Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable as Stenanthemum pimeleoides
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Stenanthemum pimeleoides (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008adg) [Conservation Advice].
 
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Stenanthemum pimeleoides (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008adt) [Listing Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, the approved conservation advice for the species provides sufficient direction to implement priority actions and mitigate against key threats (29/04/2014).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Stenanthemum pimeleoides.
 
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (62) (14/11/2008) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2008n) [Legislative Instrument] as Stenanthemum pimeleoides.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
TAS:Threatened Species Listing Statement-Propeller plant, Stenanthemum pimeleoides (Tasmanian Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment (TAS DIPWE), 2009e) [Information Sheet].
TAS:Stenanthemum pimeleoides (Spreading Stenanthemum, Propellor Plant): Species Management Profile for Tasmania's Threatened Species Link (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2014hh) [State Action Plan].
State Listing Status
TAS: Listed as Vulnerable (Threatened Species Protection Act 1995 (Tasmania): September 2012 list) as Stenanthemum pimeleoides
Scientific name Stenanthemum pimeleoides [15450]
Family Rhamnaceae:Rhamnales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author (Hook.f.) Benth.
Infraspecies author  
Reference Bentham, G. (1863), Flora Australiensis 1: 436 [comb. nov.]
Other names Solenandra pimeleoides [34458]
Cryptandra pimeleoides [41928]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

The current conservation status of the Spreading Stenanthemum, Stenanthemum pimeleoides, under Australian and State Government legislation, is as follows:

National: Listed as Vulnerable under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.

Tasmania: Listed as Vulnerable under the Threatened Species Protection Act 1995.

Spreading Stenanthemum is listed as a priority species requiring consideration in the Tasmanian Regional Forest Agreement between the Commonwealth of Australia and the State of Tasmania (RFA 1997).

Scientific name: Stenanthemum pimeleoides

Common name: Spreading Stenanthemum

This species is conventionally accepted (Buchanan 2005).

Spreading Stenanthemum is a small mat-forming plant with a woody base and slender branches. It has small rounded leaves that are shiny dark green above and slightly hairy underneath. Spreading Stenanthemum has clusters of stalkless white flowers surrounded by brown bracts and two or three very conspicuous whitish floral leaves.

The species is a prostrate undershrub in the Rhamncaeae (or buckthorn) family, with branches 15–30 cm long. Leaves are obovate, very blunt, about 6 mm long, and the lower surface tomentose (covered in dense, woolly, matted hairs). Flowers are about 2 mm in diameter and form small dense, compound terminal heads, with two to three conspicuous floral bracts similar to the foliage leaves but larger and white-tomentose. The outer brown bracts are almost orbicular with two long dorsal awns. The inner bracts are obovate and blunt. The receptacle is hirsute, about 4 mm long, very slender, constricted above the ovary. The upper part often breaks away when the fruit ripens (Curtis & Morris 1975).

Spreading Stenanthemum is endemic to Tasmania, occurring along Tasmania's central east coast and also in the northern Midlands (Coates 1991a, c; Curtis & Morris 1975; Kirkpatrick et al. 1980). The species has a linear range of 97 km.

The current extent of occurrence is estimated to be 4050 km². This figure is based on herbarium and field survey records held by the Threatened Species Section, Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment (DPIWE), Hobart. The estimate is based on the minimum convex polygon encompassing extant subpopulations (1–22 in Table 1).

The area of occupancy is estimated to be 0.32 km². This figure is based on quantitative estimates of the area of occupancy for 10 of the 22 extant subpopulations (Table 1). There is no quantitative data for the other 12 subpopulations (R. Schahinger 2005, pers. comm.).

The number of locations the Spreading Stenanthemum occurs in is thought to be similar to the number of populations it is found in (R. Schahinger 2005, pers. comm.).

The species' habitat has been fragmented throughout much of its historic range via a combination of agricultural and urban development since European settlement. Areas especially affected include the northern Midlands (subpopulations 1 and 2) and the near-coastal areas of the central east (subpopulations 21–23).

Table 1. Distribution of Spreading Stenanthemum in Tasmania (TSS 2008e).

