woodland which is found on fertile naturally dry soils
  • Eucalyptus pauciflora - Pultenaea juniperina grassy woodland which occurs on rocky ground
  • Eucalyptus amygdalina/E. viminalis/Acacia dealbata - Dichopogon strictus grassy woodland which is found on sandy well draining areas (Kirkpatrick et al. 1988).

In Victoria, populations near the Brisbane Ranges occurred in areas ranging from open woodlands to grasslands dominated by Themeda triandra (Cropper 1993). Overall, populations occur in lowland grasslands, grassy woodlands and sometimes in grassy heath (Davies 1986). The grasslands are dominated by Themeda triandra as well as Poa species with the grassy woodland characterized by Eucalyptus leucoxylon, E. viminalis, E. camaldulensis, E. rubida or E. macrorhyncha and sometimes by E. oblique - E. baxteri (Davies 1986). This last grassy woodland also has a dense understory with Olearia axillaris, Pteridium esculentum and Themeda triandra (Davies 1986). Davies (1986) described the soils as fine loamy sand to coarse sandy loam, grey silty clay or black clay loam occurring on plains or gentle to moderate slopes.

In South Australia, Clover Glycine is found on undulating plains, gentle south-west facing ridge slopes and lower south facing river valley slopes (Davies 1986). The soils can retain water and are grey or brown sand and loamy sand with pH 5.5 to 6 (Davies 1986). In the south-east of South Australia Clover Glycine has been "collected beneath Bracken in scrub and from woodland of Eucalyptus baxteri with Banksia lower cover" (Davies 1986). In the Mount Lofty Ranges it is found in E. viminalis woodland and open woodland sometimes with E. leucoxylon (Davies 1986). The understory is often mid-dense to very sparse with Leptocarpus brownii or Acacia pycnantha, Leptospermum myrsinoides, Gonocarpus elatus, Themeda triandra or Pteridium esculentum, Dichondra repens, Acaena species and Ajuga species (Davies 1986). Davies (1986) reports sightings of Clover Glycine within pine plantations in South Australia.

Duval and Brewer (2008, pers. comm.) reported a population of Clover Glycine at Montacute Conservation Park growing under Eucalyptus viminalis, E. camaldulensis and E. leucoxylon with Lepidosperma laterale and Dianella longifolia var. grandis. At Big Heath Native Forest Reserve, Clover Glycine was under Eucalyptus camaldulensis on an island in the swamp; at Topperwein Native Forest Reserve it was in low heath under E. camaldulensis and E. obliqua ; and at Honand Native Forest Reserve Clover Glycine was found in Eucalyptus viminalis and E. ovata woodland (Duval & Brewer 2008, pers. comm.).

Table 2. Habitat information of several Tasmanian Clover Glycine populations (Lynch 1994b).

Region Site Date Habitat Management/ additional information
Tasmania - midlands Epping Forest (Powranna Road) 1991 Gentle slope above poor drained cleared native pasture and sedges. Altitude 170 m. South-east aspect. Sandy loam on dolerite. Eucalyptus pauciflora and E. viminalis open woodland with a moderately dense shrubby understorey of Acacia dealbata and Pteridium esculentum. Ground layer of Themeda triandra, Poa sieberiana, Ehrharta stipoides, Stipa sp., Danthonia sp., Aira caryophyllaea, Lissanthe strigosa, Astroloma humifusum, Centaurium erythraea, Hypochoeris glabra, Plantago varia, Goodenia lanata, Brunonia australis and Pimelea humilis. Area grazed by sheep and subject to woodcutting and frequent fire. Ground species under considerable grazing pressure.
  Stockers Bottom 1981 Undulating plateau, altitude 420 m, on Triassic sediments. Localised community of Eucalyptus viminalis - E. dalrympleana open forest to an E. ovata - E. pauciflora - E. rodwayi frost hollow. Understorey dominated by Acacia dealbata, Lissanthe strigosa, Acrotriche serrulata and Astroloma humifusum. Ground layer Microlaena stipoides, Danthonia sp., Poa rodwayi, Viola spp., Pimelia humilis, Acaena echinata, Plantago varia and Bossiaea prostrate. High fire frequency, site had been selectively logged and was grazed.
  Pig Farm Hill in the Bothwell Area 1982 Moderately sloping northern aspect of a broad knoll, altitude 660 m, on Jurassic dolerite with shallow soils. Woodland of Eucalyptus rubida and E. dalrympleana with a shrubby understorey of Acacia dealbata and regenerating E. rubida. Ground cover consists of moderately dense Lomandra longifolia, with Lissanthe montana with dense grass cover including Poa labillardieri, P. rodwayi and Danthonia species with Pimelia humilis, Dichondra repens, Lagenifera stipitata, Geranium potentillooides and Senecio minimus. Grazed by sheep and subject to frequent fire.
  Hummocky Hills No supporting specimen   Site 5 km north of Powranna Road site.
Tasmania - central plateau Ouse River near Remarkable Rock 1980 Above the river, altitude 850 m.  
  Upper Ouse River - Miena district near Monpeelyata Canal 1984 Altitude 900 m. Flat to undulating site on top of broad ridge above river. Eucalyptus pauciflora woodland with a shrub layer of Cyathodes parvifolia, Leucopogon hookeri and Lomatia tinctoria with ground cover of Poa gunii, Elymus scabrous, Danthonia penicillata, Deyeuxia quadriseta, Dichelachne rara, Plantago paradoxa, Acaena novae-zelandiae, A. echinata, Geranium sessiliflorum and Glycine clandestina. Burnt at frequent intervals.
Near Coastal in far north-east Neck of Cape Portland Headland 1983 Pasture dominated by Zoysia, Trifolium, Cerastium, Plantago and Lomandra. Extremely rare
  Petal Point, 4 km south of Cape Portland Neck 1991 Growing in sandy soil on flat. Localised
Northern Tasmania Dogs Head Hill, north of Mole Creek No supporting specimen Elevation 350 m, on limestone. Not found in 1992 but may still be present at site.

