Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered as Ballantinia antipoda
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National Recovery Plan for Southern Shepherd's Purse (Ballantinia antipoda) (Nevill, G.R. & M. Camilleri, 2010) [Recovery Plan] as Ballantinia antipoda.
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan for Predation, Habitat Degradation, Competition and Disease Transmission by Feral Pigs (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH), 2005p) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat abatement plan for competition and land degradation by rabbits (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008adh) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Ballantinia antipoda.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
TAS:Threatened Species Notesheet - Ballantinia antipoda (Tasmanian Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment (Tas. DPIPWE), 2003b) [Information Sheet].
TAS:Ballantinia antipoda (Southern Shepherd's Purse): Species Management Profile for Tasmania's Threatened Species Link (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2014ep) [State Action Plan].
VIC:Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statement 102 - Southern Shepherds Purse Ballantinia antipoda (Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment (Vic. DSE), 2004e) [State Action Plan].
State Listing Status
TAS: Listed as Extinct (Threatened Species Protection Act 1995 (Tasmania): September 2012) as Ballantinia antipoda
VIC: Listed as Threatened (Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 (Victoria): February 2014) as Ballantinia antipoda
Non-statutory Listing Status
VIC: Listed as Endangered (Advisory List of Rare or Threatened Plants in Victoria: 2005)
Scientific name Ballantinia antipoda [16173]
Family Brassicaceae:Capparales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author (F.Muell.) E.Shaw
Infraspecies author  
Reference Contributions from the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University 205 (1 Apr. 1974) 161, fig. 1.
Other names Draba pumilio [32627]
Cuphonotus antipodus [43146]
Cuphonotus australis [43151]
Capsella antipoda [51284]
Hutchinsia australis [54822]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images
http://www.bushcare.tas.gov.au/Images/BCTSUPcompics/BALANT.jpg

Scientific name: Ballantinia antipoda

Common name: Southern Shepherd's Purse

Other names: Southern Ballantine, Ballantine

The Southern Shepherd's Purse is a small annual plant belonging to the Brassicaceae family. They grow to 5 cm high with small stalked white flowers arising from a rosette of spoon-shaped leaves. The stems are sparsely haired. The flowers grow to 4 mm in diameter and occur along the upper stems. The flowers eventually develop into small elliptical fruits which are 3–5 mm long (Alexander 1999).

The Southern Shepherd's Purse was recorded last century from central-west and western Victoria and from central to northern Tasmania (Hewson 1982b). It was presumed extinct until rediscovered in Victoria in 1983. In 1998 approximately 12 200 plants were recorded at six sites on Mt Alexander (Mt Alexander Regional Park), near Castlemaine in central Victoria (Alexander 1999; DNRE 2000, SAC 1995b). Four new sites have since been located including one within the perimeter of a koala park (part of a regional park). The koala park population contains over 1000 plants and covers an area of 800 m² (DNRE 2000). A search for this plant at other likely Victorian localities (granite outcrops) was carried out in 1997 without success (Alexander 1999; Cook 1998). Densities of up to 200 plants per square metre have been recorded.

Previous Habitat
Previous records indicate the Southern Shepherd's Purse occupying moss mats on seepage areas in open situations. The species was known to occur in stony or rocky areas on the volcanic plains south-west of Melbourne (Nevill & Camilleri 2010). It was also found on low granite hills and mountains, including Mount Emu, Mount Cole, Mount Langi Ghiran and Mount Buangor in western Victoria. In Tasmania the species is presumed extinct, however it was reported from dry, stony sites and banks of streams (Curtis & Morris 1975).

Habitat at Mount Alexander
The Southern Shepherd's Purse appears to have very specific and finely balanced habitat requirements. At Mount Alexander, the species occurs on gently to steeply sloping granite rockplates, usually with an easterly or south-westerly aspect. It grows on seasonally moist moss mats on a shallow soil layer and occasionally growing directly in shallow soil pockets. It is not found on moss mats that utilize deeper soils (DSE 2004e). Sites in which it occurs are usually open, containing only light canopy cover from surrounding trees including the Manna Gum, Eucalyptus viminalis, and Messmate Stringybark, Eucalyptus oblique. The habitat is classified as Granitic Hills Woodland Ecological Vegetation (Nevill & Camilleri 2010).

