Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Listing Advice on Brigalow (Acacia harpophylla dominant and co-dominant) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2001s) [Listing Advice].
 
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Delma torquata (Collared Delma) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008ab) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Policy Statements and Guidelines Draft Referral guidelines for the nationally listed Brigalow Belt reptiles (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011e) [Admin Guideline].
 
Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened reptiles. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.6 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011m) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
QLD:Brigalow Belt bioregion: a biodiversity jewel (Threatened Species Network (TSN), 2008b) [Information Sheet].
Non-government
    Documents and Websites
Biodiversity Recovery Plan for Gatton and Laidley Shires, South-East Queensland 2003-2008 (Boyes, B., 2004).
State Listing Status
QLD: Listed as Vulnerable (Nature Conservation Act 1992 (Queensland): May 2014 list)
Non-statutory Listing Status
IUCN: Listed as Vulnerable (Global Status: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: 2013.1 list)
Scientific name Delma torquata [1656]
Family Pygopodidae:Squamata:Reptilia:Chordata:Animalia
Species author Kluge,1974
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Delma torquata

Common name: Collared Delma


The Collared Delma, Delma torquata, is grouped with Delma impar (Striped Legless Lizard) (Shea 1991).

The Collared Delma is endemic to Queensland and is the smallest member of the family Pygopodidae. The species is generally uniform brown; but with belly shields that are darker at the margins, and a dark-brown banded head and neck with cream-yellow interspaces. The species has a maximum snout-vent length of 7 cm and maximum total length of approximately 19 cm (Peck & Hobson 2007). The species' average weight is about 2 g, making it one of the smallest members of the Pygopodidae family. The mid-body scales are in 16 rows. The snout is short and blunt (Cogger 2000).

The species has been recorded at the following sites (Davidson 1993; Peck & Hobson 2007):

  • the Bunya Mountains (approximately 200 km north-west of Brisbane)
  • Blackdown Tablelands National Park (approximately 200 km west of Rockhampton)
  • Expedition National Park (Central Queensland)
  • Western Creek, near Millmerran (approximately 200 km south-west of Brisbane)
  • the Toowoomba Range.

A large concentration of records are from the western suburbs of Brisbane, including (Davidson 1993; Peck & Hobson 2007):

  • Kenmore
  • Pinjarra Hills
  • Anstead
  • Mt Crosby
  • Lake Manchester
  • Karana Downs.

Captive breeding program

The Lone Pine Koala Sanctuary in Brisbane is undertaking a captive breeding program for the Collared Delma (S. Peck 2001 pers. comm.).

Fragmented distribution

Due to specific habitat requirements of Collared Delma, the species' distribution is highly fragmented and restricted to only a few locations within the area that is defined by the habitat boundary (Peck 2003).

Major studies

It is unknown whether Collared Delma has been the target of a systematic survey, however, Davidson (1993) and Ryan (2006a) list a number of locations where the species has been recorded. The Mt Crosby (west of Brisbane) population has been studied in detail (Porter 1998).

Two surveys along the Toowoomba Range have been undertaken (Boobook 2002; Peck & Hobson 2007). Peck and Hobson's (2007) survey aimed to assess the possible impacts of the proposed Toowoomba Bypass on the population. The species was recorded in at least seven separate locations, including two new locations. A total of four live specimens and eight shed skins were recorded. The species is considered highly likely to occur in isolated populations throughout the Toowoomba Range (Peck & Hobson 2007).

Only the Mount Crosby population has been studied in detail, between June 1993 and April 1995. The species was relatively common in occupied areas. A total of 39 individuals were captured during the study. Active searching under rocks found one lizard per 150–200 rocks, and pitfall trapping captured 0.306 lizards per 100 trap days (Porter 1998).

Peck (2001) also undertook surveys for the species in the western suburbs of Brisbane (Peck 2001 pers. comm.).

Ecological studies

A single study has been undertaken into the ecology of this species, using a combination of hand-searching under rocks and pitfall trapping (Porter 1998).

Pitfall trapping proved to be less effective than turning rocks in locating the species, with only six captures during the 12 month study and all from between October–February. The study used 20 four litre plastic buckets, arranged in lines of five buckets one metre apart, and bridged by 20 centimetre high aluminium mesh drift fences. Capture rate of the pitfall trap array was 0.306 animals per 100 trap nights, comparable to studies of the related Striped Legless Lizard (Delma impar) (Porter 1998).