The Iron-grass Natural Temperate Grassland of South Australia ecological community provides potential habitat for Clover Glycine. The Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment (Vic DSE) (2005) states that good management of Clover Glycine will flow on to benefit grassland and grassy woodland conservation.

There is currently no information available about the age of sexual maturity, life expectancy and natural mortality of Clover Glycine.

Clover Glycine flowers from September to November/December but has been known to flower as late as February at higher altitudes (Tas DPI 2003; Vic DSE 2005; Walsh & Entwisle 1996). Scarlett and Parsons (1993) describe Clover Glycine as self pollinating. This self pollination creates a high chance that each population is genetically different (Scarlett & Parsons 1993). The pollination that does occur is most likely carried out by bees (Higston pers. comm. cited in Tas DPI 2003). The seeds of Clover Glycine are hard and are most likely stored in the soil seed bank for future germination (Lynch 1994b; Vic DSE 2005). Seeds will likely germinate after an appropriate, mild to hot, fire event (Auld & O'Connell 1991; Lynch 1994b). Clover Glycine can also re-sprout from the tap root post fire (Lynch 1994b). Davies (1986) indicates that the top growth can die back in late summer and then re-sprout in late spring. Reproduction may also be vegetative through the rhizome/thickened tap root (Lynch 1994b; Vic DSE 2005).

Brown (2008, pers. comm.) stressed the difficulties in finding Clover Glycine in the field and when searching for localities based on historical herbarium records that populations had been overtaken by urban development. Lynch (1994b) was concerned that distribution in Tasmania may have been overestimated due to variability in the morphology of Twining Glycine, resulting in incorrect identification.

There can be identification difficulties between Clover Glycine, Twining Glycine, Small-leaf Glycine (Glycine microphylla) and Glycine Pea (Glycine tabacina) (Davies 1986; Lynch 1993, 1994b; Tas DPI 2003). In Tasmania, Clover Glycine, Twining Glycine and Small-leaf Glycine can adopt similar growth habits which make identification between species additionally hard (Lynch 1994b). The distinctive features of Clover Glycine are the stipules (pair of outgrowths occurring at base of leaf stalk) that are egg or kidney shaped and wrap around the stem (Tas DPI 2003). The stipules of Twining Glycine and Small-leaf Glycine do not clasp the stem and are oblong or triangular in shape (Tas DPI 2003). Glycine Pea has petiolate terminal leaflets, meaning the leaflets end in a small stalk whereas Clover Glycine has subsessile or sessile leaflets, meaning they have little to no stalk (Davies 1986; Jessop & Toelken 1986).

Detectability of this species is difficult unless in flower or with seed pods (Lynch 1994b; Tas DPI 2003). Clover Glycine is highly palatable to stock with flowers, seed pods as well as foliage often removed through grazing (Lynch 1994b; Tas DPI 2003).

Most herbarium specimens are collected between October and December when the species is in flower or fruit (Tas DPI 2003).