#        Subpopulation  Year last   
  seen
 
  Area Occupied (ha)     Number of
mature plants
  
               Specific Threats  
1 Epping Forest 2004 18 16 436 Clearance (part only), lack of disturbance
2 Isis Hills 1999     Clearance
3 St Pauls Dome Road 1997     Clearance
4 Old Coach Road 1996 0.08 9 Clearance
5 Swan River north 1990     Clearance
6 Swan River south 1996     Clearance
7 Cygnet River (Taman Hwy) 1996 1.0 642 Clearance
8 Grange Hills 1984     Clearance
9 Wye River (Tasman Hwy)       Clearance
10 Lake Leake Road 1996 2.5 1150 Lack of disturbance
11 Grange Road     1882 Clearance (part only)
12 Apsley River 1996 0.10 48 Lack of disturbance
13 Mills Marsh 2008 2.0 917 Native Browsing
14 Hills Creek 1998     Native Browsing
15 Moulting Lagoon 2008 7.5 3500 Native Browsing
16 Isaac Point 2005 0.0001 2 Native Browsing
17 Friendly Beaches 2002     Native Browsing
18 Middleton Creek 2008     Native Browsing
19 Saltwater Creek 2008 0.02 30–50 Native Browsing
20 Fisheries 2008     Native Browsing
21 Little Swanport 1999 0.02 100 Clearance
22 Triabunna 1999 0.0002 5 Weeds, lack of disturbance
23 Orford 1952   Presumed extinct

There has been considerable botanical activity throughout the central east coast of Tasmania (Kirkpatrick et al. 1980). Targeted botanical surveys of public land in this area were undertaken during the lead-up to the Regional Forest Agreement between Tasmania and the Commonwealth (North et al. 1998). Additional surveys have been carried out on private land in the area over the period 1998–2005 by Bushcare and the Private Forest Reserves Program (DPIWE). The latter groups have also undertaken numerous surveys of potential habitat on private land in the species' other stronghold, the Northern Midlands (TSS n.d., unpubl. data).

The current known distribution of the species is considered to be a fair representation of its actual distribution. However, there is insufficient data to provide an accurate assessment of the 'actual' population size. It is considered highly likely that additional plants occur on public and private land within the known range of the species, as evidenced by the discovery of five small subpopulations in the years 2002–2008 (2, 16, 19, 21 and 22 in Table 1). Three of these subpopulations were discovered through Bushcare surveys, one via an off-duty Parks and Wildlife Service officer, and one through surveys contracted by DPIWE (R. Schahinger 2005, pers. comm.).

The population size is estimated to be greater than 24 700 mature individuals for 12 subpopulations. There are no quantitative data for the remaining 10 extant subpopulations (Table 1, TSS 2008e).

Spreading Stenanthemum is considered to occur in 22 subpopulations (Table 1). Of the 12 subpopulations for which quantitative data is available, six have 100 or fewer mature plants (TSS 2008e).

Subpopulations have been taken to be occurrences of plants separated by discontinuities of at least 1 km (Keith 2000), an approach followed for Spreading Stenanthemum in the development of the Draft Greater Freycinet Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan 2004–2008 (TSS 2004). Each subpopulation may encompass several recorded sites (TSS n.d., unpubl. data).

There is evidence to suggest past declines in the population size of the Spreading Stenanthemum. A decline in population size can be demonstrated from the loss of the recorded subpopulation at Orford (#23 in Table 1), and the loss of mature plants from one subpopulation during the construction of a car park at Freycinet National Park in the 1980s (#20; Coates 1991a). Losses via residential and agricultural development throughout the species' range have also been recorded. There is, however, insufficient data to quantify the decline over the past 10 years or three generations (R. Schahinger 2005, pers. comm.).

There is insufficient data to indicate future changes in population size. Plants on private land (up to 11 of the 22 extant subpopulations) are at risk from either complete or partial land clearance, over-grazing or an inappropriate fire regime, while several of the smaller subpopulations on public land are also at risk due to a lack of disturbance, grazing pressure from native marsupials, and stochastic events (due to their small size) (Table 1, TSS 2008e).

The generation length of this species is estimated to be 10–15 years. This figure presumes that the generation length for Spreading Stenanthemum may be inferred from the fire frequency required to maintain the species' heathland and heathy woodland habitat, usually between 10–20 years (Parks & Wildlife Service 2002).

There is insufficient data to determine whether the Spreading Stenanthemum undergoes extreme natural fluctuations. However, natural fluctuations in plant numbers may be expected due to the germination of soil-stored seed following fire (with the level of fluctuation for a particular site being governed by past fire frequency). The species extent of occurrence is likely to be stable (R. Schahinger 2005, pers. comm.).

All populations are considered to be important for the species' long-term survival.