Southern Shepherd's Purse shares this moss mat habitat with a diversity of other indigenous annual and geophytic vascular plants which are typical of seasonally moist or rocky sites in central and northern Victoria. The most dominant of these species is Breutelia affinis, with other common species including Bartramia papillata, Bryum billardeiri, Campylopus introflexus, Grimmia pulvinata, and Polytrichum juniperinum. Other native flora species sharing this moss mat habitat include Dwarf Arrow-grass, Triglochin centrocarpa, Rayless Daisy, Brachyscome perpusilla, Yellow Pennywort, Hydrocotyle foveolata, Moss Sunray, Hyalosperma demissum, Common Bow-flower, Millotia muelleri, Tiny Star, Hypoxis glabella, Adder's Tongue, Ophioglossum lusitanicum, Common Sunray, Triptilodiscus pygmaeus, Spoon Cudweed, Stuartina muelleri, Small Wrinklewort, Siloxerus multiflora, Sieber Crassula, Crassula sieberiana, Pink Purslane, Calandrinia calyptrata, Small Purslane, Calandrinia eremea and Tiny Purslane, Calandrinia granulifera (Cook 1998).

Stands of Southern Shepherd's Purse are usually discrete, in areas with a light canopy of Manna Gum and more rarely Messmate (Alexander 1999).

The Southern Shepherd's Purse is a short lived annual that germinates in winter, and is in full flower by mid to late September. The length of flowering depends of weather conditions including the amount of drying winds. Flowering is extended in wet conditions and reduced in dry conditions (Alexander 1999; Hewson 1982b). The flowers attract a variety of pollinating insects including native ants and honeybees. It appears that the plants may not germinate every year, and that the germination, growth and flowering of the species may be reliant on the timing and intensity of autumn and winter rains, and perhaps the degree of desiccation of the moss mats in mid-spring. Seed viability is thought to be several years, in common with other species of Brassicaceae. As moss mats dry out in mid to late spring the Southern Shepherd's Purse dies off (Alexander 1999).

Currently, the Southern Shepherd's Purse is known only from a small sample from the Mount Alexander Regional Park. Despite extensive surveys at previous known locations, there has been no success in relocating the species elsewhere. Both historic and current threatening processes are believed responsible for the species decline (DSE 2004e).

Historical threats
The clearing of native vegetation for agricultural purposes is believed to have played a critical role in the decline of the species. Trampling by sheep on cleared, rocky sites is the most likely threatening process from agriculture. The species was originally found at the Granitic Hills Woodland (in the Goldfields Bioregion) and the Victorian Volcanic Plains Bioregion. Land clearing in the regions has reduced the native vegetation to 20% and 1% respectively. The species is extinct in these regions (Nevill & Camilleri 2010).

Weed invasion
Introduced weeds known to place pressure on the Southern Shepherd's Purse include, Elegant Hair-Grass, Aira elegans, Chickweed, Cerastium glomeratum, Small Quaking Grass, Briza minor, Smooth Cat's-ear, Hypocheoris glabra, Five-anthered Corn Spurrey, Spergularia pentandra, Whitlow Grass, Erophila verna and St. John's Wort, Hypericum perforatum. These weeds are prevalent on rock faces where they dominate native species. Due to the fragile nature of the Southern Shepherd's Purse, weed removal may also adversely impact the integrity of moss mats, hence posing a threat to the species. More research into weed control management practices is needed (Nevill & Camilleri 2010).

Animal grazing and disturbance
Grazing by introduced herbivores and native fauna has the potential to degrade moss mat habitat crucial to the species. Three main introduced herbivores are responsible (Nevill & Camilleri 2010) for this threatening process:

  • European Rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus, numbers at present are low but have the potential to rapidly increase if not continually controlled. Rabbits have caused considerable damage by digging in the moss mats and some Southern Shepherd's Purse sites have been badly affected.
  • Feral Pigs, Sus scrofa, deliberately introduced to Mount Alexander in the 1990s, were formerly considered to be a serious threat, but have not been seen for several years.
  • Feral Goats, Capra hircus, have established populations in a number of public land reserves as a result of escapes from farms, and their presence in Mount Alexander Regional Park could pose a significant threat to populations of Southern Shepherd's Purse.