Individuals were collected by hand from under rocks throughout the year, at a rate of approximately one lizard per 150–200 rocks turned (or one lizard per 1.75 hours of searching). Porter observed a short-term effect of rock turning on lizard captures, with few captures at sites disturbed by previous rock-turning within the previous three months, although this effect appeared to be temporary, with normal recapture rates at such sites at the end of the study (Porter 1998).

In relation to surveys conducted by Hines et al. (2000), and surveys and incidental findings by officers of the Queensland Department of Environment and Resource Management between 1997 and 2004, over numerous sites across the Collared Delma's range, two specimens were pitfall trapped whilst twenty specimens were collected by hand (Venz pers. comm. 2010).

It is difficult to estimate the Collared Delma population size due to the high probability of animal disturbance caused by sampling (rock-turning) and difficulties in surveying all relevant terrain (Porter 1998a).

Small populations

Typically, the Collared Delma occurs in small isolated populations throughout its distribution. In natural areas where there appears to be extensive habitat (e.g. Mt Crosby Water Catchment and Moggill State Forest) the species appears to be restricted to small areas of habitat in the order of 100m x 100m (10 000 m2) (Peck 2003).

Mt Crosby

Between 1993–1995, the Mt Crosby population, in the western suburbs of Brisbane was studied in detail. A total of 39 individuals were captured during the study, and the species was relatively common in occupied areas. Active searching under rocks found one lizard per 150–200 rocks, and pitfall trapping captured 0.306 lizards per 100 trap days (Porter 1998).

Toowoomba Range

During a survey in November 2006 along the Toowoomba Range, the Collared Delma was recorded in at least seven separate locations, including two new locations. A total of four live specimens and eight shed skins were recorded. The species is considered highly likely to occur in isolated populations throughout the Toowoomba Range (Peck & Hobson 2007).

Seven significant and seven minor populations have been described in the Brisbane area, and six significant and nine minor populations have been described outside of Brisbane. Many of the minor populations have only been surveyed once and may represent significant populations (Peck 2003).

A significant population has been described at the Withcott Quarry site (in the Toowoomba Range).

Important population

Given the difficulty in detecting this species, the Commonwealth environment department considers that an occurrence of important habitat for the Collared Delma is a surrogate for an ‘important population’ of the species. For a description of important habitat for the Collared Delma, refer to the Draft referral guidelines for the nationally listed Brigalow Belt reptiles.

Protected areas where the Collared Delma has been recorded include (Ryan 2006a):

  • Bunya Mountains
  • D'Aguilar Range National Park
  • Blackdown Tableland National Park
  • Neumgna Forest Reserve
  • Lockyer Forest Reserve
  • Bullyard Conservation Park.

Macrohabitat

The Collared Delma normally inhabits eucalypt-dominated woodlands and open-forests in Queensland Regional Ecosystem Land Zones (LZ) (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010):

  • LZ 3 - Alluvium (river and creek flats)
  • LZ 9 - Undulating country on fine-grained sedimentary rocks
  • LZ 10 - Sandstone ranges.

Regional ecosystems (REs) include (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010):

  • RE 11.3.2 - Poplar Box (Eucalyptus populnea) woodland on alluvial plains.
  • RE 11.9.10 - Poplar Box/ Brigalow (Acacia harpophylla) open-forest on fine-grained sedimentary rocks.
  • RE 11.10.1 - Lemon-scented Gum (Blue Spotted Gum) (Corymbia citriodora) open forest on coarse-grained sedimentary rocks
  • RE 11.10.4 - Gum-topped Ironbark (Eucalyptus decorticans), Budgeroo/ Brown Hazelwood (Lysicarpus angustifolius) +/- Eucalyptus species, Corymbia species, Acacia species woodland on coarse-grained sedimentary rocks.

For more information on Queensland Regional Ecosystems, please visit the Queensland Department of Environment and Resource Management website at http://www.derm.qld.gov.au/wildlife-ecosystems/biodiversity/regional_ecosystems/.

Eastern parts of the species' distribution

In the eastern parts of the species' range (i.e. the Toowoomba Range), suitable habitats are commonly associated with exposed rocky outcrops on ridges or slopes in vegetation communities dominated by Narrow-leafed Ironbark (Eucalyptus crebra) (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010). Other vegetation communities in this region are typically dominated by Lemon-scented Gum.

