Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National recovery plan for the Stiff Groundsel (Senecio behrianus) (Nevill, G.R. & M. Camilleri, 2010a) [Recovery Plan].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
VIC:Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statement 12 - Stiff Groundsel Senecio behrianus (Schoknecht, N. & P. Foreman, 2003) [State Action Plan].
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Extinct (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): December 2013)
SA: Listed as Endangered (National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (South Australia): June 2011)
VIC: Listed as Threatened (Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 (Victoria): February 2014)
Non-statutory Listing Status
VIC: Listed as Endangered (Advisory List of Rare or Threatened Plants in Victoria: 2005)
Scientific name Senecio behrianus [14030]
Family Asteraceae:Asterales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author Sonder
Infraspecies author  
Reference Linnaea 25: 527 (Apr. 1853).
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images
http://www.viridans.com/plpics/htm/3101AJE1.HTM

Stiff Groundsel is an erect, short, woolly perennial forb or subshrub, usually growing between 15 to 100 cm high. The leaves are grey-green in colour and flowerheads are yellow (Alexander 1999).

This species was presumed extinct until it was located in 1991 on a road reserve near Corop in Northern Vic. It is now known from only one wild population and three planted populations (Alexander 2000a).

This species historically occurred in the Murray-Darling System with the exception of one collection in the vicinity of the Glenelg R. (Alexander 2000a). It was found in south-western NSW, Vic. and south-eastern SA. It is possibly now extinct in NSW and SA and currently known only from a single population in Vic. The SA records are from the mid 1800s (e.g Murray R.) and NSW collections are undated (MEL collection records). The Victorian collections are dated from the early 1900s and are predominantly from the NW and include Swan Hill, Koondrook, Myall and Lake Charm. Isolated records exist from Casterton (SW Vic.), the You Yangs (S central Vic.) and Glenelg R. (Gippsland) (MEL collection records; Schoknecht & Foreman 1992).

The only known wild population grows along about 200 m of road reserve where it is found growing on a constructed bank with dry soil, in the channel beside the road, and also on the road reserve. The wild population has been fenced to protect it from damage. The number of plants in the wild population is estimated to be between 100 and 1000 plants, but there is evidence that many of the plants are linked by a woody rhizome and the total number of genetically different plants may be considerably less (Alexander 2000a).

The wild population occurs in a modified, seasonally-flooded freshwater marsh dominated by Cumbungi (Typha spp.) and Tangled Lignum (Muehlenbeckia cunninghamii) (MEL collection records). Herbarium records have vaguely indicated habitat with some descriptions such as 'banks of the Murray' and 'swampy soil' (MEL collection records). Stiff Groundsel grows in heavy winter-wet clays (Walsh 1999b).

Other species associated with this species at the wild site include Star-fruit (Damasonium minus), Bindweed (Convolvulus spp.) and Common Nardoo (Marsillea drummondii). Scattered Red Gums (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) previously grew in the area (Alexander 2000a).

This species is extensively rhizomatous (Walsh 1999b). It is possible that much of the wild population is physically connected and may in fact only be a few separate plants (Alexander 2000a).