Spreading Stenanthemum is known from Freycinet National Park, Tom Gibson Nature Reserve, Wye River State Reserve, Coles Bay Conservation Area, and Moulting Lagoon Game Reserve. Management of these formal reserves for Spreading Stenanthemum tends to be largely passive, aside from ecological burning of some of its habitat (TSS 2008e).

Spreading Stenanthemum grows in dry sclerophyll forest or woodland with an open shrubby or heathy understorey (Coates 1991a, c). It usually occurs in woodlands dominated by either Eucalyptus amygdalina (Black Peppermint) or Eucalyptus aff. pulchella (colloquially known as 'half-barked amygdalina') (Duncan & Brown 1985), with Allocasuarina littoralis (Bulloak) and Eucalyptus viminalis (White Gum) common co-dominants (TSS 2008e).

The species shows no particular geological fidelity, being associated with Tertiary gravels, Devonian granite, Jurassic dolerite and Quaternary sands (Coates 1991a), while topography tends to be flat to gently sloping (TSS 2008e).
Spreading Stenanthemum is usually associated with dry stony soils and occurs on siliceous sands derived from either Tertiary gravels or granite (Kirkpatrick et al. 1980), but also on dolerite and Quaternary sands (Coates 1991a). The species occurs in the drier parts of the State, within areas of 500–800 mm rainfall, and usually at altitudes below 100 m above sea level (asl), but also up to 300 m asl in the Eastern Tiers (Coates 1991c; TSS 2008e).
Populations of Spreading Stenanthemum may be associated with the EPBC-listed Callitris oblonga subsp. oblonga, listed as Endangered.

Coates (1991a) notes that flowering may occur from November through to February, with a peak in December. Flowers are insect pollinated and self-incompatible (Coates 1991c). Old flower heads from the previous season remain on plants following the flowering period and do not begin to produce fruit until the following winter. Fruit matures from October to January, with plants releasing seed in January and February. Seeds are small and hard, with a prominent aril at the point of attachment.

Spreading Stenanthemum is known to resprout following fire and germinate prolifically from soil-stored seed (Parks & Wildlife Service 2002). Coates (1991a) noted that Spreading Stenanthemum was absent from grassy forests, generally being a component of a shrubby understorey consisting of plants from the Fabaceae and Epacridaceae families; anecdotal evidence from Victoria was cited to suggest that these species, and Spreading Stenanthemum, would eventually be replaced by grasses in the continued absence of fire beyond about 15 years (TSS 2008e).

Spreading Stenanthemum has a habit and appearance which is superficially similar to that of another member of the Rhamnaceae family, the Tasmanian endemic Spyridium obcordatum (Creeping Dusty Miller), from which it differs in its smaller flowers (about 2 mm compared to 3 mm) and the presence of two to three conspicuous floral bracts (compared to one floral leaf) per head of flowers (Kirkpatrick et al. 1980).

Surveys may be undertaken at any time of year due to the species' distinctiveness. However, any survey efforts need to take into account the species' diminutive nature and the difficulties involved in identifying potentially heavily browsed specimens (R. Schahinger 2005, pers. comm.).

The major threats to Spreading Stenanthemum were identified by Coates (1991c) as land clearance, inappropriate fire regimes, and grazing from domestic and native animals.

Land Clearance
Coates (1991a) suggets that the clearing of dry open forest on sandstone, especially in the Central East Coast area, has destroyed many Spreading Stenanthemum populations. This claim is reasonable given the known loss of potential habitat since European settlement and the current widely scattered distribution of the species, though there is no way of knowing how many subpopulations have been lost (TSS 2008e).

There has been a considerable increase in intensive agriculture on private land through the Central East Coast region of Tasmania over the past decade (primarily for walnuts, also vines and olives), as well as some residential expansion around existing towns. The result has been an increasingly fragmented habitat for species such as Spreading Stenanthemum. Those subpopulations on private land in the immediate area (4–9 in Table 1) are considered to be at some risk due to a continued expansion of such activities over the next 10 years (TSS 2008e).

Inappropriate fire regime
Barker and Johnson (1998) commented that the most important aspect in managing Spreading Stenanthemum (on public land) is to avoid frequent low-intensity burning. Coates (1991a) had noted earlier that a fire frequency of less than 15 years may eliminate Spreading Stenanthemum from a site, and noted also that frequent hazard reduction burns in the Orford area are thought to have led to the demise of at least some populations. Those subpopulations within formal reserves are considered to be under threat from a lack of fire, with only two or three subpopulations within areas earmarked for ecological burns in the next decade. In contrast, those subpopulations on private land are likely to suffer from a regime of frequent low-intensity burning (TSS 2008e).