Other canopy species include (Cogger et al. 1993; Davidson 1993; Peck 2003; Porter 1998):

  • Silver-leaved Ironbark (E. melanophloia)
  • Moreton Bay Ash (E. tessellaris)
  • Gum Top Box (E. moluccana)
  • Tallowwood (E. microcorys)
  • Queensland Blue Gum (E. tereticornis) in the Bunya Mountains.

Habitats in the region west of Brisbane

A typical mid-story for the Brisbane populations consists of Red Ash (Alphitonia excelsa), Wattles including Brisbane Wattle (Acacia fimbriata), Hickory Wattle (A. concurrens), Brush Box (Lophostemon confertus), Hovea (Hovea longifolia), and Lantana (Lantana camara) (Peck 2003). The ground cover is predominantly native grasses such as Kangaroo Grass (Themeda triandra), Barbed-wire Grass (Cymbopogon refractus), Wiregrass (Aristida sp) and Lomandra (Lomandra sp).

Introduced ground covers are often present but are not dominant and include Dwarf Lantana (Lantana montividensis) and introduced grasses (Peck 2003).

Western parts of the species' distribution

The most westerly records were made in Popular Box (Eucalyptus populnea) open woodland on alluvial plains (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010; Venz 2010 pers. comm.).

Aspect

Suitable habitat on the Toowoomba Range was identified as ridgelines with a south–west to north–west aspect (Peck 2003).

Soil types

The Collared Delma has been recorded from a number of different soil types throughout south-east Queensland (e.g. sandy loams, grey and black cracking clays, stony lithosols and basalt derived Podzolics).

In Brisbane City, the Collared Delma has been recorded from two soil type based habitats: stony lithosols soil with exposed quartzite rock ridges typical of the Mt Crosby and Moggill State Forest sites (designated as Soil Landscapes of Brisbane and south-eastern Environs); and basalt derived podzolic soils with exposed basalt rocks typical of the Anstead and Pinjarra Hills sites (designated as MCk, in Soil Landscapes of Brisbane and South-eastern Environs) (Peck 2003).

Microhabitat

The presence of rocks, logs, bark and other coarse woody debris, and mats of leaf litter (typically 30–100 mm thick) appears to be an essential characteristic of the Collared Delma microhabitat and is always present where the species occurs (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010; Davidson 1993). This may be the limiting factor for the Collared Delma recolonising in recently burnt areas (Peck 2003).

One individual at Mount Crosby was sighted moving through short grass. All specimens found at Mount Crosby were on the soil surface, suggesting the species is not adapted to digging and life underground (Porter 1998).

At Mount Crosby, lizards showed a preference for larger than average rocks (preferred average 172 cm) and vegetation cover lower than that available (preferred average 31%). Pitfall trapping captured lizards in vegetation some distance from rocky outcrops, suggesting the species is not totally reliant on rocky habitat (Porter 1998).

Whilst Collared Delmas are often found associated with small rocks, the presence of small rocks is not an essential habitat characteristic (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010).

As with all members of the Pygopodidae family, the Collared Delma produces two small white, elongated eggs in December. These then hatch in February–March (Peck & Hobson 2007).

The Collared Delma feeds on insects and spiders, with small cockroaches the most common prey item. Some individuals have been captured in subterranean termite colonies (Davidson 1993; Porter 1998).

Very little is known about the home ranges or the movements of the Collared Delma (Peck 2003), however, the species is active during the day (Porter 1998).

Mount Crosby study

Only three individuals were recaptured during the mark-recapture study conducted at Mount Crosby. Two were recaptured after one month under the same rock as their original capture, while another was recaptured about 14 months later and had moved 18.2 m. This indicated that the species may have a small home range (Porter 1998).

Distinctiveness and detectability

There are several small to medium sized Delma species within the range of the Collared Delma including the Olive Legless Lizard (D. inornata), the Leaden Delma (D. plebeia) and the Excitable Delma (D. tincta). The Collared Delma may be difficult to distinguish from juveniles of these species, particularly by the inexperienced surveyor, except with a hand lens or microscopic facilities. The Collared Delma has dark marbling on the throat (lacking in D. inornata and D. tincta), dark markings separated by narrow pale bands on the top of the head and neck (lacking in D. inornata, and without the pale bands in D. plebeia), a greyish belly (pale in D. inornata, D. plebeia and D. tincta), and only two preanal scales (three in D. inornata and D. tincta) (DSEWPaC 2011m).