While there is no evidence of regeneration by seed, germination requirements are not fully understood. It is possible that periodic inundation may assist recruitment. Sparse flowering occurs from Jan. to May (Alexander 2000a).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Recovery Plan for Stiff Groundsel (Senecio behrianus) - 2000-2004 (Alexander, J.K., 2000a) [State Recovery Plan].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Habitat alteration (vegetation, soil, hydrology) due to trampling and grazing by livestock National recovery plan for the Stiff Groundsel (Senecio behrianus) (Nevill, G.R. & M. Camilleri, 2010a) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Inappropriate disturbance regimes National recovery plan for the Stiff Groundsel (Senecio behrianus) (Nevill, G.R. & M. Camilleri, 2010a) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Phalaris aquatica (Phalaris) National recovery plan for the Stiff Groundsel (Senecio behrianus) (Nevill, G.R. & M. Camilleri, 2010a) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Trifolium fragiferum (Strawberry Clover) National recovery plan for the Stiff Groundsel (Senecio behrianus) (Nevill, G.R. & M. Camilleri, 2010a) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Avena fatua (Wild Oats) National recovery plan for the Stiff Groundsel (Senecio behrianus) (Nevill, G.R. & M. Camilleri, 2010a) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Romulea rosea var. communis (Common Onion-grass) National recovery plan for the Stiff Groundsel (Senecio behrianus) (Nevill, G.R. & M. Camilleri, 2010a) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Rubus fruticosus aggregate (Blackberry, European Blackberry) National recovery plan for the Stiff Groundsel (Senecio behrianus) (Nevill, G.R. & M. Camilleri, 2010a) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds National recovery plan for the Stiff Groundsel (Senecio behrianus) (Nevill, G.R. & M. Camilleri, 2010a) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation caused by exotic pasture species National recovery plan for the Stiff Groundsel (Senecio behrianus) (Nevill, G.R. & M. Camilleri, 2010a) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation caused by marine invertebrates Recovery Plan for Stiff Groundsel (Senecio behrianus) - 2000-2004 (Alexander, J.K., 2000a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by kangaroos and wallabies Recovery Plan for Stiff Groundsel (Senecio behrianus) - 2000-2004 (Alexander, J.K., 2000a) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes and water quality Recovery Plan for Stiff Groundsel (Senecio behrianus) - 2000-2004 (Alexander, J.K., 2000a) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Changes to hydrology including construction of dams/barriers National recovery plan for the Stiff Groundsel (Senecio behrianus) (Nevill, G.R. & M. Camilleri, 2010a) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Habitat degradation caused by channel maintenance National recovery plan for the Stiff Groundsel (Senecio behrianus) (Nevill, G.R. & M. Camilleri, 2010a) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Impacts associated with reductions in flooding frequency National recovery plan for the Stiff Groundsel (Senecio behrianus) (Nevill, G.R. & M. Camilleri, 2010a) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Salinity Recovery Plan for Stiff Groundsel (Senecio behrianus) - 2000-2004 (Alexander, J.K., 2000a) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) National recovery plan for the Stiff Groundsel (Senecio behrianus) (Nevill, G.R. & M. Camilleri, 2010a) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low genetic diversity and genetic inbreeding National recovery plan for the Stiff Groundsel (Senecio behrianus) (Nevill, G.R. & M. Camilleri, 2010a) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Recovery Plan for Stiff Groundsel (Senecio behrianus) - 2000-2004 (Alexander, J.K., 2000a) [State Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Poor recruitment (regeneration) and declining population numbers National recovery plan for the Stiff Groundsel (Senecio behrianus) (Nevill, G.R. & M. Camilleri, 2010a) [Recovery Plan].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads National recovery plan for the Stiff Groundsel (Senecio behrianus) (Nevill, G.R. & M. Camilleri, 2010a) [Recovery Plan].

Alexander, J.K. (2000a). Recovery Plan for Stiff Groundsel (Senecio behrianus) - 2000-2004. [Online]. VIC DNRE. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/s-behrianus/index.html.

MEL (undated). National Herbarium of Victoria Specimens. [Online]. Available from: http://www.rbg.vic.gov.au/research_and_conservation/herbarium.

Schoknecht, N & P. Foreman (1992). Action Statement No. 12 Stiff Groundsel Senecio behrianus. [Online]. Melbourne: Dept. Natural Resources & Environment. Available from: http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/DSE/nrenpa.nsf/LinkView/617768308BCB666E4A25684E00192281E7A24BB36FF60A144A256DEA00244294.

Walsh, N.G. (1999b). Senecio. In: Walsh, N.G. & Entwisle, T.J., eds. Flora of Victoria. 4:941-965. Inkata Press, Melbourne.

Walsh, N.G. (2001). Personal Communication.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Senecio behrianus in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 25 Apr 2014 19:41:14 +1000.