Heavy grazing pressure (exotic and native)
Kirkpatrick (1991a) considered that grazing pressure and natural or artificial disturbance are required to maintain this species in competition with vigorous native grasses, though it is clear that heavy grazing by sheep and cattle is detrimental to the species (Coates 1991a, c). All subpopulations on private land not covered by conservation covenants are liable to be affected detrimentally by inappropriate stocking levels (TSS 2008e).

Parks and Wildlife Service (2002) also indicate that heavy grazing by native marsupials may be a factor in limiting the regeneration of the species for those small occurrences within Freycinet National Park and adjacent reserves (subpopulations 13–20), echoing the observation of Kirkpatrick and Harris (1999) that Spreading Stenanthemum has been almost eliminated from the Friendly Beach heaths (#17 in Table 1) by high levels of marsupial grazing (TSS 2008e).

Stochastic risk of extinction
Six of the 12 subpopulations for which data is available support 100 or fewer mature plants (Table 1), thus exposing them to unforeseen stochastic events.

The Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2008adt) recommends the following local and regional priority recovery and threat abatement actions:

  • Investigate formal conservation arrangements, management agreements and covenants on private land, and for crown and private land investigate inclusion in reserve tenure if possible.
  • Raise awareness of Spreading Stenanthemum within the local community.
  • Undertake appropriate seed collection and storage.
  • Undertake survey work in suitable habitat and potential habitat to locate any additional populations.
  • Manage known sites on private property to ensure appropriate cattle and sheep grazing regimes are conducted.
  • Implement an appropriate fire management regime for local populations.

    Recovery Progress

    Since the preparation of several recovery plans, the following progress toward their recovery objectives have been made (TSS 2004):

    • The species reservation status has been improved with the proclamation of additional areas of public land: Freycinet National Park (subpopulations 13, 14, 16–18), Coles Bay Conservation Area (subpopulation 19), the Wye River State Reserve (subpopulation 10), and the Moulting Lagoon Game Reserve (subpopulation 15). Representative subpopulations from each of the major geological substrates are now formally reserved.
    • Additional private land supporting Spreading Stenanthemum has been protected under Conservation Covenants developed between the Crown and private landowners (parts of subpopulations 1 and 11; promulgated by the Private Forest Reserves Program, DPIWE, Hobart), while an additional private land site is managed specifically for nature conservation by its owner, the Australian Bush Heritage Fund (subpopulation 12).
    • University of Tasmania personnel, in association with the Tasmanian Parks and Wildlife Service, have undertaken monitoring of the species' response to fire and grazing at the Tom Gibson Nature Reserve (subpopulation 1; Parks & Wildlife Service 1996).
    • Active management of roadside occurrences of Spreading Stenanthemum (some parts of subpopulation 11) by DPIWE and the Tasmanian Department of Infrastructure, Energy and Resources has been undertaken through a Public Authority Management Agreement under the Tasmanian Threatened Species Protection Act 1995.

    Fire management and monitoring
    The requirement for ecological burning to maintain natural flora diversity and the monitoring of threatened species such as Spreading Stenanthemum are stated objectives in management plans prepared for Tasmania's formal reserves (for example Parks and Wildlife Service 2000, 2002). Ecological burns of known Spreading Stenanthemum habitat were undertaken by the Tasmanian Parks and Wildlife Service in the Tom Gibson Nature Reserve in May 2003 (part of subpopulation 1), with good regeneration of the species observed post-fire. Burns are also planned for parts of at least two subpopulations in the Freycinet National Park and Coles Bay Conservation Area during the period 2002–2012 (subpopulations 19 & 20). The responsibility for pre- and post-fire monitoring lies with the Biodiversity Conservation Branch (DPIWE) and the Tasmanian Parks and Wildlife Service (Parks & Wildlife Service 2002).

    Development assessments
    The Conservation Assessment Section (DPIWE) and the Forest Practices Authority (Tasmanian Department of Infrastructure, Energy & Resources) are required to consider the impacts of proposed developments on any species listed under the Tasmanian Threatened Species Protection Act 1995.

  • Coates (1991a) examined the ecological attributes and population phenology of Spreading Stenanthemum on a variety of geological substrates, and also considered disturbance and germination issues.