The Collared Delma is similar in body shape and degree of limblessness to several burrowing skink species, but all lack the characteristic head markings of the Collared Delma (DSEWPaC 2011m).

Sampling and recording of observed specimens

Potential records of the Collared Delma should be supported by a good quality colour photograph. Photo vouchers or skin sloughs should be forwarded to the Queensland Museum for positive identification and data collation of the record (DSEWPaC 2011m).

Tissue sampling should only be undertaken with appropriate training in tissue preservation, ethics approval and State permits to collect samples. Where possible photo vouchers should include close-up colour shots of the throat marbling, appendage areas, and the head, body and tail dorsally, ventrally and laterally. Dead specimens (e.g. roadkills) should be frozen and advice on preservation and lodgement sought from the Australian Museum or the Queensland Museum (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010; DSEWPaC 2011m).

Survey methods

Habitat assessment

A habitat assessment is recommended to be undertaken as a preliminary step to designing and undertaking a targeted survey, including:

  • Determine the proximity of nearest records to the study area.
  • Search relevant databases such as Zoology Data Search (Queensland Museum) and Wildlife Online (Queensland Department of Environment and Resource Management).
  • Obtain State vegetation mapping for the study area to determine the extent of suitable habitat including the presence of associated vegetation communities.
  • Determine the presence of suitable microhabitat features in the study area.

Targeted survey

Targeted surveys to confirm the presence/absence of the Collared Delma are done by actively searching suitable habitats (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010).

Optimal conditions for active searching

The species is more likely to be detected when conditions are warm, not too dry and maximum temperatures are greater than 25°C. Optimal survey times for active searching are early morning (within four hours of dawn) and during the evening on warm nights (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010; DSEWPaC 2011m).

Minimum survey effort

Sufficient time is required to thoroughly search the study area. The minimum survey effort required includes (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010):

  • a minimum of three survey days
  • at least one replicate survey employing all of the recommended techniques, if the species has not already been detected.

The Collared Delma has undergone decline in the past few decades. A number of factors that may contribute to this decline have been identified (Cogger et al. 1993; TSN 2008b) including:

  • habitat loss through clearing for agriculture
  • habitat degradation by overgrazing by stock
  • removal of rocks, course woody debris and ground litter
  • use of agricultural chemicals
  • predation by feral Cats (Felis catus) and Foxes (Vulpes vulpes)
  • weed invasion.

Loss of Habitat

A large proportion of Collared Delma habitat has been cleared for various purposes across the species' range. Land clearing for agriculture has been particularly severe within the species range; cattle grazing, wheat and cotton growing are particularly common and resource extraction is rapidly expanding throughout the species' range (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010).

The removal of rocks, logs and timber from the Collared Delma's microhabitat also reduces the amount of shelter available to the species (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010; Davidson 1993). Research in 1998 revealed that Collared Delmas avoid areas in which rocks have been previously disturbed during recent surveys (Porter 1998).

Habitat degradation

Overgrazing is known to compact soil, making it difficult for the species to find suitable shelter. This means the soils are drier, making it harder for the species to access suitable habitat (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010).

Fire

The response of the Collared Delma to fire is unknown, however a decline in reptile diversity is usually observed directly after a fire (Peck & Hobson 2007). Extensive fire or inappropriate fire regimes may be a threat to some populations (Davidson 1993).

Weeds

Some sites may be under threat from the invasion of weeds, particularly Dwarf Lantana (Davidson 1993).

A recovery plan for the Queensland Brigalow Belt Reptiles, including the Collared Delma, has been drafted by WWF-Australia in 2006 (Richardson 2006). The recovery actions outlined in this plan and in the species profile on the Queensland Department of Environment and Resource Management website (QLD EPA 2006) are:

  • Encourage involvement, provide incentives and adopt a collaborative approach with government agencies, NRM regional bodies, the Indigenous community, key industry stakeholders and local governments to deliver region-specific information and implement sustained, effective recovery actions.
  • Identify research priorities: develop and support the implementation of research projects undertaken by tertiary and research institutions.
  • Inspect and identify suitable habitat for conservation of the Collared Delma.
  • Identify key threats and develop management guidelines to protect key habitat.
  • Maximise the establishment of appropriate reserves to protect Collared Delma habitat and landscape connectivity over the long term, e.g. on stock route networks, road reserves and private lands.
  • Ensure Collared Delma conservation is incorporated into appropriate land management decisions made by all levels of government and industry.
  • Develop and provide land-management guidelines and incentives for landowners to reduce the impact of current land use practices on the species outside reserves, e.g. restricting the use and spread of agricultural weeds, such as Buffel Grass.
  • Negotiate management agreements and voluntary conservation agreements with landholders, on whose land the Collared Delma occurs, in line with the recommended management guidelines.
  • Facilitate on-grounds projects to manage and protect habitats on a range of land tenures in line with recommended management guidelines, e.g. in integrated weed and feral predator management programs.
  • Develop community awareness within the species' known range through media campaigns and education material and provide incentives for wider community involvement, e.g. local governments and schools participating in reptile educational programs and adopting a local reptile species as their shire and/or school icon.
  • Implement recommended fire management guidelines in property and reserve designs.
  • Work with landholders and key stakeholders to undertake monitoring programs on selected sites.
  • Monitor and evaluate recovery actions applying an adaptive management approach.

Mitigation measures or approaches that have been developed for the Collared Delma are (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010; Peck 2003):

  • Alternative project locations.
  • Avoid clearing/ retain habitat.
  • Design proposed action to avoid habitat disturbance.
  • Establish adequate buffer zones to protect habitat.
  • Implement measures to exclude cattle from habitats.
  • Maintain habitat connectivity across the landscape, e.g., along roadside reserves, uncultivated lands between cropped and pasture-improved areas.
  • Retain shelter habitat features in place.
  • Translocate habitat rocks from within the development zone to a habitat protection area outside the development zone in an attempt to relocate the population.
  • Devise and implement a habitat management plan specific to the Collared Delma.
  • Implement measures to reduce the risk of invasive and predatory species accessing reptile habitat.
  • Devise and implement an appropriate fire management plan.
  • Devise and implement water management, sediment erosion and pollution control plans.

Translocation

Mitigation projects utilising translocation, habitat restoration, and captive breeding and release programs are relatively unproven management techniques (Burke 1991; Dodd & Siegel 1991; Platenberg & Griffiths 1999). As part of a captive breeding program at Melbourne Zoo, 70 Striped Legless Lizards were collected from several development sites over a nine year period from 1991–1999. Of these 70 lizards, 38 died with the majority of these deaths occurring within six months of capture (Banks et al. 1999). It is difficult to tell if the deaths were because of inappropriate house techniques or because of the stress of captivity (Peck 2003).

Considering these factors, translocation is considered inappropriate as a conservation management tool for the Collared Delma for the following reasons:

  • The species is hard to capture and therefore capturing enough specimens from one site to be significant would be virtually impossible.
  • In the event of translocation recapturing enough specimens to monitor the effectiveness of the program would be problematical.

The selection of an appropriate release site presents two significant issues:

  • Releasing additional specimens at a site where a population already exists may disturb the population and cause density dependent stresses.
  • Releasing specimens at a site that does not contain a population may mean that specimens are being released into unsuitable habitat and these lizards will perish.

Whilst translocation is considered an inappropriate management tool for this species, habitat restoration or enhancement, although an unproven technique, may be better suited for the recovery and maintenance of existing Collared Delma populations (Peck & Hobson 2007).

Habitat restoration

Peck and Hobson (2007) suggested two methods of habitat restoration:

  • The establishment of an enhanced, but artificially constructed habitat using roof tiles and/or concrete pavers. These are laid out on the ground abutting the development area (roof tiles have been used successfully to help with monitoring of translocated populations of Striped Legless Lizard.
  • Alternatively, natural rocks from the site could be moved from the development site to other areas along the ridge. It is recommended that this process be carried out in stages to allow the newly moved rocks to establish and lizards from the disturbed area to locate these rocks. The Collared Delma has been recorded using rocks that have been moved from their natural position and used to line a walking track. It is recommended that the rocks be moved the least distance possible. They should be positioned with the correct top and bottom orientation and be individually marked to allow for further monitoring to assess the project's results. Photo monitoring of the site should be undertaken to record progress.