In recent years, possibly due to continuing dry conditions, White-winged Choughs, Corcorax melanoramphos, have caused significant damage to moss mats while foraging for invertebrates such as millipedes (DSE 2004e). The population of Swamp Wallaby, Wallabia bicolor, on Mount Alexander appears to be increasing and may represent an increased risk of grazing and disturbance of the moss mat habitat. Protective measures taken on some sites have proven effective in reducing this damage, but will require regular maintenance and monitoring, and may need to be implemented on additional sites in the future (Nevill & Camilleri 2010).

Human disturbance
Recreational activities, including bushwalking, orienteering, hunting, mountain-bike riding, and abseiling, commonly occur at Mount Alexander Regional Park. Unauthorised off-track trail riding and four-wheel driving across rock faces, strips away moss mat cover, disrupts local seepage patterns, and encourages further removal of moss mats after heavy rain. The deliberate removal of moss mats by fisherman (to keep bait worms moist) and plant growers (for use in bonsai) have also been an issue in the past. Inappropriately placed access tracks, walking tracks and firebreaks can directly damage sites. Quarrying for granite and the construction of transmission towers has the potential to affect hydrology regimes on the slopes of Mount Alexander (DSE 2004e). There is also a risk of damage to moss mats and associated flora by zinc leachate from galvanised materials used in the construction of transmission towers and similar infrastructure (Nevill & Camilleri 2010).

Climate change
The effects of climate change potentially threaten Southern Shepherd's Purse. Increased temperatures and decreased rainfall expected with global warming will probably lead to further loss of habitat, as the shallow moss mats become increasingly dry. Lower rainfall could lead to less seed germination and higher loss of seedlings. Loss of climatic habitat caused by anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases is listed as a Key Threatening Process under the EPBC Act (Nevill & Camilleri 2010).

The National Recovery Plan for Southern Shepherd's Purse, Ballantinia antipoda (Nevill & Camilleri 2010) aims to minimise the probability of extinction of Southern Shepherd's Purse in the wild and to increase the probability of important populations becoming self-sustaining in the long term. To achieve this, the plan outlines a number of specific objectives:

  • Determine distribution, abundance and population structure.
  • Identify habitat requirements.
  • Ensure that all populations and their habitat are protected and managed appropriately.
  • Identify key biological functions.
  • Manage threats to populations.
  • Determine the growth rates and viability of populations.
  • Establish populations in cultivation.
  • Establish new populations in the wild.
  • Build community support for conservation.

The geographical restriction of the Southern Shepherd's Purse means high priority has been placed on locating sites suitable for re-introduction of the species. These surveys will target the areas where Southern Shepherd's Purse was previously known to occur, and areas that may support potentially suitable habitat. Further investigation into the biology and ecology of the species is required to determine optimum habitat requirements and formulate appropriate propagation/reintroduction procedures (Nevill & Camilleri 2010).

The National Recovery Plan for Southern Shepherd's Purse, Ballantinia antipoda (Nevill & Camilleri 2010) outlines current existing conservation measures, which include:

  • All sites are regularly monitored and census data collected each year at flowering time.
  • Walking track closures and diversions have been implemented to protect sites.
  • Barrier fencing has been erected to prevent damage to one site from off-track driving.
  • Protective fencing/caging and visual deterrents have been erected at some sites to prevent damage by White-winged Choughs.
  • Regular rabbit-baiting has been carried out in Mt. Alexander Regional Park.
  • Interpretative signage featuring Southern Shepherd's Purse has been erected at Mt Alexander Regional Park.
  • Local community groups have been informed of the values of the area.
  • Conservation of Southern Shepherd's Purse has been promoted with displays at local community festivals.
  • Surveys carried out in 2003 located one new site in Mt. Alexander Regional Park.
  • Research project into moss mat ecology by the University of Ballarat.

Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statement 102 (Vic. DSE 2004e) aimed to protect and enhance all known populations of the Southern Shepherd's Purse by 2005. The action statement has been superseded by the National Recovery Plan for Southern Shepherd's Purse, Ballantinia antipoda (Nevill & Camilleri 2010). Both, however, share similar objectives and desired outcomes. The Threat Abatement Plan for Predation, Habitat Degradation, Competition and Disease Transmission by Feral Pigs (AGDEH 2005p) and the Threat abatement plan for competition and land degradation by rabbits (DEWHA 2008adh) aims to reduce habitat destruction caused by these feral species.