    The following management documents provide a brief overview of the biology and management of Spreading Stenanthemum:

    • Coates (1991c): Stenanthemum pimeleoides Flora Recovery Plan: Management Phase. Department of Parks, Wildlife and Heritage, Tasmania
    • Barker and Johnson (1998): Recovery Plan – Selected Tasmanian Forest Associated Plants. Forestry Tasmania, Hobart. (Plan not formally adopted by the Commonwealth)
    • Threatened Species Section (2004): Draft Greater Freycinet Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan 2004–2008. Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment, Hobart.

    The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

    Threat Class Threatening Species References
    Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Stenanthemum pimeleoides (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008adg) [Conservation Advice].
    Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Stenanthemum pimeleoides (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008adg) [Conservation Advice].
    Commonwealth Listing Advice on Stenanthemum pimeleoides (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008adt) [Listing Advice].
    Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Commonwealth Listing Advice on Stenanthemum pimeleoides (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008adt) [Listing Advice].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Negative impact from animals Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Stenanthemum pimeleoides (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008adg) [Conservation Advice].
    Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Stenanthemum pimeleoides (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008adg) [Conservation Advice].
    Commonwealth Listing Advice on Stenanthemum pimeleoides (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008adt) [Listing Advice].
    Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].

    Barker, P.C.J. & K.A. Johnson (1998). Recovery Plan - Selected Tasmanian Forest Associated Plants. Hobart, Tasmania: Tasmanian Forestry.

    Buchanan, A.M. (2005). A Census of the Vascular Plants of Tasmania & Index to the Students Flora of Tasmania. Fourth Edition. Tasmanian Herbarium Occasional Publication No. 7. Hobart, Tasmania: Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery.

    Coates, F. (1991a). The Conservation Ecology and Management of Five Rare Species in the Rhamnaceae Family. Wildlife Scientific Report. 3. Hobart, Tasmania: Department of Parks, Wildlife and Heritage.

    Coates, F. (1991c). Stenanthemum pimeleoides Flora Recovery Plan: Management Phase. Hobart: Tasmanian Parks & Wildlife.

    Curtis, W.M. & D.I. Morris (1975). The Student's Flora of Tasmania. Part 1 (Second Edition). Hobart: Government Printer.

    Duncan, F. & M.J. Brown (1985). Dry Sclerophyll Vegetation in Tasmania. Extent and conservation status of the communities. Wildlife Division Technical Report 85/1. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Tasmania.

    Kirkpatrick, J.B. & S. Harris (1999). The Disappearing Heath Revisited. Hobart: Tasmanian Environment Centre Inc.

    Kirkpatrick, J.B. (Ed) (1991a). Tasmanian Native Bush: A Management Handbook. Hobart, Tasmanian Environment Centre.

    Kirkpatrick, J.B., M.J.Brown & A. Moscal (1980). Threatened Plants of the Tasmanian Central East Coast. Hobart, Tasmania: Tasmanian Conservation Trust.

    North, A., K. Johnson, K. Ziegler, F. Duncan, K. Hopkins, D. Ziegler & S. Watts (1998). Flora of Recommended Areas for Protection and Forest Reserves of Tasmania. Hobart, Tasmania: Forest Practices Board, Forestry Tasmania, and Parks and Wildlife Services.

    Parks and Wildlife Service (1996). Tom Gibson Nature Reserve management plan. Hobart: Department of Environment and Land Management.

    Parks and Wildlife Service (2000). Freycinet National Park, Wye River State Reserve Management Plan. Department of Environment and Land Management, Hobart.

    Parks and Wildlife Service (2002). Freycinet Reserves Fire Management Plan. Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment, Hobart.

    Regional Forest Agreement (RFA) (1997). Tasmanian Regional Forest Agreement. Commonwealth of Australia and the State of Tasmania.

    Schahinger R. (2005). Personal communication.

    Threatened Species Section (TSS) (2004). Draft Greater Freycinet Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan 2004-2008. Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment, Hobart.

    Threatened Species Section (TSS) (2008e). Listing Statement for Stenanthemum pimeleiodes (propeller plant). [Online]. Hobart, Department of Primary Industries and Water. Available from: http://www.dpiw.tas.gov.au/inter.nsf/Attachments/SSKA-76P4V6/$FILE/Stenanthemum%20pimeleoides.pdf.

    Threatened Species Section (TSS) (no date). Unpublished data held by the Threatened Species Section. Tasmanian Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment (DPIWE), Hobart.

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    This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

    Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Stenanthemum pimeleoides in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Wed, 20 Aug 2014 18:01:37 +1000.