Small population size
Environment and Biodiversity Services (2006) states that a small population size is a serious threat to species that are considered vulnerable. While the distribution of Clover Glycine is wide, the population numbers are believed to be small (Brown 2008, pers. comm.; EBS 2006; Lynch 1994b; Vic DSE 2005).

Inappropriate fire regimes
Clover Glycine is susceptible to regular late-spring and early summer burning (Scarlett & Parsons 1993). The intensity of a fire event may play a critical role in the survival of Clover Glycine (Scarlett & Parsons 1993). Scarlett and Parsons (1993) suggest repetitive fire management is the cause of Clover Glycine's absence from railway reserves, which are subject to repetitive burning. Auld and O'Connell (1991) studied fire responses in Twining Glycine and found "there was a trend towards increased germination with duration of exposure at 80 degrees" (°C). The authors suggested that low intensity fires would cause a decline in Twining Glycine while high intensity fires would kill seed stored in the top layer of soil but assist germination of seed stored lower down.

Grazing by native/introduced herbivores and stock
Clover Glycine is a palatable species grazed by both native and introduced species (Gilfedder pers. comm. in Tas DPI 2003; Lynch 1994b; Vic DSE 2005). In the Dry Creek Native Forest Reserve, populations of Clover Glycine are likely impacted by kangaroo and wombat grazing (Dickson 2008, pers. comm.). The timing of grazing in combination with frequent fires may lead to long term survival problems (Lynch 1994b). Scarlett and Parsons (1993) consider that grazing pressures along with cultivation and soil disturbance may be involved historically with the rarity of this species. Grazing pressure can also reduce the detectability of this species (Tas DPI 2003). Introduced pest species such as the European Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) also impact on Clover Glycine populations (Anderson et al. 2007). At the Puckapunyal Military Area in Victoria populations of Clover Glycine increased from 1 plant/m² to 9 plants/m² after rabbit and weed control programs were initiated (Anderson et al. 2007).

Habitat fragmentation/loss
The Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment (2005) identified urban growth as a habitat loss and fragmentation threat to Clover Glycine. Brown (2008, pers. comm.) stated that when looking for populations based on historical records he found urban development at the record location. Clover Glycine is also subject to habitat fragmentation and loss through the current and historical agricultural demand for high productivity land (Brown 2008, pers. comm.; Gilfedder pers. comm. cited in Tas DPI 2003; Vic DSE 2005).

Phytophthora Root Rot fungus
Phytophthora Root Rot (Phytophthora cinnamomi) is a water mould that causes roots in susceptible plants to rot, sometimes killing the plant in the process (EA 2001l). Introduced after European settlement it affects open forests, woodlands and heathlands across hundreds of thousands of hectares. Clover Glycine is considered one of the poorly understood taxa that is known to be susceptible to this mould (EA 2001l). Clover Glycine was not covered in Barker's 1994 study of the effects of Phytophthora Root Rot on Tasmanian rare species (Barker 1994).

Weeds
Weeds are a likely threat to Clover Glycine populations (EBS 2006). Weeds are a major threat to all native vegetation in Australia. Weeds can out-compete native plants as weed species are often outside the range of their natural pests or diseases. Weeds can also reproduce and take advantage of disturbance events quickly, grow faster and smother native plants (DEWHA 2007f).

Other threats
Human impact through orienteering events was identified as a risk to biodiversity values, specifically Clover Glycine, within the Porter Scrub Conservation Park (SA DEH 2007).

Environmental and Biodiversity Services (2006) suggest a recovery approach for Clover Glycine in South Australia. A short term aim is to manage immediate threats by surveying sites, and through weed control around existing populations (EBS 2006). In the long-term, the aim is to increase the number of populations by searching for further sites, reducing herbivory and increasing recruitment potentially through favourable fire regimes (EBS 2006). Introduced herbivore and kangaroo control as well as ecological burns, general monitoring and changes to stocking levels are recommended for the recovery of this species (ANRA 2007a).

Currently field work is being undertaken as part of the SACRED (South Australia Conservation of Rare and Endangered) Seeds project which is finding more information on Clover Glycine populations (Duval & Brewer 2008, pers. comm.).