Relevant management documentation for the species includes:

  • The National Recovery Plan for Southern Shepherd's Purse, Ballantinia antipoda (Nevill & Camilleri 2010).
  • Threat Abatement Plan for Predation, Habitat Degradation, Competition and Disease Transmission by Feral Pigs (AGDEH 2005p).
  • Threat abatement plan for competition and land degradation by rabbits (DEWHA 2008adh).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Recovery Plan for Southern Shepherds Purse (Ballintinia antipoda) - 2000-2004 (Alexander, J.K., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events National Recovery Plan for Southern Shepherd's Purse (Ballantinia antipoda) (Nevill, G.R. & M. Camilleri, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation National Recovery Plan for Southern Shepherd's Purse (Ballantinia antipoda) (Nevill, G.R. & M. Camilleri, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat modification through open cut mining/quarrying activities Recovery Plan for Southern Shepherds Purse (Ballintinia antipoda) - 2000-2004 (Alexander, J.K., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities Recovery Plan for Southern Shepherds Purse (Ballintinia antipoda) - 2000-2004 (Alexander, J.K., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development Recovery Plan for Southern Shepherds Purse (Ballintinia antipoda) - 2000-2004 (Alexander, J.K., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Habitat disturbance from recreational vehicle use Recovery Plan for Southern Shepherds Purse (Ballintinia antipoda) - 2000-2004 (Alexander, J.K., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Southern Shepherd's Purse (Ballantinia antipoda) (Nevill, G.R. & M. Camilleri, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Soil disturbance and/or trampling due to bushwalking Recovery Plan for Southern Shepherds Purse (Ballintinia antipoda) - 2000-2004 (Alexander, J.K., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Southern Shepherd's Purse (Ballantinia antipoda) (Nevill, G.R. & M. Camilleri, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:bicycles (off road) National Recovery Plan for Southern Shepherd's Purse (Ballantinia antipoda) (Nevill, G.R. & M. Camilleri, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) Recovery Plan for Southern Shepherds Purse (Ballintinia antipoda) - 2000-2004 (Alexander, J.K., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Southern Shepherd's Purse (Ballantinia antipoda) (Nevill, G.R. & M. Camilleri, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Erophila verna (Vernal Whitlow-grass) National Recovery Plan for Southern Shepherd's Purse (Ballantinia antipoda) (Nevill, G.R. & M. Camilleri, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Aira elegantissima (Delicate Hairgrass) National Recovery Plan for Southern Shepherd's Purse (Ballantinia antipoda) (Nevill, G.R. & M. Camilleri, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Cerastium glomeratum (Broad-leaved Mouse-ear Chickweed, Sticky Mouse-ear Chickweed) National Recovery Plan for Southern Shepherd's Purse (Ballantinia antipoda) (Nevill, G.R. & M. Camilleri, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Spergula pentandra (Five-anther Spurry) National Recovery Plan for Southern Shepherd's Purse (Ballantinia antipoda) (Nevill, G.R. & M. Camilleri, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Hypericum perforatum (St John's Wort, Common St John's Wort, Perforate St John's Wort, St John's Grass, St John's Blood, Klamath Weed, Witch's Herb, Devil's Flight, Tipton Weed, Gammock, Goatsbeard, Goatweed, Herb John, Penny John, Rosin Rose, Touch and Heal) National Recovery Plan for Southern Shepherd's Purse (Ballantinia antipoda) (Nevill, G.R. & M. Camilleri, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Briza minor (Shivery Grass, Lesser Quaking Grass) National Recovery Plan for Southern Shepherd's Purse (Ballantinia antipoda) (Nevill, G.R. & M. Camilleri, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds National Recovery Plan for Southern Shepherd's Purse (Ballantinia antipoda) (Nevill, G.R. & M. Camilleri, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation caused by marine invertebrates Recovery Plan for Southern Shepherds Purse (Ballintinia antipoda) - 2000-2004 (Alexander, J.K., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Capra hircus (Goat) National Recovery Plan for Southern Shepherd's Purse (Ballantinia antipoda) (Nevill, G.R. & M. Camilleri, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Sus scrofa (Pig) Recovery Plan for Southern Shepherds Purse (Ballintinia antipoda) - 2000-2004 (Alexander, J.K., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Southern Shepherd's Purse (Ballantinia antipoda) (Nevill, G.R. & M. Camilleri, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Wallabia bicolor (Swamp Wallaby) National Recovery Plan for Southern Shepherd's Purse (Ballantinia antipoda) (Nevill, G.R. & M. Camilleri, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, grazing, predation and/or habitat degradation by rats Recovery Plan for Southern Shepherds Purse (Ballintinia antipoda) - 2000-2004 (Alexander, J.K., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation Corcorax melanorhamphos (White-winged Chough) National Recovery Plan for Southern Shepherd's Purse (Ballantinia antipoda) (Nevill, G.R. & M. Camilleri, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes and water quality Recovery Plan for Southern Shepherds Purse (Ballintinia antipoda) - 2000-2004 (Alexander, J.K., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Southern Shepherd's Purse (Ballantinia antipoda) (Nevill, G.R. & M. Camilleri, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Habitat degradation caused by firebreak construction and/or maintenance Recovery Plan for Southern Shepherds Purse (Ballintinia antipoda) - 2000-2004 (Alexander, J.K., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Recovery Plan for Southern Shepherds Purse (Ballintinia antipoda) - 2000-2004 (Alexander, J.K., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes Recovery Plan for Southern Shepherds Purse (Ballintinia antipoda) - 2000-2004 (Alexander, J.K., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Airborne Agricultural pollutants:Herbicide drift Recovery Plan for Southern Shepherds Purse (Ballintinia antipoda) - 2000-2004 (Alexander, J.K., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development of roads and railroads National Recovery Plan for Southern Shepherd's Purse (Ballantinia antipoda) (Nevill, G.R. & M. Camilleri, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Utility and Service Lines:Powerline easement maintenance and construction; mortality due to collision with powerlines Recovery Plan for Southern Shepherds Purse (Ballintinia antipoda) - 2000-2004 (Alexander, J.K., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Southern Shepherd's Purse (Ballantinia antipoda) (Nevill, G.R. & M. Camilleri, 2010) [Recovery Plan].

