In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Not listed under EPBC Act|
|Listing and Conservation Advices||
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Epacris acuminata (Coral Heath) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2013en) [Listing Advice].
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan not required, species delisted from the EPBC Act (14/12/2013).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
|Other EPBC Act Plans||
Flora Recovery Plan: Threatened Tasmanian Forest Epacrids (Tasmania Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment (Tas. DPIPWE), 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (02/09/2005) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2005c) [Legislative Instrument].
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (150) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2013ac) [Legislative Instrument].
Documents and Websites
|Scientific name||Epacris acuminata |
|Reference||Flora Australiensis 4: 240 (16 Dec. 1868).|
|Distribution map||Species Distribution Map not available for this taxon.|
Epacris acuminata was removed from the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 list of threatened species on 14 December 2013.
The Coral Heath is an erect, perennial shrub, usually branching near the base and growing up to 1.5 m tall. It has slender branches bearing thin concave leaves that are small and oval with the bases partly folded around the stem. There are 5–7 conspicuous veins on the lower surface of the leaf. The flowers are white and densely clustered along the terminal branches (Kirkpatrick 2000). The fruit is a small capsule about 2 mm long and containing numerous tiny seeds (Curtis 1963).
The Coral Heath is endemic to Tasmania, occurring in the Channel district in the south-east, the Midlands and the eastern edge of the Central Plateau (Keith 1997).
The current extent of occurrence is estimated at 8730 km2 and the area of occupancy is around 1.6 km2 (Tas. TSS 2011).
In 1997 the Coral Heath was known from only 27 populations and had an estimated total population of around 16 100 mature plants (Keith 1997). Since then, another 31 populations have been discovered through pre-logging and infrastructure development surveys, Bushcare surveys, assessment of mis-identified herbarium collections and opportunistic surveys by botanical enthusiasts. The Coral Heath is now known from at least 56 populations and its total population size is estimated to be 500 000 mature plants (Tas. TSS 2011).
The total populations size estimated above is conservative, as seventeen of the recorded sites lack quantitative data (Tas. TSS 2011).
The following table provides more detailed population information for the Coral Heath (Tas. TSS 2011):
|Population (tenure)||Year last (first) seen||Number of mature plants|
|1||Grey Mountain, Snug Tiers (Snug Tiers Nature Recreation Area)||1996 (1982)||1869|
|2||Hill at head of Nicholls Rivulet (Snug Tiers Nature Recreation Area)||1996 (1987)||2831|
|3||Pelverata Falls, Snug Tiers (Snug Tiers Nature Recreation Area)||2004 (1979)||139 498|
|4||North West Bay River, Margate (private land)||2003 (1981)||2219|
|5||Cathedral Rock (Wellington Park)||2010 (1996)||4000|
|6||Vincents Rivulet (private land)||
|7a||Glenorchy Reservoir (Wellington Park)||2005 (1918)||111|
|7b||Humphreys Rivulet (Wellington Park)||2010 (1999)||1000s|
|8||Goat Hills (Wellington Park)||2010 (1931)||200 000+|
|9||Knight Creek (Wellington Park)||2005 (1996)||600|
|10||Molesworth (private land)||1996 (1986)||16|
|11||Mt Lloyd (State forest)||1996 (1985)||2454|
|12a||Glenleith, Plenty River (private land)||2008 (1839)||100|
|12b||Feilton, Plenty River (private land)||2008 (2008)||250|
|13||Mt Dromedary (Mt Dromedary Forest Reserve)||1996 (1989)||210|
|14a||Platform Peak (State forest)||2010 (1984)||100s|
|14b||Big Marsh (State forest)||2010 (2001)||100s|
|15a||Barren Rock Falls (Devils Den Conservation Area)||1996 (1988)||53|
|15b||East Bagdad (Devils Den Conservation Area, private land)||2004 (1998)||50 925|
|16||Ashton Sugarloaf (private land)||1996 (1985)||1|
|17||Derwent River, Wayatinah (Hydro Electric Corporation, HEC)||1996 (1989)||299|
|18||Serat Property (private land)||2006 (1952?)||12 278|
|19||Nive River (Marlborough) (private land)||1996 (1841)||1|
|20||River Ouse, Bashan Bridge (River Reserve)||2007 (1988)||414|
|21||1.5 km West of Norths Hill (private land)||1996 (1984)||1|
|22||Snowy Knob (State forest)||2005 (1990)||710|
|23a||Lake River, Little Den (private land and State forest)||2002 (1987)||1320|
|23b||Scrubby Den Riveulet (Great Western Tioers Conservation Area/private land)||1988 (1988)||Unknown|
|24||Lake River, Caseyville (private land)||1996 (1992)||128|
|25a||Elizabeth River, Duckhole point (private land)||1996 (1981)||150|
|25b||Elizabeth River, East of Chimney Hill (private land)||2009 (1981)||73 500|
|26||Nive River below Clarence River (private land)||1986 (1986)||Unknown|
|27||Derwent River (Conservation Area/State forest?)||1987 (1987)||Unknown|
|28||Victoria Valley Falls (state forest)||2010 (1988)||25|
|29||River Ouse (Ouse River Forest Reserve/private land?)||1989 (1989)||'Fairly common'|
|30||Broad River, near Cluny Lagoon (private land)||1989 (1989)||'Fairly common'|
|31||Derwent River, Repulse Dam (HEC)||2010 (1989)||10s|
|32||Macguires Marsh Road, 3 km north of Osterley (private land)||2009 (1989)||1000|