The National Recovery Plan for the Clover Glycine, Glycine latrobeana (Carter & Sutter 2010) aims to minimise the extinction of the species in the wild and increase the probability of important populations becomming self sustaining. The plan outlines eight specific objectives:

  • Determine distribution, abundance and population structure.
  • Determine habitat requirements.
  • Ensure that key populations and their habitat are protected and managed.
  • Manage threats to populations.
  • Identify key biological functions.
  • Determine growth rates and viability of populations.
  • Establish a population in cultivation.
  • Build community support for conservation.
  • In Tasmania, Lynch (1994b) carried out a major study into distribution and characteristics of Clover Glycine populations.

    Taxonomic and genetic studies have been undertaken by Broue and colleagues (1977), Grant and colleagues (1984) and Pfeil and colleagues (2006).

    There is a National Recovery Plan in preparation for this species.

    The Threat Abatement Plan for dieback caused by the root-rot fungus Phytophthora cinnamomi (EA 2001l) has management guidelines for root-rot fungus that may be relevant to this species.

    The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

    Threat Class Threatening Species References
    Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Glycine latrobeana in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006md) [Internet].
    Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes National Recovery Plan for the Clover Glycine Glycine latrobeana (Carter, O. and Sutter, G., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Glycine latrobeana in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006md) [Internet].
    Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development Glycine latrobeana in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006md) [Internet].
    Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Habitat disturbance from recreational vehicle use National Recovery Plan for the Clover Glycine Glycine latrobeana (Carter, O. and Sutter, G., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Soil disturbance and/or trampling due to bushwalking National Recovery Plan for the Clover Glycine Glycine latrobeana (Carter, O. and Sutter, G., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) National Recovery Plan for the Clover Glycine Glycine latrobeana (Carter, O. and Sutter, G., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Hypochaeris radicata (Flatweed, Cat's-ear) National Recovery Plan for the Clover Glycine Glycine latrobeana (Carter, O. and Sutter, G., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Anthoxanthum odoratum (Sweet Vernal Grass, Sweet-scented Vernal-grass, Sweet Vernal) National Recovery Plan for the Clover Glycine Glycine latrobeana (Carter, O. and Sutter, G., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Ulex europaeus (Gorse, Furze) National Recovery Plan for the Clover Glycine Glycine latrobeana (Carter, O. and Sutter, G., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Plantago lanceolata (Ribwort, Ribgrass, Lamb's Tongue) National Recovery Plan for the Clover Glycine Glycine latrobeana (Carter, O. and Sutter, G., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Holcus lanatus (Yorkshire Fog) National Recovery Plan for the Clover Glycine Glycine latrobeana (Carter, O. and Sutter, G., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Nassella trichotoma (Serrated Tussock, Yass River Tussock, Yass Tussock, Nassella Tussock (NZ)) National Recovery Plan for the Clover Glycine Glycine latrobeana (Carter, O. and Sutter, G., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Chrysanthemoides monilifera (Bitou Bush, Boneseed) National Recovery Plan for the Clover Glycine Glycine latrobeana (Carter, O. and Sutter, G., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Hypericum perforatum (St John's Wort, Common St John's Wort, Perforate St John's Wort, St John's Grass, St John's Blood, Klamath Weed, Witch's Herb, Devil's Flight, Tipton Weed, Gammock, Goatsbeard, Goatweed, Herb John, Penny John, Rosin Rose, Touch and Heal) National Recovery Plan for the Clover Glycine Glycine latrobeana (Carter, O. and Sutter, G., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Briza minor (Shivery Grass, Lesser Quaking Grass) National Recovery Plan for the Clover Glycine Glycine latrobeana (Carter, O. and Sutter, G., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Hypochaeris glabra (Smooth Cat's-ear) National Recovery Plan for the Clover Glycine Glycine latrobeana (Carter, O. and Sutter, G., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds National Recovery Plan for the Clover Glycine Glycine latrobeana (Carter, O. and Sutter, G., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation caused by Trifolium spp. National Recovery Plan for the Clover Glycine Glycine latrobeana (Carter, O. and Sutter, G., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation caused by Vulpia spp. National Recovery Plan for the Clover Glycine Glycine latrobeana (Carter, O. and Sutter, G., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback Phytophthora cinnamomi Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009w) [Threat Abatement Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by kangaroos and wallabies National Recovery Plan for the Clover Glycine Glycine latrobeana (Carter, O. and Sutter, G., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Glycine latrobeana in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006md) [Internet].
    Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes National Recovery Plan for the Clover Glycine Glycine latrobeana (Carter, O. and Sutter, G., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].

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    Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Glycine latrobeana in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Wed, 3 Sep 2014 12:15:17 +1000.