Alexander, J.K. (1999). Recovery Plan for Southern Shepherds Purse (Ballintinia antipoda) - 2000-2004. [Online]. VIC NRE. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/b-antipoda/index.html.

Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH) (2005p). Threat Abatement Plan for Predation, Habitat Degradation, Competition and Disease Transmission by Feral Pigs. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/pig.html.

Cook, D. (1998). The distribution and abundance of Ballantinia, Ballantinia antipoda, in Victoria. Bendigo: Flora & Fauna, Natural Resources & Environment.

Curtis, W.M. & D.I. Morris (1975). The Student's Flora of Tasmania. Part 1 (Second Edition). Hobart: Government Printer.

Department of Natural Resources and Environment (DNRE) (2000). VROTPOP database.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2008adh). Threat abatement plan for competition and land degradation by rabbits. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/rabbits08.html.

Flora & Fauna Guarantee - Scientific Advisory Committee (SAC) (1995b). Final recommendation on a nomination for listing - Ballantinia antipoda (F.Muell.) E.Shaw - Ballantinia. (Nomination no. 342). Dept of Conservation and Environment, Vic. Melbourne: Dept Conservation & Natural Resources.

Hewson, H.J. (1982b). Brassicaceae. In: Flora of Australia. 8:231-357. Canberra: AGPS.

Nevill, G.R. & M. Camilleri (2010). National Recovery Plan for Southern Shepherd's Purse (Ballantinia antipoda). [Online]. East Melbourne, Victoria: Department of Sustainability and Environment. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/ballantinia-antipoda.html.

Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment (Vic. DSE) (2004e). Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statement 102 - Southern Shepherds Purse Ballantinia antipoda. [Online]. Available from: http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/CA256F310024B628/0/964000FA295DBE07CA2570ED0000FAF0/$File/102+ballantinia+antipoda+2000.pdf.

EPBC Act email updates can be received via the Communities for Communities newsletter and the EPBC Act newsletter.

This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Ballantinia antipoda in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 18 Apr 2014 18:41:21 +1000.