|33||Fehlbergs Road, Collinsvale (private land)||
|34||Mt Ponsonby (Mt Ponsonby Forest Reserve)||1996 (1996||'Locally abundant'|
|35||Kundes Creek, Molesworth Road (private land)||2005 (1996)||11 959|
|36||Shannon River, Hermitage (private land)||1997 (1997)||Unknown|
|37||Arthurs Lake (private land)||1998 (1998)||Unknown|
|38||Billy Browns Falls (state forest)||2000 (1999)||585|
|39a||Mt Connection (Wellington Park)||2010 (1999)||530|
|39b||Tom Thumb (Wellington Park)||2010 (2000)||2000|
|40||Mt Montagu (Wellington Park)||2000 (2000)||1000s|
|41||Perrins Ridge (Snug Tiers Nature Recreation Area)||2000 (2000)||500|
|42||Snake Point, Arthurs Lake (private land/HEC)||2000 (2000)||500|
|43||Herringback (private land)||2000 (2000)||20|
|44||Nive River below Pine Tier Lagoon (private land)||2000 (2000)||Unknown|
|45||Shannon River near Blackburn Creek (Public Reserve/private land)||2001 (2001)||Unknown|
|46||Derwent River, 4 km south of Plenty (private land)||2001 (2001)||Unknown|
|47a||River Clyde, Dead Mans Hill (private land)||2002 (2002)||3|
|47b||River Clyde, near Half Moon Marsh (private land)||2003 (2003)||500|
|48||Mountain River (private land)||
|49||Mikes Hill, Lachlan (private land)||2003 (2003)||300|
|50||Mangalore Tier (private land)||2003 (2003)||750|
|51||Macquarie River, near Maloneys Hill (private land)||2003 (2003)||'Occasional'|
|52||Lanes Tier (State forest)||2004 (2004)||Unknown|
|53||Mt Dismal (private land)||2005 (2005)||100|
|54||Nutshell property, Bagdad (private land)||2005 (2005)||1|
|55||Derwent River, Catagunyah (HEC/State forest)||2007 (2006)||205|
|56||Flat Rock Reserve, Chauncy Vale (private land)||2007 (2007)||'Sizeable population'|
The Coral Heath is reserved in the Central Plateau Conservation Area, Cradle Mountain–Lake St Clair National Park, Great Western Tiers Conservation Area, Liffey Forest Reserve, Millers Bluff Forest Reserve, Mount Dromedary Forest Reserve, Mount Faulkner Conservation Area, Port Arthur Historic Site, Snug Tiers Nature Recreation Area, Swan River Forest Reserve, Table Mountain Conservation Area, the Lea Conservation Area, Wayatinah Conservation Area and Wellington Park. An ex situ collection is held at the Royal Tasmanian Botanic Gardens in Hobart for display purposes and the species is in cultivation at the Australian National Botanic Gardens in Canberra (CoA 1999).
The Coral Heath grows in low shrubland or shrub patches around rocky mountain summits, occurring in three main vegetation communities; subalpine heathy woodland/forest, 'moist' dry sclerophyll forests and riparian scrub. The species occurs exclusively on Jurassic dolerite, with a recorded altitude range of 30–1100 m above sea level (Keith 1997; Tas. TSS 2011).
The maximum life span of individual shrubs has been estimated at 30–40 years (Keith 1997).
Peak flowering occurs in spring and seed is released in late summer, with floral initiation beginning immediately afterwards (Keith 1997).
The known pollinators of Epacris species include a variety of large adult carrion flies from the Tabanidae, Muscidae and Calliphoridae families. Species of flies directly observed pollinating Epacris taxa include: Dasybasis spp., Halina sp., Calliphora sp. and the Yellow Tessellated Golden Blowfly (Calliphora hilli) (McQuillan, pers. comm. cited in Keith 1997). It seems likely that other species of large flies would also function as pollinators (Keith 1997).
The Coral Heath requires fire at appropriate intervals to recruit seedlings from the soil seed bank with ‘post-fire’ rainfall being vital in ensuring seedling establishment. Fruit production may be reduced for several years after fire, even from those individuals which survive the fire event (Keith 1997). Decreased fruit production may also result from predation, browsing herbivores, mechanical damage and high rates of abortion of developing fruits on shaded plants (Tas. TSS 2011).
No threats data available.
Commonwealth of Australia (CoA) (1999d). Tasmania-Commonwealth Regional Forest Agreement: Summary of Life history and population dynamics for vascular forest flora. [Online]. Available from: http://www.rfa.gov.au/rfa/tas/raa/envher/volumes1-4/fl_index.html.
Curtis, W.M. (1963). The Student's flora of Tasmania. Part 2. Angiospermae: Lythraceae to Epacridaceae. Hobart: Government Printer.
Keith, D. (1997). Recovery Plan - Tasmanian Forest Epacrids 1999-2004. [Online]. Hobart: Tasmanian Parks & Wildlife. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/tas-forest/index.html.
Kirkpatrick, J. (2000). Threatened Flora -plants listed as extinct, endangered or vulnerable. [Online]. Created by Bushcare Technical Extension (Tasmania). Available from: http://www.bushcare.tas.gov.au/info/.
Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2005bj). NON-CURRENT Commonwealth Listing Advice on Coral Heath (Epacris acuminata). [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/coral-heath.html.
Threatened Species Section (Tas. TSS) (2011). Note Sheet for Epacris acuminata (Claspleaf heath). [Online]. Tasmania Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment. Available from: http://www.dpiw.tas.gov.au/inter.nsf/Attachments/LJEM-74ZVJL/$FILE/Epacris%20acuminata.pdf.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Epacris acuminata in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sat, 30 Aug 2014 16:41:56 +1000.