Management documents for the Collared Delma include the:

  • Draft Queensland Brigalow Belt Reptile Recovery Plan 2008—2012 (Richardson 2006)
  • Biodiversity Recovery Plan for Gatton and Laidley Shires, South-East Queensland 2003-2008 (Boyes 2004), and
  • Species recovery outline in The Action Plan for Australian Reptiles (Cogger et al. 1993).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation The Action Plan for Australian Reptiles (Cogger, H.G., E.E. Cameron, R.A. Sadlier & P. Eggler, 1993) [Cwlth Action Plan].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Habitat loss and modification due to clearance of native vegetation and pasture improvements The Impact of Global Warming on the Distribution of Threatened Vertebrates (ANZECC 1991) (Dexter, E.M., A.D. Chapman & J.R. Busby, 1995) [Report].
Biological Resource Use:Gathering natural materials:Removal of bush rocks Nannoperca oxleyana in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006abi) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Nannoperca oxleyana in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006abi) [Internet].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Nannoperca oxleyana in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006abi) [Internet].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development Nannoperca oxleyana in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006abi) [Internet].

Boobook (2002). Fauna survey and fauna impact assessment for Toowoomba Bypass. Internal report to Department of Main Roads.

Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop (2010). Proceedings from the workshop for the nine listed reptiles of the Brigalow Belt bioregions. 18-19 August. Brisbane: Queensland Herbarium.

Cogger, H.G. (2000). Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia - 6th edition. Sydney, NSW: Reed New Holland.

Cogger, H.G., E.E. Cameron, R.A. Sadlier & P. Eggler (1993). The Action Plan for Australian Reptiles. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Australian Nature Conservation Agency. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/action/reptiles/index.html.

Davidson, C. (1993). Recovery Plan for the Collared Legless Lizard (Delma torquata). Page(s) 1-10. Brisbane, Queensland: Department of Environment and Heritage.

Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC) (2011m). Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened reptiles. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.6 . [Online]. Canberra, ACT: DSEWPaC. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/threatened-reptiles.html.

Hines, B.M., D. Hannah, M. Venz & T. Eyre (2000). New distribution and habitat data for the vulnerable pygopodid, Delma torquata (Kluge 1974). Memoirs of the Queensland Museum. 45(2):391-393.

Kluge, A.G. (1974). A taxonomic revision of the lizard family Pygopodidae. Miscellaneous Publications of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan. 147 (i-iv):1-221.

Peck, S. (2001). Personal Communication.

Peck, S. (2003). Conservation status review and management recommendations for the Collared Delma, Delma torquata in Brisbane City. Internal report to Brisbane City Council.

Peck, S. & R. Hobson (2007). Survey results and management options for the Collared Delma (Delma torquata) along the proposed Toowoomba Bypass, Toowoomba Range, South-east Queensland, November 2006. Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service.

Porter, R. (1998). A preliminary field investigation of the collared delma Delma torquata (Reptilia: Pygopodidae). Queensland: Lone Pine Koala Sanctuary.

Porter, R. (1998a). Observations on a large population of the vulnerable pygopodid, Delma torquata. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum. 42(2):565-572.

Queensland Department of Environment and Resource Management (Queensland DERM) (2010c). Unpublished data on Delma torquata.

Richardson, R. (2006). Draft Queensland Brigalow Belt Reptile Recovery Plan 2008 - 2012. [Online]. Report to the Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Canberra. Brisbane, Queensland: WWF-Australia. Available from: http://www.qmdc.org.au/publications/download/52/fact-sheets-case-studies/reptile-recovery/draft-reptile-recovery-plan.pdf.

Ryan, S. (2006a). Conservation Management Profile: Collared Delma Delma torquata. Ecosystem Conservation Branch, Queensland Environmental Protection Agency.

Shea, G.M. (1991). Revisionary notes on the genus Delma (Squamata: Pygopodidae) in South Australia and the Northern Territory. Records of the South Australian Museum. 25 (1):71-90.

Threatened Species Network (TSN) (2008b). Brigalow Belt bioregion: a biodiversity jewel. [Online]. WWF-Australia. Available from: http://www.wwf.org.au/publications/reptiles-brigalo-belt.pdf.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2001s). Commonwealth Listing Advice on Brigalow (Acacia harpophylla dominant and co-dominant). [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/communities/brigalow.html.

Venz, M. (2010). Personal Communication. Senior Zoologist, Department of Environment and Resource Management.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Delma torquata in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sat, 30 Aug 2014 09:28:00 +1000.